Coal and mine version 2007


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Coal and Mine

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Coal and mine version 2007

  1. 1. Prepared By Class
  2. 2. Coal was formed in Paleolithic era ecosystems ( lake basins, river deltas or low lying areas ) and is made of the material of prehistoric plants. Initially, through solar energy they produced hydrocarbons from air, water and mineral matters. Upon decay they sank into the swamps which were environments without oxygen. They could not decompose by normal biological processes. Evidence of this origin of coal and specific structure of prehistoric ecosystems can be found in numerous palaeontological findings. Further geological processes then overlaid the layers of biologic origin with other materials – often suddenly as a result of various natural disasters. It is evidenced by the transitions between the coal seam and the surrounding rock being frequently very sharp. The matter initially similar to turf gradually got deeper and thicker. Owing to increasing pressures and temperatures water and other substances were displaced from it while the share of carbon was built up. The conversion of biological material to coal can be expressed by this simplified equation: biological material (cellulose) = carbon dioxide + water + methane + carbon (coal) How coal was formed
  3. 3. Coal extraction methods Due to different geological formations different techniques were developed and improved to extract coal. From the earliest bell pit method to modern drift, opencast, and deep mining extraction methods. Deep mine - At the centre of the syncline, coal occurs at much greater depths and therefore it is more economic to sink a shaft for the extraction of the coal. Drift - Inclined roadways were driven to exploit shallow coal which would be uneconomic to be worked by shafts. Due to the geology some of the North Staffordshire coal seams, the drift mine was introduced to extract the coal. The photograph shows the 1260 yard long main intake drift at Silverdale which 16ft wide, 12ft high and equipped with a 48in conveyor belt capable of discharging 750 tonnes of coal an hour.
  4. 4. COAL UTILIZATION - combustion of coal or its conversion into useful solid, gaseous, and liquid products. By far the most important use of coal is in combustion, mainly to provide heat to the boilers of electric power plants. Metallurgical coke is the major product of coal conversion. In addition, techniques for gasifying and liquefying coal into fuels or into feedstocks for the chemical industry are well developed, but their commercial viability depends on the availability and price of the competing fossil fuels, petroleum and natural gas.
  5. 5. Formation of Petroleum(L. petroleum, from Latin: petra (rock) + Latin: oleum (oil)). The greek word petra is a loanword from Greek πέτρα. Petroleum or crude oil, is a naturally occurring flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. A fossil fuel, it is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and undergo intense heat and pressure. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling. This comes after the studies of structural geology (at the reservoir scale), sedimentary basin analysis, reservoir characterization (mainly in terms of porosity and permeable structures). It is refined and separated, most easily by boiling point, into a large number of consumer products, from petrol (or gasoline) and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals. Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials, and it is estimated that the world consumes about 88 million barrels each day.
  6. 6. The extraction of petroleum is the process by which usable petroleum is extracted and removed from the earth. Geologists use seismic surveys to search for geological structures that may form oil reservoirs. The "classic" method includes making an underground explosion nearby and observing the seismic response that provides information about the geological structures under the ground . However, "passive" methods that extract information from naturally-occurring seismic waves are also known. Other instruments such as gravimeters and magnetometers are also sometimes used in the search for petroleum. Extracting crude oil normally starts with drilling wells into the underground reservoir. When an oil well has been tapped, a geologist (known on the rig as the "mudlogger") will note its presence. Such a "mudlogger" is known to be sitting on the rig. Historically, in the USA, some oil fields existed where the oil rose naturally to the surface, but most of these fields have long since been used up, except in certain places in Alaska. Often many wells (called multilateral wells) are drilled into the same reservoir, to ensure that the extraction rate will be economically viable. Also, some wells (secondary wells) may be used to pump water, steam, acids or various gas mixtures into the reservoir to raise or maintain the reservoir pressure, and so maintain an economic extraction rate
  7. 7. Utilization of Petroleum - is necessary for a great number of human needs. Today, petroleum is mostly used as a source of energy, being rich in combustible carbon in the production of electricity or running some sorts of heat engines. When thinking of petroleum, the average American usually equates it with gasoline, since this is the one petroleum product that the average consumer has to purchase on a regular basis. It is relatively common and low-cost, often fluctuating in price due to economic, political, or supply level concerns. Therefore, gasoline gets the most attention, but petroleum is used to make several other products which in turn have several uses themselves. Raw petroleum (also known as crude oil) is used in three major ways: Transportation, Electricity Generation, and Material Production. • Gasoline - used to power automobiles, planes, boats, and many other forms of transportation • Diesel Fuel - used for powering automobiles • Kerosene - used in lighting and cooking • Heating Oil - used to provide houses with necessary warmth • Lubricating oil - keeps machinery cool • Grease - necessary in automobile repair, train tracks, machinery upkeep, etc. • Tar - used in construction
  8. 8. ThanksThanks Presented By Class