Search engines crawl the Web, performed by a program, called a crawler or a spider. Spiders follow
links from one page to another and index everything they find on their way.
After a page is crawled, the next step is to index its content. The indexed page is stored in a giant
database, from where it can later be retrieved. Essentially, the process of indexing is identifying the
words and expressions that best describe the page and associating the domains to particular group
of search queries/ keywords.
When a search request comes, the search engine processes it – i.e. it compares the search string in
the search request with the indexed pages in the database.
It is likely that more than one page contains the search string, the search engine starts calculating
the relevancy of each of the pages in its index with the search string.
The last step in search engines' activity is retrieving the results. Basically, it is nothing more than
simply displaying them in the browser – i.e. the endless pages of search results that are sorted from
the most relevant to the least relevant sites.
Match the user’s search query
based on relevance
Site owners pay for certain
keywords, to list website for
search query containing those
SEO keywords are the key words and phrases in your web content that make it
possible for people to find your site via search engines. A website that is well
optimized for search engines "speaks the same language" as its potential visitor
base with keywords for SEO that help connect searchers to your site.
Use Long Tail Keywords
Long tail keywords are the longer, more specific keywords that are less common,
individually, but add up to account for the majority of search-driven traffic. Long
tail keywords are the opposite of "head" terms, which are more popular or more
frequently searched on.
The next step is to make your site keyword-rich and to have good keyword
density for your target keywords. The higher the keyword density, the more
relevant to the search string a page is. The recommended density is 3-7% for the
major 2 or 3 keywords and 1-2% for minor keywords, but avoid Keyword stuffing
Good SEO content has three primary characteristics:
• Offers useful information presented in an engaging
format to human readers
• Boosts search engine rankings
• Attracts plenty of links from other sites
IP Detection / Redirection
Determining the IP address of a user on your site, then showing
them content (or redirecting them to a new URL) based on their
One for the ranking factor and for user experience
301 and 302 Redirects
301: Permanent redirect to new links
302: Temporary redirect
Use Robots.txt file to specify how search engine should crawl
Helps spiders to find information on your site
Page Titles: <title></title>
Keep your page titles short and include the main keyword
phrase for the page. For low competitive phrases a good page
title alone is probably enough to generate a good ranking.
Header Tags: <h1> - <h2>
Create one <h1> tag as your main page headers and then use
<h2> – <h6> tags to present a hierarchy for the rest of the
content, including keywords and phrases in them
Meta Tags: <meta>
• Meta keywords
• Meta descriptions
ALT and others
Search engines have no means to index images, sounds,
textual description using ALT tag and based on it they can
index these files.
A crawlable link structure - one that lets their spiders browse the pathways of
a website - is vital in order to find all of the pages on a website. For eg.
Link pointing from one page to other page within the same domain, increases
Pagerank and reduces bounce rate
Database-driven sites are great but it will be much better if you serve your
pages to the search engines and users in a format they can easily handle
Canonical URLs are a fancy way of saying multiple URLs can lead to the
same page. You can add the code to your .htaccess file to correct the
canonical issue between www and non www versions of your domain.
No Follow links
Instruct search engine that hyperlink should not influence the target's
ranking in the search engine's index
Backlinks are links that are directed towards your website. Also knows as
Inbound links. The number of backlinks is an indication of the popularity or
importance of that website.
Backlinks are important for SEO because some search engines like Google, give
more credit to websites that have a large number of quality backlinks, and
consider those websites more relevant than others in their results pages for a
Twitter, Facebook, Pinterest, and Google+ with its +1 button allows you
to share so you want to have great content and the means for
people to have easy access to share it from your site.
Tracking keyword rankings over the time
Understand how these keywords translate into increased
Traffic volume should be measured based on the number of
visits that come from organic search
Quality of traffic include:
• Pages Per Visit
• Average Visit Duration
• Bounce Rate
Conversions should be defined based on your specific goals.
• No of visits
• Form Submission
To track the monetary value of conversions gives you the
ability to determine the ROI of your SEO campaign
White Hat SEO refers to the usage of SEO strategies,
techniques and tactics that focus on a human
audience opposed to search engines and completely
follows search engine rules and policies.
• Using keywords and keyword analysis Backlinking
• Link building to improve link popularity
• Writing content for human readers
Black Hat SEO refers to the use of aggressive SEO
strategies, techniques and tactics that focus only on
search engines and not a human audience, and
usually does not obey search engines rules
• Keyword stuffing
• Invisible text
• Doorway pages
The purpose of Panda was (and still is) to identify sites with
low quality or duplicate content, and to remove them from the
upper-ranking spots on the search returns page. As such,
Panda is basically a content quality filter
Penguin takes a more aggressive stance against sites that
intentionally utilize unlawful ‘black-hat’ techniques, which
became so prevalent that the effectiveness of search engines
was substantially reduced. Penguin is an update that actively
locates these sites and reduces their ranking accordingly.
Hummingbird takes a step back from the idea of penalizing,
and instead works toward improving search returns in
general. By using a more complex understanding of human
language, Hummingbird reduces Google’s dependency on
keywords. Instead, it takes into account syntax, word order,
and other possible variables in a search request.