Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
The Rhetoric of Argument
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

The Rhetoric of Argument


Published on

Published in: Technology, Spiritual
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. The Rhetoric of Argument White and Billings The Well-Crafted Argument
  • 2. Monty Python's "Argument Clinic"
  • 3. Nature and Process
    • The more we know about argument – what it involves, how a strong argument is constructed, and what a weak argument lacks – the more likely we are to benefit from this liberty.
  • 4.
    • Informal versus Formal
      • Casual arguments often consist of little more than exchanges of opinions or unsupported generalizations
      • Formal arguments are expected to include evidence in support of generalizations if they are to succeed in making strong points, solving real problems, or changing minds.
  • 5.
    • Three basic ingredients
      • Pattern of Reasoning
      • Relevant information
      • Convincing Evidence
    • Definition of Argument
      • An argument is a form of discourse in which the writer or speaker presents a pattern of reasoning , reinforced by detailed evidence and refutation of challenging claims, that tries to persuade the audience to accept the claim .
  • 6.
    • Opinion versus Argument
      • Opinion = Public flogging of robbers would be a more effective deterrent than jailing them.
      • Opinion = “yeah, probably.” or “No way – that would contribute to a culture of violence.”
      • Argument = Supporting the statement with statistics that show a correlation between public punishment and the crime rate
      • *A good argument takes time to prepare and also guides the audience through a logical step-by-step line of reasoning from thesis to conclusion.
  • 7.
    • Definition of Argument Breakdown
    • “… a pattern of reasoning”
      • logical progression that leads the reader from thesis to support of thesis to conclusion
      • unfamiliar terms or concepts are carefully defined or explained and background information is given to enable audience to understand larger context
        • EX: SUVs are selling better than subcompacts
        • EX: The enormous popularity of SUVs is rapidly increasing gasoline consumption nationally, which in turn is leading to greater dependence on foreign oil.
  • 8.
    • Definition of Argument Breakdown
    • “… reinforced by detailed evidence”
      • any assertion must be backed up with specific, compelling evidence that is accurate, timely, relevant, and sufficient.
      • Evidence can be data derived from surveys, experiments, observations, firsthand field investigations (statistical evidence), or from expert opinion (authoritative evidence).
  • 9.
    • Definition of Argument Breakdown
    • “… that tries to persuade the audience to accept the claim”
      • the ultimate goal: to convince the audience that arguer’s point of view is a sensible one, worthy of serious consideration if not outright acceptance.
      • Often times Pathos, Ethos appeals are used to reinforce evidence
  • 10.
    • Exercise 1.1
    • Formulate an answer for 2 a,b,c,d
  • 11.
    • Communicating with Purpose
    • Communication (Aristotelian) Triangle (Audience, Writer, Subject)
    • Rhetorical Rhombus (Audience, Writer, Subject, Purpose)
    • Three Basic Kinds of Communication
      • Referential (Expository)
      • Expressive (Narrative)
      • Argumentative
  • 12.
    • Purpose in an Argumentative Context
    • The purpose is the reason why you want your audience to agree with your claim and take whatever actions is necessary to carry it out.
  • 13.
    • Role Play:
      • Teacher X: Student X, your support seems a little limited – doesn’t seem to be any umpf to your argument, where can we add more to this paper?
      • Student: I don’t know.
      • Teacher X: Well, what was your purpose for writing this paper?
      • Student: You assigned it.
      • -------PROBLEM!-------
      • You should find a professional or intrinsic purpose for writing on the topic. This is how your scope will be limited and your essay will be full of passion and energy.
  • 14.
    • Audience in an Argumentative Context
    • Your audience for all papers, unless otherwise noted, is Academic.
      • The purpose of academic writing is knowledge-sharing or idea-sharing
        • Here is what scholars have said, now here is my two-bits
  • 15.
    • Academic Arguments
    • Specialized precise language
    • Formal or semi-formal tone
    • All primary or secondary sources explicitly cited and documented, using standard formats
    • Contributions by other scholars in the field are discussed formally and in detail
    • Scholarly audience
  • 16. Reading
    • The Perils of Obedience by Stanley Milgram (Well-Crafted 691-703)
    • Find Evidence of Academic Tone
    • Answer Questions 1, 2, & (4) Support, Refute, Qualify
  • 17.
    • Writer in an Argumentative Context
    • The Writer’s role is determined by the other elements in the Rhetorical Rhombus.
  • 18.
    • Subject in an Argumentative Context
    • The role of subject differs in each argument based on the other elements of the Rhombus
  • 19. The Process of Composing
    • Read, Read, Read – Immerse yourself in the subject then you may be reading to work through the writing process.
  • 20. Exercise 1.3
    • Question 2: What appeals are at work in each of the following passages?
  • 21. Organizing the Argument
    • Introduce the topic
      • The situation in the narrative
      • The subject matter to be explained in an exposition or explanation; the problem in an argument
    • Present the particulars of the situation
      • the sequencing of incidents in a narrative
      • elements of a phenomenon in an exposition or explanation
      • the nature of the problem, followed by the body of evidence, in an argument
    • Conclude
      • The outcome in a narrative
      • The whole picture in an explanation
      • The interpretation, assessment, and recommendations in an argument
  • 22. Organizing the Argument
    • Classical Model
      • Begins with introduction that establishes the problem and states the thesis
      • Analyzes the evidence and refutes opposing views in light of the evidence collected
      • Draws conclusions and provides recommendations
    • Toulmin Model
      • Value Dependent, truth tested according to the values
    • Rogerian Model
      • One shifts the emphasis to the social act of negotiating difference through argument
      • Value Dependent but it must be negotiated cooperatively
  • 23. Composing Openings
    • Occasional Opening
      • Reference to current event
    • Startling Opening
      • Use of unexpected information
    • Anecdotal Opening
      • Brief story to engage the reader’s attention
    • Analytical Opening
      • Launches immediately into a critical discussion
  • 24. Exercise 1.4
    • Question 1,2,3
  • 25. Composing the Body of the Argument
    • The Promise made to the readers is fulfilled in the body
    • The subject portion of the Rhombus: the detailed support – facts, examples, illustrations – as well as the emotional, logical, ethical appeals.
  • 26. Composing Conclusions
    • A good conclusion enables readers to grasp the full impact of the argument.
      • If the intro states the claim, the body argues for the validity of the claim by citing evidence for it, the conclusion encapsulates all those points of evidence
      • Reflect back on the paper
      • Broaden the scope beyond your paper
      • Reinforce the readers’ emotional involvement
        • Feelings of security, hope, happiness, self-confidence, optimism, or overall well-being
  • 27. Exercise 1.5
    • Discuss the weakness/strengths of Body and Conclusion
  • 28. Revising the Argument
    • Checklist
      • Attend closely to the ways you …
        • Presented the problem
        • Stated your claims
        • Reported evidence and testimony
        • Represented challenging views
        • Drawn inferences
        • Reached conclusions
  • 29. Revision Tasks
    • Holistic (start a different draft)
    • Content (ideas and evidence)
    • Organizational (logical progression)
    • Stylistic (syntax, tone, diction)
    • Proofreading (line-by-line error check)
  • 30. Visual Aids
    • Headings and subheadings
    • Images (must contribute)
  • 31. Read Plato 650-657 Interrupted Reading