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Classical Model of Argument
Classical Model of Argument
Classical Model of Argument
Classical Model of Argument
Classical Model of Argument
Classical Model of Argument
Classical Model of Argument
Classical Model of Argument
Classical Model of Argument
Classical Model of Argument
Classical Model of Argument
Classical Model of Argument
Classical Model of Argument
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Classical Model of Argument

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  • 1. Classical Model White and Billings
  • 2. History to Argument <ul><li>Rhetoric was taught as Oratory </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle defined rhetoric as it is still used today </li></ul><ul><li>Modes of Discourse (definition, comparison, temporal/causal connection, circumstance, testimony) descended from ancient rhetoric system </li></ul><ul><li>Debate is the sport aspect of argument </li></ul>
  • 3. Outline of Classical Model <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead-in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overview of Situation (context) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Background (specific to situation) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Position statement (thesis) </li></ul><ul><li>Appeals and evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Refutation (often presented simultaneously with evidence) </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  • 4. Exercise 3.1 pg 86 <ul><li>Read and answer questions 1-4 </li></ul>
  • 5. Introduction <ul><li>Presents the topic of inquiry or the problem requiring attention and perhaps briefly states the thesis. </li></ul><ul><li>It establishes a clear context for the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>It engages the reader’s attention and desire to get “the whole picture.” </li></ul>
  • 6. Position Statement <ul><li>State the claim </li></ul>
  • 7. Evidence and Appeals <ul><li>Pathos, Ethos, Logos </li></ul><ul><li>Direct and Indirect Evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DE consists of data from surveys, scientific experiments, case-in-point, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IE consists of formal analytical and mathematical reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Step-by-step analysis of causes that lead to inevitable effects </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 8. Use emotional appeals by playing on readers needs: Safety, love, youth, tradition, strength or power, compassion, etc.
  • 9. Combining Appeals <ul><li>Evidence must be tested for Relevance, accuracy, thoroughness, and timeliness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance – evidence must relate directly to the claims being made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy – Double-check, precision relevant to what is being argued </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoroughness – evidence must cover every facet or implication of the claim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timeliness – appropriately recent </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Refutation <ul><li>Def: the reference to opposing viewpoints and rebutting them. </li></ul><ul><li>The aim of refutation is to demonstarte the limitations or errors of challenging views. </li></ul>
  • 11. Conclusion <ul><li>The minimal task of a conclusion is to provide a final wisdom about the thesis just argued. </li></ul>
  • 12. Exercise 3.2 pg 100 <ul><li>Read and answer question 3 </li></ul>
  • 13. Exercise 3.3 pg 103 <ul><li>Read and answer questions 1-2 </li></ul>

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