Purification station
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Transcript

  • 1. ‘ Purification Station’ Farr High School Young Engineers
  • 2. The Problem
    • We hunted for underlying problems in everyday life in third world countries.
    • We came to a decision based on some heavy problems affecting Third World Countries:
    • The loss of 443 million school days each year from water-related illness.
    • Millions of women spending several hours a day collecting water.
    • For the 1.9 billion children in developing countries 400 million have no access to safe water. That’s one in five.
    • 1.4 million children die each year from lack of access to safe drinking water and in-adequate sanitation.
    • Lack of access to clean water and sanitation kills children at a rate equivalent of a jumbo jet crashing every four hours.
  • 3. Our (First) Solution
    • We came up with an idea for a water purifier. We had done some research on similar ideas, and tried to build on them by theoretically scaling them up and coming up with ways to make them more efficient.
    • Our initial idea was to use energy efficient ways to power the pump, ultraviolet light, and sediment filters. We decided to use solar energy produced by solar panels, and kinetic energy from the wheels being turned.
    (Our initial sketch.)
  • 4. Our (Final) Solution
    • Our final solution involved:
    • The use of only kinetic energy generated by the device being pulled along.
    • Two tanks, each holding 20 litres of water. (One Holding Un-Clean Water, The Other For Holding The Purified Water)
    • The Contaminated Water Is Pumped Into The Contained Water Tank.
    • The Contaminated Water Is Pumped Through a Carbon Pre-Filter and then a goes under a Kinetic Degradation Fluxion Filter And Then Through An Ultra-Violet Light.
    • Water Then Is Pumped Into The Clean Water Tank, Ready For Use.
    (Revolutionary Ideas Such As This Influenced Us.)
  • 5. Sediment Filters (How It Works)
    • This is a relatively easy concept.
    • This process uses a Granular Activated Carbon filter.
    • By using absorption and catalytic reduction the positively activated carbon atoms attract the negatively charged contaminants.
    • Organic compounds are removed by absorption and residual disinfectants such as chlorine and chloramines are removed by catalytic reduction.
    • Faults:
        • Frequent filter changes are necessary to avoid what is called “channelling” which reduces the contact between the contaminants and the filter and therefore reduces the efficiency.
  • 6. Kinetic Degradation Fluxion (How It Works)
    • To Understand This Concept, Let Us Explain:
        • The process involves what is known as a Redox Reaction (Giving and Taking of electrons).
        • This process converts contaminants such as chlorine, lead, mercury, iron, and hydrogen sulfide into harmless elements.
        • Faults:
          • Requires another purification method to remove bacteria and viruses from the water.
          • Leaves Nitrates, Fluoride and little Radon.
        • Maintenance:
          • Requires very little maintenance
          • Filters needs to be changed every 8 months to 1 year.
  • 7. Ultraviolet Water Purification
    • To Understand This Concept, Let Us Explain:
        • Water passes through a water chamber which beams rays of UV-C light onto the water.
        • When harmful microbes are exposed to these rays their nucleic acid absorbs the UV energy which destroys the cells DNA structure. The cell then becomes what is called “sterile” and can no longer re-produce. The cell would then be considered dead and of no threat.
        • Faults:
          • One of the few filters we require that needs electricity.
        • Maintenance:
          • Requires an annual replacement of the lamp to ensure optimum performance.
          • The sleeve (outside) should be cleaned several times per year.
  • 8. Occurring Problems
    • One of the main problems that we can across was that no current purification methods gave a high enough yield and efficiency.
    • Using UV lamps requires the need for the electrical energy.
    • The use of our pump system requires electrical energy.