With varying shapes and sizes, all satellites have a few things in common
Power supply, can consist of solar panels and batteries, fuel cells, or in some cases nuclear power
A computer system to run its functions
A radio system, to communicate with ground control
Altitude Control system, the ACS allows the satellite to maintain a position in space
History This is Sputnik. It was a 58cm 83 kg aluminum ball launched into earth orbit from Baikonur, Kazakhstan, on an R-7/Semiorka rocket by the USSR on October 4, 1957 It contained A battery A thermometer A radio transmitter Sputnik was filled with pressurized nitrogen gas, had 4 antennas which sent information back via short-wave frequency and only lasted 92 days in space.
The first successful U.S. satellite, Explorer I, was launched into Earth orbit by the Army on Jan. 31, 1958, at Cape Canaveral, Florida, four months after Russia orbited Sputnik. The 8.1 kg satellite had a cylindrical shape and was 80 inches long and six inches in diameter.
Explorer I's small package of instruments produced the first major discovery of the Space Age—The Van Allen radiation belts surrounding the Earth. Explorer I burned up in the atmosphere on March 30, 1970.
September 29 Canada becomes the third country to have a satellite in space, after Russia and the U.S. We successfully launch the science satellite Alouette 1 from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, at an altitude of 1000 km. Designed with a one-year lifetime, it transmits useful data for over 10 years. It studies the ionosphere, the electrically-charged layer of the upper atmosphere that can affect long-distance radio transmission. Alouette 2 is launched on November 29, 1965.