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Unit1 living organisms'
 

Unit1 living organisms'

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    Unit1 living organisms' Unit1 living organisms' Presentation Transcript

    • Departamento de Biología y Geología
    • Natural Science 2nd grade ESO UNIT 1 Living organisms Departamento de Biología y Geología
    • The Biosphere are all the living things which inhabit the Earth frog mushroom tulips
    • Science devoted to the study of living things is BIOLOGY Tasmania devil mushroom
    • A living thing is an organism that is… 1 - able to perform the three vital functions. 2 - made up of specific inorganic and organic substances (certain chemical composition). 3 - organized in CELLS.
    • 1- performing the three vital functions: • NUTRITION: consist of taking substances from the environment and using them for growth, energy, repair and waste elimination. (Autotrophs vs heterotrophs)
    • 1- performing the three vital functions: • INTERACTION consists on perceiving changes in the environment (stimuli) and reacting to them.
    • 1- performing the three vital functions: • REPRODUCTION is the capacity that living things have to produce descendents with the same characteristics.
    • 2- being made up of: • Inorganic substances: – water – mineral salts • Organic substances: – glucids (like glucose or cellulose), – lipids (fatty acids and cholesterol), – proteins (hemoglobin) – nucleic acids (DNA or RNA)
    • 3- being organized in CELLS. A cell is the BASIC UNIT OF LIFE that can perform the three vital functions. tissue cell organism
    • Unicellular & Multicellular • Unicellular living things have only one cell. • Multicellular living things have many different cells.
    • Multicellular organisms • The cells work together as a whole. • There are different levels of organisation, depending on whether they have tissues, organs or systems.
    • THE FIVE KINGDOMS • • • • • MONERA kingdom PROTOCTIST kingdom FUNGI kingdom PLANT kingdom ANIMAL kingdom
    • CELL STRUCTURE • Plasmatic membrane: – is a thin and elastic external cover. – is composed by lipids and proteins. *Also called plasma membrane. • Cytoplasm: – is a liquid substance that fills cell’s interior. – is a jelly-like substance with water and different molecules (glucids, lipids, proteins). – is where take place the chemical reactions, necessary for CELLULAR FUNCTIONING. – is where there are some structures, ORGANELLES (they perform many specific functions).
    • CELL STRUCTURE • DNA: – is the genetic material (it contains the genetic information). – is a nucleic acid (with attached proteins): it is divided in units called chromosomes. – depending on the placement of DNA, cells can be classified into: _ prokaryotic cells and, _ eukaryotic cells.
    • PROKARYOTIC CELLS DNA is placed in the cytoplasm • They are very simple and very small • They lack organelles (with the exception of RIBOSOMES) • They have another external cover outside the plasmatic membrane: the CELLULAR WALL • Some use flagellum or pili to move • There are differences in the type of nutrition: there are autotrophs and heterotrophs
    • Smaller than eukaryotic cells (around 1μ m )
    • PROKARYOTIC CELLS • They are bacteria • All of them belong to the MONERA kingdom
    • Vibrio cholerae
    • Escherichia coli
    • Lactobacillus casei
    • Spirulina sp.
    • *µm: micrometre or micron.
    • EUKARYOTIC CELLS DNA is placed in the nucleus • The NUCLEUS is a compartment with a double cover: NUCLEAR MEMBRANE. • They are more complex cells and bigger than prokaryotic cells. • They have a great variety of organelles.
    • Usual average of human cells is between 10 and 100 μ m
    • Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Vacuole Mitochondrion Golgi apparatus Cellular wall Plasma membrane Chloroplast
    • EUKARYOTIC CELLS • Ribosomes (they form proteins). • Endoplasmic reticulum is related with the ribosomes (they store the proteins). • Golgi apparatus packages proteins inside the cell before they are sent to their destination. • Mitochondria (it produces energy). • Centrioles (exclusive for animal cell) they take part in cell division and they control the movement of cilia and flagella. • Lysosomes (they digest food).
    • EUKARYOTIC CELLS • Chloroplasts (exclusive for plant cell) they perform photosynthesis thanks to a green molecule called chlorophyll. • The vacuoles (very common in plant cells) usually are use for the storage of different substances. • The cellular wall is exclusive for plant cells and it contains cellulose.
    • EUKARYOTIC CELLS THE NUCLEUS • The DNA is inside and could be condensed as chromosomes. • DNA could be not condensed as chromatin. • The nucleolus is related with the formation of ribosomes. • The nucleus has a double membrane with pores. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9kQpYdCnU14
    • EUKARYOTIC CELLS • There are some differences between the eukaryotic cells of different organisms. – Different organelles that they have. – Different types of nutrition. • This is the cell of the remaining four Kingdoms: – PROTOCTIST, – FUNGI, – ANIMALS and – PLANTS
    • EUKARYOTIC CELLS • The main types of eukaryotic cells are: – animal cells – plant cells
    • Muscle cells Bone cells neuron Red blood cells Sperm cell
    • 1632-1723 Anton van Leeuwenhoek
    • 1635-1703 Robert Hooke Cella
    • Schleiden Schwann https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4OpBylwH9DU Virchow
    • The CELL THEORY All organisms are composed by cells Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in organisms All cells come from preexisting cells Omnis cellula e cellula
    • Santiago Ramón y Cajal 1852-1934 1906 Nobel Prize
    • Neuron theory -Nervous system is composed also by cells called neurons. -Cell theory was proven also with the case of nervous tissues.