Coastal Best
 Practices
  Project Overview
      July 2010
      July 2010
Overview
•   Coastal Louisiana Context
•   Patterns of Coastal Development
•   Atlas
•   Strategies for Community Adaptati...
Coastall
C     t
Louisiana
 Context
The 2005 Hurricanes
Louisiana Speaks: The Vision
New Growth Areas
Economic Development
The Vision: New Growth Areas



             Jennings
                        Crowley




                                ...
The Vision: New Growth Areas
                                   La Place
 Donaldsonville
 D ld      ill                   ...
The Vision: New Growth Areas

       Hammond                Covington




                          Mandeville      Slidel...
Multiple lines of defense
Special Cases: Economic Devt. Zones
 p
Coastal Louisiana
Living with water is a way of life
Levee building in the 1950s - present




                              • Influenced where growth was 
                   ...
Man Made and Natural Changes




                          Matthew Levine
Rebuilding - Holly Beach, Louisiana
Patterns of
    Coastal
Development in
   Louisiana
Coastal Development Patterns

 •       Water and Geology
     –     Riverbanks and Bayous
     –     Coastal
     –     Fl...
Coastal Development Patterns
Small neighborhoods
Small neighborhoods (intersection water, road)
Small neighborhoods




                      Water serves as 
                      the “back yard”
Water is the backyard: boat garden, docks
Road is front yard: garage, garden, neighbors
Bayou: long continuous line of row houses
Bayou: houses perpendicular to water
Urbanization pattern: Old housing on river banks
Economics: Fishing
Infrastructure located on man-made fill
History of housing on the rivers, floating homes
History of stilt houses in the swamps
Water protection: Levee from river/spillway
Beach: roads/houses perpendicular to shoreline
Beach: roads/houses parallel to shoreline
Beach: neighborhoods
Urbanization pattern: Housing along bayous, houses on
stilts
Economics: Agriculture, fishing, crabbing, hunting,
trapping
Economics: Recreational fishing
Industry
Agriculture
Atlas
            Atl
Purpose is to gather best available
    data and make it useful for
       community planning
Aerial Photography




Source: ESRI
Aerial Photography and City Limits




Source: ESRI and Louisiana GIS Digital Map 2007
Transportation




Source: ESRI
Transportation




Source: ESRI
GIS Data Layers
 Chenier, Delta, and Riverine




Source: Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration
Geology – Freshwater Delta & Riverine




Source: Louisiana GIS Digital Map 2007
FEMA 30 Year Floodplain




Source: FEMA
FEMA 30 Year Floodplain




Source: FEMA
Land Use




Source: Louisiana Speaks
Land Use




Source: Louisiana Speaks
50 Year Predicted Land Loss




Source: USGS
50 Year Predicted Land Loss




Source: USGS
Create a readily available planning tool



   GIS system is kept up to date with readily available p
        y          p...
Strategies for
        g
   Community
   Adaptation
   How do you p
           y    plan a
community where there will
 be ...
Strategies for Communities
1. Prevent flooding – Build levees;
   Sediment diversion; Strengthen borders of
   S          ...
1. Prevent Flooding – Global Examples


    –Build barriers to fortify borders of
     flood-prone areas
    –Use natural ...
Netherlands




              © Bosch Slabbers
Prevent flooding: barriers
                   Netherlands
                   Seawall protecting against a storm surge




...
Prevent flooding: barriers
           Bangladesh
           Retractable brick walls can be moved as 
           necessary ...
Prevent flooding: barriers
               California
               River island LEVEES protect valuable farmland in 
    ...
Prevent flooding: barriers
Sand Dunes (natural)




                             © Bosch Slabbers
Prevent flooding: barriers
Dikes (man­made)




                             © Bosch Slabbers
Prevent flooding: barriers
    Delta Works
    Netherlands

    Major engineering 
    project (1950­1997) to 
       j
  ...
Prevent flooding: barriers
 Delta Works
 Netherlands
Prevent flooding: Louisiana
                                           Team New Orleans (USACE)
 Inner Harbor Navigation
 ...
Prevent flooding: barriers
            Similar to a floodwall, but much larger, the IHNC is a surge 
            Similar t...
Prevent Flooding: pump
                        Pump It Up –
                      Community Level
                        ...
Prevent flooding – watery city
                 Tigre Delta, Argentina
                 The city relies on waterways 
    ...
Prevent flooding: dredging

                                              .


By preventing flooding upland, the 
        ...
Prevent flooding


                                                   Adapt to flooding



                               ...
Relatively small area protected in Louisiana




Source: Louisiana GIS Digital Map 2007
2. Adapt to Occasional Flooding

 • Community approaches to live with
   occasional flooding
   – Structural responses tha...
Adapt: controlled flooding
Netherlands
CANALS allow for controlled flooding into pasture lands as needed
Adapt: Accept occasional floodwaters
Prepare for Occasional Floodwaters
  Venice, Italy
  Residents prepare for floodwater...
Adapt: activities and attitudes
    PEOPLE

Tourists in Venice
T i i V i




                            Floating markets ...
Adapt to occasional flooding
Flooding and a tourism experience
3. Relocate

 •    Relocating part or all of a community
      away from flood danger may be the best
      option in some...
Relocate
           Mekong Delta, Vietnam:
           As part of LIVING WITH FLOODS program, the 
           Vietnamese go...
Relocate
     Po Delta, Italy
     Abandoned fishing villages
Relocate
After decades of frequent flooding, water 
encroachment, and land subsidence, they 
faced the painful decision of...
Relocate
Isle de Jean Charles, Louisiana
PRE­Gustav   POST­Gustav
Relocate
 Louisiana’s coastal
 land is dynamic
 and frequently
 changing



      NASA’s Landsat ...
Historic Land Loss




Source: LSU CLEAR Land Change Module
Historic Land Loss




Source: LSU CLEAR Land Change Module
Historic Land Loss




Source: LSU CLEAR Land Change Module
Historic Land Loss




Source: LSU CLEAR Land Change Module
Historic Land Loss




Source: LSU CLEAR Land Change Module
Strategies for
  St t i f
    Structures
How do you build in areas
    that may flood?
Strategies for Structures
1. Berm and armor to protect structures and keep water out

2. Elevate with stilts or pole struc...
1. Berm & Armor

                                       Floodwall



 Sump and pump for
  internal drainage



 Berm or
  ...
1. Berm & Armor
2. Building Elevation
 Common Strategy
  Innovative and traditional development 
  p
  patterns and styles avoid flood dam...
2. Building Elevation

                        Coastal Louisiana
2. Building Elevation




             Pier Foundation
2. Building Elevation
3. Flood Proofing




Maximum Protection
Level is Three Feet




                                                Flood Pro...
3. Flood Proofing




   Furnace and Utilities
   F         d Utiliti                                   Opening to Let
   ...
3. Flood Proofing

Flood Proof Walls,                              Install Sewer Backflow 
                       Move HVA...
4. Temporary Structures
4. Temporary Structures




                    http://tinyhouseblog.com/pre-fab/habitaflex/
                       p     ...
5. Floating Structures
                     Hybrid foundations allow 
                             buildings to float 
   ...
5. Floating Structures




© Bosch Slabbers
5. Floating Structures
                                       Portland, Oregon
                                       Oaks...
5. Floating Structures

 The FLOAT House, New Orleans
 The FLOAT House New Orleans
Building
       i i
   Prototypes
         yp
Modules that can be used in
     planning exercises
Purpose is to match buil...
Traditional Compact 
                     p       Traditional Compact 
                                             p     ...
Building Prototype Modeling
Building Prototype Modeling
ROI Model (FA)

• Each building has a
              g
  prototype building
  sheet

• Input physical
  characteristics of
...
What can the ROI Model tell?
• Financial
  Feasibility
   – Zoning
   – Flood Protection
     Strategy
• S t i bilit
  Sus...
Closed Foundation with Vent Holes for Floodwaters
Elevated 8 Feet




              Traditional Compact Residential – 1 St...
Elevated Foundation with Grade Beams
Elevated 15 Feet




           Traditional Compact Residential – 2 Stories
Elevated Foundation with Grade Beams
Elevated 8 Feet




                              Waterfront Residential
Elevated Foundation with Grade Beams
Elevated 15 Feet




                    Main Street Commercial – 1 Story
Open Foundation with Grade Beam
Open Foundation with Grade Beam                                Closed Foundation with Craw...
Coastal Best Practices - July21
Coastal Best Practices - July21
Coastal Best Practices - July21
Coastal Best Practices - July21
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Transcript of "Coastal Best Practices - July21"

  1. 1. Coastal Best Practices Project Overview July 2010 July 2010
  2. 2. Overview • Coastal Louisiana Context • Patterns of Coastal Development • Atlas • Strategies for Community Adaptation • Strategies for Structures • Building Prototypes
  3. 3. Coastall C t Louisiana Context
  4. 4. The 2005 Hurricanes
  5. 5. Louisiana Speaks: The Vision
  6. 6. New Growth Areas
  7. 7. Economic Development
  8. 8. The Vision: New Growth Areas Jennings Crowley Abbeville New Iberia
  9. 9. The Vision: New Growth Areas La Place Donaldsonville D ld ill Kenner/Metairie Westwego/Marrero Gretna/ Morgan Ci M City Thibodaux Algiers Raceland Larose
  10. 10. The Vision: New Growth Areas Hammond Covington Mandeville Slidell La Place Kenner/Metairie
  11. 11. Multiple lines of defense
  12. 12. Special Cases: Economic Devt. Zones p
  13. 13. Coastal Louisiana Living with water is a way of life
  14. 14. Levee building in the 1950s - present • Influenced where growth was  possible • Enabled development on lands  constrained by flooding Levee Farms, Wayne Thiebaud
  15. 15. Man Made and Natural Changes Matthew Levine
  16. 16. Rebuilding - Holly Beach, Louisiana
  17. 17. Patterns of Coastal Development in Louisiana
  18. 18. Coastal Development Patterns • Water and Geology – Riverbanks and Bayous – Coastal – Floodplains • Development patterns form in relation to water, marsh elevation, water marsh, elevation levees and roadways • Produce a unique pattern that needs to be accommodated and understood
  19. 19. Coastal Development Patterns
  20. 20. Small neighborhoods
  21. 21. Small neighborhoods (intersection water, road)
  22. 22. Small neighborhoods Water serves as  the “back yard”
  23. 23. Water is the backyard: boat garden, docks
  24. 24. Road is front yard: garage, garden, neighbors
  25. 25. Bayou: long continuous line of row houses
  26. 26. Bayou: houses perpendicular to water
  27. 27. Urbanization pattern: Old housing on river banks
  28. 28. Economics: Fishing
  29. 29. Infrastructure located on man-made fill
  30. 30. History of housing on the rivers, floating homes
  31. 31. History of stilt houses in the swamps
  32. 32. Water protection: Levee from river/spillway
  33. 33. Beach: roads/houses perpendicular to shoreline
  34. 34. Beach: roads/houses parallel to shoreline
  35. 35. Beach: neighborhoods
  36. 36. Urbanization pattern: Housing along bayous, houses on stilts
  37. 37. Economics: Agriculture, fishing, crabbing, hunting, trapping
  38. 38. Economics: Recreational fishing
  39. 39. Industry
  40. 40. Agriculture
  41. 41. Atlas Atl Purpose is to gather best available data and make it useful for community planning
  42. 42. Aerial Photography Source: ESRI
  43. 43. Aerial Photography and City Limits Source: ESRI and Louisiana GIS Digital Map 2007
  44. 44. Transportation Source: ESRI
  45. 45. Transportation Source: ESRI
  46. 46. GIS Data Layers Chenier, Delta, and Riverine Source: Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration
  47. 47. Geology – Freshwater Delta & Riverine Source: Louisiana GIS Digital Map 2007
  48. 48. FEMA 30 Year Floodplain Source: FEMA
  49. 49. FEMA 30 Year Floodplain Source: FEMA
  50. 50. Land Use Source: Louisiana Speaks
  51. 51. Land Use Source: Louisiana Speaks
  52. 52. 50 Year Predicted Land Loss Source: USGS
  53. 53. 50 Year Predicted Land Loss Source: USGS
  54. 54. Create a readily available planning tool GIS system is kept up to date with readily available p y p p y public data Site hosted that provides GIS data and a Storefront for maps Reduce time necessary to find and access the public data
  55. 55. Strategies for g Community Adaptation How do you p y plan a community where there will be occasional flooding?
  56. 56. Strategies for Communities 1. Prevent flooding – Build levees; Sediment diversion; Strengthen borders of S S f flood prone areas; Armor and fill 2. 2 Adapt to occasional flooding – Develop community-wide approaches that adapt to occasional floodwaters; Develop resiliency; Minimize property damage from flooding 3. Relocate when absolutely necessary – Relocate part or all of a y p community to a more stable area
  57. 57. 1. Prevent Flooding – Global Examples –Build barriers to fortify borders of flood-prone areas –Use natural processes: sediment diversion to rebuild land area; wetland restoration to prevent land loss
  58. 58. Netherlands © Bosch Slabbers
  59. 59. Prevent flooding: barriers Netherlands Seawall protecting against a storm surge © Bosch Slabbers Source: DeltaWorks.org © Bosch Slabbers
  60. 60. Prevent flooding: barriers Bangladesh Retractable brick walls can be moved as  necessary to protect the community Source: flickr.com/CLTS
  61. 61. Prevent flooding: barriers California River island LEVEES protect valuable farmland in  central the Sacramento­San Joaquain Delta
  62. 62. Prevent flooding: barriers Sand Dunes (natural) © Bosch Slabbers
  63. 63. Prevent flooding: barriers Dikes (man­made) © Bosch Slabbers
  64. 64. Prevent flooding: barriers Delta Works Netherlands Major engineering  project (1950­1997) to  j shorten the Dutch  coastline and reduce  miles of needed dikes miles of needed dikes Source: DeltaWorks.org
  65. 65. Prevent flooding: barriers Delta Works Netherlands
  66. 66. Prevent flooding: Louisiana Team New Orleans (USACE) Inner Harbor Navigation Channel (IHNC) Surge barrier in coastal  S b i i l Louisiana flickr./infrogmation
  67. 67. Prevent flooding: barriers Similar to a floodwall, but much larger, the IHNC is a surge  Similar to a floodwall but much larger the IHNC is a surge barrier to protect New Orleans and St. Bernard Parish  against storm damage, to be completed in 2011 NOLA.com
  68. 68. Prevent Flooding: pump Pump It Up – Community Level Protection In New Orleans a pump station is   currently under construction that can  pump 150,000 gallons of floodwater  per second
  69. 69. Prevent flooding – watery city Tigre Delta, Argentina The city relies on waterways  and boats for transportation.
  70. 70. Prevent flooding: dredging . By preventing flooding upland, the  ff g likelihood of flooding increases in low­ income communities nearer the river NORDELTA, a gated community  NORDELTA, a gated community engineered out of wetlands in  Tigre, Argentina Source: Columbia University Planning Studio
  71. 71. Prevent flooding Adapt to flooding Avoid flooding d fl d This aerial image illustrates the disparity between those who live in  protected upland communities and those who do not.
  72. 72. Relatively small area protected in Louisiana Source: Louisiana GIS Digital Map 2007
  73. 73. 2. Adapt to Occasional Flooding • Community approaches to live with occasional flooding – Structural responses that avoid or allow floodwaters – Develop resilience to occasional flooding flooding, prepare property and vital infrastructure – Build strong communities where flooding is a nuisance, not a disaster
  74. 74. Adapt: controlled flooding Netherlands CANALS allow for controlled flooding into pasture lands as needed
  75. 75. Adapt: Accept occasional floodwaters Prepare for Occasional Floodwaters Venice, Italy Residents prepare for floodwaters  R id f fl d entering buildings and public spaces
  76. 76. Adapt: activities and attitudes PEOPLE Tourists in Venice T i i V i Floating markets  f of Vietnam
  77. 77. Adapt to occasional flooding
  78. 78. Flooding and a tourism experience
  79. 79. 3. Relocate • Relocating part or all of a community away from flood danger may be the best option in some scenarios – Cost to stay > cost to move – Use of temporary or low-cost structures p y – Seasonal or vacation inhabitation
  80. 80. Relocate Mekong Delta, Vietnam: As part of LIVING WITH FLOODS program, the  Vietnamese government has begun relocating  flood­prone, high­risk communities to  “residential clusters” on higher ground.
  81. 81. Relocate Po Delta, Italy Abandoned fishing villages
  82. 82. Relocate After decades of frequent flooding, water  encroachment, and land subsidence, they  faced the painful decision of whether to  stay or go. stay or go Isle de Jean Charles, Louisiana Biloxi­Chitimacha­Choctaw tribe Images: NOLA.com  Images: NOLA com
  83. 83. Relocate Isle de Jean Charles, Louisiana
  84. 84. PRE­Gustav POST­Gustav Relocate Louisiana’s coastal land is dynamic and frequently changing NASA’s Landsat imagery  documents land loss due to  Hurricane Gustav (2008) Source: NASA.gov
  85. 85. Historic Land Loss Source: LSU CLEAR Land Change Module
  86. 86. Historic Land Loss Source: LSU CLEAR Land Change Module
  87. 87. Historic Land Loss Source: LSU CLEAR Land Change Module
  88. 88. Historic Land Loss Source: LSU CLEAR Land Change Module
  89. 89. Historic Land Loss Source: LSU CLEAR Land Change Module
  90. 90. Strategies for St t i f Structures How do you build in areas that may flood?
  91. 91. Strategies for Structures 1. Berm and armor to protect structures and keep water out 2. Elevate with stilts or pole structure to move structures above floodwaters. 3. Flood proofing of buildings so that they can be readily cleaned and returned to active use quickly. 4. Temporary structures that can be rebuilt with relative ease because of lower investment costs. 5. Floating structures either permanently on the water or on land that can float when/if needed.
  92. 92. 1. Berm & Armor Floodwall Sump and pump for internal drainage Berm or Levee L evee Sewer One-way valve One way
  93. 93. 1. Berm & Armor
  94. 94. 2. Building Elevation Common Strategy Innovative and traditional development  p patterns and styles avoid flood damage y f g Around the world, entire communities  are raised on stilts to avoid structural  flooding, while accommodating the  occasional land flooding Tigre, Argentina Tigre, Argentina
  95. 95. 2. Building Elevation Coastal Louisiana
  96. 96. 2. Building Elevation Pier Foundation
  97. 97. 2. Building Elevation
  98. 98. 3. Flood Proofing Maximum Protection Level is Three Feet Flood Proofed Walls Sewer Closures for Openings One Way One-Way Valve Dry Floodproofing
  99. 99. 3. Flood Proofing Furnace and Utilities F d Utiliti Opening to Let O i t L t Relocated Water In Appliances Moved or Wrapped in Waterproof Bags Wet Floodproofing
  100. 100. 3. Flood Proofing Flood Proof Walls,  Install Sewer Backflow  Move HVAC & Electrical Openings, Foundation Valve
  101. 101. 4. Temporary Structures
  102. 102. 4. Temporary Structures http://tinyhouseblog.com/pre-fab/habitaflex/ p y g p
  103. 103. 5. Floating Structures Hybrid foundations allow  buildings to float  Massbommel, Netherlands Massbommel Netherlands
  104. 104. 5. Floating Structures © Bosch Slabbers
  105. 105. 5. Floating Structures Portland, Oregon Oaks Park Roller Rink  The skating rink was built in 1905 in a  floodplain. After a flood in 1948 ruined  fl d l i Aft fl d i 1948 i d the rink's wood floor, the rebuilt floor was  designed to float in the event of another  f flood. Since then, the floating floor has  f gf survived two serious floods in 1964 and  1996.  Source: http://myweb.msoe.edu/~westr/pdxoaks.htm
  106. 106. 5. Floating Structures The FLOAT House, New Orleans The FLOAT House New Orleans
  107. 107. Building i i Prototypes yp Modules that can be used in planning exercises Purpose is to match building strategies with community protection
  108. 108. Traditional Compact  p Traditional Compact  p Waterfront Residential Waterfront Commercial Community Center y Residential ‐1 Story Residential ‐2 Stories Main Street Commercial‐ Main Street Commercial‐ Main Street Commercial‐ Multifamily Waterfront Hotel  1 Story 2 Stories 3 Stories and Restaurant House  Boat Prototype Thumbnails
  109. 109. Building Prototype Modeling
  110. 110. Building Prototype Modeling
  111. 111. ROI Model (FA) • Each building has a g prototype building sheet • Input physical characteristics of “prototype building prototype building” • Includes zoning and g development standards and other regulations or g insurance issues
  112. 112. What can the ROI Model tell? • Financial Feasibility – Zoning – Flood Protection Strategy • S t i bilit Sustainability • Plan Feasibility • Tax Revenue of Plan • Transportation Needs • School Enrollment • Housing Suitability • Etc.
  113. 113. Closed Foundation with Vent Holes for Floodwaters Elevated 8 Feet Traditional Compact Residential – 1 Story
  114. 114. Elevated Foundation with Grade Beams Elevated 15 Feet Traditional Compact Residential – 2 Stories
  115. 115. Elevated Foundation with Grade Beams Elevated 8 Feet Waterfront Residential
  116. 116. Elevated Foundation with Grade Beams Elevated 15 Feet Main Street Commercial – 1 Story
  117. 117. Open Foundation with Grade Beam Open Foundation with Grade Beam Closed Foundation with Crawl Space Closed Foundation with Crawl Space Elevated 15 feet Elevated 8 feet Source: FEMA Publication, Recommended Residential Construction for Coastal Areas, December 2009 Building Foundation Type Options
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