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The french in north america
The french in north america
The french in north america
The french in north america
The french in north america
The french in north america
The french in north america
The french in north america
The french in north america
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The french in north america

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  • 1. The French in North America<br />Victoria Herrera<br />History 140<br />Online<br />
  • 2. American Colonies- Chapter 5Canada and IroquoiaSlide #1<br />In the 16th century the English, French, and Dutch mariners crossed the Atlantic to plunder Spanish shipping and colonial towns<br />The French discovered fish and furs, two profitable commodities that made northern colonization possible<br />Indians became dependent on European metals, cloth, and alcohol<br />Traders and their empires had to met the Indians demands for commodities because to be cut off would mean a act of war<br />THE FUR TRADE<br /> By 1580 in Newfoundland the fisheries, whale and seal hunters employed 400 vessels and up to 12,000 men<br />Indians thought that all objects possessed spiritual power. (Manitou)<br />Mariners started to kidnap Indians to use as a commodities, but most died even before they reached shore<br />The fur trade pitted the Indians against each other in destructive competition <br />
  • 3. American Colonies- Chapter 5Canada and IroquoiaSlide # 2<br />CANADA<br />The French shifted their focus northward to reclaim the St. Lawrence Valley, known as Canada<br />Canada was a poor location for farming but was excellent for fur trade. The location meant thick and valuable furs.<br />Huron’s population was so huge it over hunted its location which meant that they couldn’t contribute to the fur trade as hunters.<br />The introduction of firearms revolutionized Indian warfare<br />THE FIVE NATIONS<br />Iroquois warriors conducted “mourning wars” in which they sought prisoners from their enemies<br />The Great League was a ceremonial and religious forum for promoting calm and peaceful thinking <br />Iroquois thought of themselves as especially devoted to peace but others knew them as fearsome in war<br />
  • 4. American Colonies- Chapter 5Canada and IroquoiaSlide #3<br />THE DUTCH TRADE<br />The Dutch could supply better quality metal goods at a lower cost than the French could<br />Most of the 17th century the Iroquois and the French needed one another as enemies<br />JESUITS<br />By converting the Indians to Catholicism, the French leaders hoped to make the natives more dependent and dependable as allies and trading partners <br />Europeans perceived peoples in terms of social rank rather than skin color<br />In 1615 the French launched their first effort to evangelize the Indians of Canada<br />It was strenuous hard work for the priests to convert the Indians so 8 priests of the Jesuit order were called in to take over<br />Natives were impressed by the Jesuits by their lack of interest in the land, furs, and women that other Europeans coveted<br />The natives didn’t believe in a heaven and hell they believed that they passed on to a dream world <br />The Huron were drawn to the apparent magical prowess of the Jesuits then their Christian message<br />The Jesuits denounced torture and ritual cannibalism, premarital sex, divorce, polygamy, and the traditional games, feasts, and dances.<br />
  • 5. American Colonies- Chapter 5Canada and IroquoiaSlide #4<br />DESTRUCTION<br />Never before had native peoples attacked and killed each other on the scale and with the ferocity of the Iroquois during the 1640’s and 1650’s<br />The Iroquois assault on the Huron was primarily a mourning war<br />In 1648-49 Iroquois warriors stormed the Huron villages, killing and capturing hundreds<br />
  • 6. American Colonies- Chapter 16French AmericaSlide #1<br />At the end of the 17th century the Drench founded a new colony named Louisiana<br />EMIGRANTS<br />The French learned that they needed more colonists to defend Quebec from their English rivals<br />Seigneurs brought the first farm families to Canada<br />By 1660 the English had 58,000 colonists in New England and the Chesapeake<br />During the 17th century, fewer than 250 families emigrated to Canada<br />Most male emigrants arrived in servitude, either soldiers or indentured servants<br />Louis XIV built the largest military in Europe-20,000 men in 1661 to 300,000 in 1710<br />Canada suffered from a bad reputation as a immoral, cold, and unprofitable land<br />Because of the short growing season Canadians couldn’t produce the warm-climate staples<br />OPPORTUNITY<br />Most of the French who did emigrate to Canada significantly improved their status and standard of living<br />In Canada there was no direct tax on either people or lands<br />French law treated wives as equal economic partners with their husbands<br />Because of entry cost and the demanding life of a nun, fewer than 4% of Canadian women entered a convent <br />
  • 7. American Colonies-Chapter 16French AmericanSlide #2<br />AUTHORITY<br />To govern New France the crown appointed 3 officials: a military governor-general, a civil administrator known as the intendant, and a Catholic bishop<br />The French established no elective assembly to represent the colonists <br />Noble birth and aristocratic honor were the primary criteria of status and authority in New France<br />
  • 8. American Colonies- Chapter 16French AmericaSlide #3<br />THE UPPER COUNTRY<br />In the 18th century New France consisted of two sectors: St. Lawrence Valley and the upper country<br />Canadian Indians were sovereign peoples rather than French subjects<br />The Indians and the French developed “the middle ground”<br />French traders married native women<br />In order to sway an entire village the French had to reward multiple chiefs with presents to satisfy their lineages<br />Without mediation by the French revenge killings accelerated among the Indians<br />The French could exercise a limited empire only by providing trade, mediation, and presents <br />
  • 9. American Colonies- Chapter 16French AmericaSlide #4<br />LOUISIANA<br />Louisiana was named after King Louis XIV<br />The French hoped to dominate the interior of North America by linking Canada with Louisiana<br />The French in Louisiana wooded the Indians with trade goods, especially firearms<br />The French tried to reconcile the Choctaw and Chickasaw <br />The crown entrusted Louisiana to a private corporation, the company of the Indians, which promoted plantations to cultivate tobacco and indigo<br />Louisiana failed to develop a profitable export staple<br />Louisiana also suffered from an arbitrary government<br />The Louisiana officials were notoriously corrupt <br />The bankrupt Company of the Indians surrendered the colony to the French crown in 1731<br />The settlers and soldiers of Louisiana found that a white skin brought them far less privilege than it did the common people of Carolina <br />

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