The english in north america
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The english in north america

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The english in north america The english in north america Presentation Transcript

  • The English in North America
    Victoria Herrera
    History 140
    Online
  • American ColoniesChapter 6Virginia
    • In the 16th century, Spanish and French mariners explored the long cost of Florida and South Acadia
    • Newfoundland was too cold and barren for year-round inhabitation
    • Tobacco created an explosive growth in population, territory, and wealth
    PROMOTERS
    • The English queen lacked the means to finance and govern an overseas colony
    • In England, the common people made up about 95% of the population
    • England was the wealthiest and most populous kingdom
    • Most English folk lived in country villages and tended livestock or cultivated grains
    • London became notorious for filth, poverty, plagues, fired, crime, and executions
    • In Ireland the English considered the resisting peoples as dirty, lazy, treacherous, murderous , and pagan savages
  • American ColoniesChapter 6Virginia
    ROANOKE
    • In 1585 one hundred colonists were sent across the Atlantic to settle on Roanoke
    • The soil on Roanoke was infertile thus making it hard to produce crops
    POWHATAN
    • The English tried again at Chesapeake Bay which offered more fertile land
    • Virginia Indians divided tasks almost exclusively along gender lines
    • Powhatan led the largest and most powerful chiefdom
    ENCOUNTER
    • The English were poorly prepared to understand and accept a culture so different from their own
    • The English considered the Indians lazy and benighted
    • The Algonquians recoiled in horror at the prospect of adopting a European way of life
    JAMESTOWN
    • In 1604 a peace treaty with Spain reduced the danger of Spanish attack on a new colony
    • The Virginia Company barley kept ahead of the continuing deaths at Jamestown
    • More and more colonists moved to Jamestown but disease and hunger kept killing them
    • Virginia’s nickname became “slaughterhouse”
    • Colonists were more interested in searching for ore than planting crops
  • American ColoniesChapter 6Virginia
    VIOLENCE
    • The colonists preferred to explore for gold and expected the Indians to feed them but the Indians has little surplus to shear with them
    • Smith tried to bully the Indians into giving them corn
    • The English thought that only pain and terror could motivate the poor
    • The English captured Pocahontas and accepted Christian conversion and married a colonist
    TOBACCO
    • As private property owners rather than company employees, the colonists showed much greater initiative and effort cultivating their crops
    • Planters learned to raise tobacco in 1616
    • Tabaco's profits increased the value of indentured servants, which stimulated the flow of emigrants to Virginia
    • As tobacco cultivation expanded and the population grew, the planter needed more land which they obtained at the Indians expense
  • American ColoniesChapter 7Chesapeake Colonies
    • The ownership of productive land endowed men with the coveted condition of “independence”
    • In 1676 Virginia erupted in rebellion
    • Planters switched their labor force from white indentured servants to enslaved Africans
    COMMONWEALTHS
    • The wealthiest planters dominated the county system of local government
    • By 1668 Virginia had 62 Anglican churches
    • Many men never found the wives they needed to form family households. Men 74% to Women were only 10% with children being the other 16%
    LABOR
    • In 1650 enslaved African only made up a mere 2% of the Chesapeake population
    • When tobacco sold low and English wages rose, servant emigration declined
    • Chesapeake emigrants were a subset of the many poor people moving around England in search of food and work
    • Most indentured servants endured harsh but short lives in the Chesapeake
  • American ColoniesChapter 7Chesapeake Colonies
    PROSPERITY
    • The “seasoned” acquired a higher level of immunity, which they passed on to their offspring
    • At mid-century freed servants more easily obtained farms because the 1646 victory over the Indians
    • The Chesapeake farms did not impress English visitors
    REBELLION
    • After 1665 Virginia’s hard times with declining income and rising taxes
    • The pay lavished on the elite came from taxes heaped upon the common planter
    • Rather than pay rent, many freedmen moved to the frontier, where they violently competed with the Indians
    • In 1675 war erupted between the settlers and the Susquehannock
    • “Bacon’s Rebellion” represented a division within the planter elite
  • American ColoniesChapter 7Chesapeake Colonies
    GREAT PLANTERS
    • The assembly dramatically reduced the poll tax seeking popularity
    • By reducing taxes, the Virginia gentry reinvented themselves and Virginia politics
    SLAVES
    • At the end of the 17th century tensions between the common whites and the great planters diminished
    • Chesapeake planter increasingly turned to African slaves for their plantation labor
    • Anthony Johnson was the most successful and conspicuous black freedman
    • As slaves became more numerous and more conspicuously African, masters became convinced that only pain and fear could motivate them
  • American ColoniesChapter 8New England
    This different set of colonists adapted to a colder, less abundant, but far healthier environment
    Puritan values helped the colonists prosper in a demanding land
    In England labor with plentiful and cheap, but land was scarce and expensive
    ENGLISH PURITANS
    Law demanded that everyone support the official church of England with taxes and regular attendance
    Puritans urged every believer to seek God by reading the Bible
    Faced with the growing power of the king and his bishops, some despairing Puritans considered emigrated across Atlantic to a New England
  • American ColoniesChapter 8New England
    THE GREAT MIGRATION
    Puritan emigrants followed French and English mariners, fishermen, and fur traders who had visited the New England coast
    In 1630 a large Puritan emigration, subsequently called the “Great Migration” began under the leadership of John Winthrop
    Later in the century, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Hampshire secured their own charters of government from the crown
    RELIGION AND PROFIT
    Many Puritans sought a distant refuge, where they could live apart from sinners
    Most English who had migrated across the Atlantic were already dead in Chesapeake or West Indian graves
    New England attracted an unusual set of emigrants
    New England lacked a profitable plantation crop
  • American ColoniesChapter 8New England
    LAND AND LABOR
    New England colonies granted land to men who banded together as a corporate group to found a town
    New England’s diversified farms were less prone to disrupt by the boom-and-bust price cycle
    The New English couldn’t afford servants or slaves so they depended on family labor
    FAMILY LIFE
    It took a family to cope with the diverse and constant demands of building and maintaining a farm in New England
    The New English thought of marriage as both romantic and economic
    Women played a leading role in oral circulation of news and opinion
    COMMERCE
    Termination of the Great Migration in 1640 produced an economic depression
    By developing the fishing trade the Puritans rescued the region’s economy
    Shipbuilding was a powerful engine of economic development and diversification