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  • 1. California: “ A History” Victoria Herrera History 141 Online
  • 2. Chapter 1 Queen Calafia’s Island Place and First People
    • Garci Ordonez de Montalvo
    • Wrote a sequel called The Deeds of Esplandian, it is a Portuguese narrative derived from French sources
    • According to Montalvo, California was, “an island on the right hand of the Indies…very close to the side of the Terrestrial Paradise”
    • Montalvo’s two tales were instant bestsellers and were so for most of the 16 th century
    • The Spanish in general had a tendency to believe fiction, so many Spanish thought Montalvo’s stories to be true
    • California was named after a fictitious island in one of Montalvo’s books
  • 3. Chapter 1 Queen Calafia’s Island Place and First People
    • California
    • California faces the Pacific Ocean
    • California rests on two tectonic plates
    • The state formed as a result from a collision of the North American and Pacific plates
    • San Francisco Bay is among the two finest natural harbors on the planet
    • 41 California mountains rise to more than 10,000 feet
  • 4. Chapter 1 Queen Calafia’s Island Place and First People
    • Native Americans
    • Around 1492 one third of Native Americans lived in California
    • The Native Americans in California belonged to 22 linguistic families, 135 separate languages
    • There was no need to make war between the different tribes because there was enough land and food for everyone
    • With no need to make war there was no need to develop hierarchies
    • As Europe came to California they invaded their land, wiped out their food supply, uprooted their culture, and decimated their numbers
  • 5. Chapter 3 A Troubled Territory Mexican California
    • Californios
    • Californios wanted self-government or merely to be left alone on their ranchos
    • The policies they practiced among themselves were less than encouraging
    • Californios led by Juan Alvarado proclaimed California a free and sovereign state
    • Mexico responded to the rebellion by upgrading California from a territory to a department, the next ten years Californios enjoyed a high degree of freedom
  • 6. Chapter 3 A Troubled Territory Mexican California
    • Mission Culture
    • In 1824 Native Americans seized control of 3 missions
    • Mexico was growing weary of the mission system which had a republican system of government
    • In 1833 the Mexican congress demanded that all missions be secularized and their lands distributed to Hispanicized Indians and new colonists
    • Valentin Gomez Farias created a colonization scheme
  • 7. Chapter 3 A Troubled Territory Mexican California
    • Brevet Brigadier Jose Figueroa
    • A distinguished soldier and civil administrator
    • He was considered by historians to have been the most competent governor during the Mexican era
    • After Figueroa died the secularization process he had outlined in his manifesto, with his fair-mindedness and strict accountability, was ignored
  • 8. Chapter 5 Regulation, Railroad, and Revolution Achievement and Turmoil in the New State
    • Point San Quentin prison
    • Reuben Clark was chosen to design the structure
    • James Madison Estell had hoped to make a profit from convict labor
    • Estell’s management style was extremely cruel or extremely lenient
    • Politically connected prisoners were treated with deference and privilege
    • In 1855 Estell’s contract was canceled and a state appointed warden assumed responsibility for the prison
  • 9. Chapter 5 Regulation, Railroad, and Revolution Achievement and Turmoil in the New State
    • Development of California
    • Mining for gold and silver stimulated and paced the foundation and the first growth of California
    • Agriculture was destined to dominate the next sequence of development
    • Viticulture together with fruit and vegetable production helped development
    • The gold rush revitalized the rancho economy of Southern California
  • 10. Chapter 5 Regulation, Railroad, and Revolution Achievement and Turmoil in the New State
    • Transcontinental Railroad
    • California wanted to build a railroad from Sacramento crossing the Sierra Nevada
    • Not many men from California were willing to do such difficult labor for the pay being given
    • Chinese workers would achieve an epic of construction second only to the Great Wall of China
    • The Chinese earned the right to live and work the Golden State