Design ResearchforShopping MallsMade by:Khaled Mohamed AhmedSara Hassan SehabReham Hossam el dinYasmine mohamed ali selimFatma el zahraa adelShehab Mohamed MagdyYomna Saad el ghazyHala mohamed hammadShehta el sayedAsem Raouf khorshed
Cinemas and means of entertainment:Cinemas and means of entertainment:Made by:Made by: Yomna saad and shehab magdyYomna saad and shehab magdySitingSitingPlanning circulationPlanning circulationProjection room and screensProjection room and screensData for auditoriums and sittingsData for auditoriums and sittingsExits and means od escapeExits and means od escapeIndoor sportsIndoor sportsIntelligent spacesIntelligent spacesPlaces for playPlaces for playThe world of contemporary architectureThe world of contemporary architectureExamplesExamplesCommercial shops and stores:Commercial shops and stores:Made by: Yasmine mohamed selimMain dataLayout and dimensionsPrinciples of shop designOrganization of shopsExamplesStructural systems and construction:Structural systems and construction:Made by:Made by: Fatma el zahraa and Hala mohamed hammadFatma el zahraa and Hala mohamed hammadKinds of structural systemsKinds of structural systemsConstructionConstructionFinishingFinishingExamplesExamplesCarCar parksparks andand securitysecurity::Made by:Made by: Sara hassanSara hassanStandard design carStandard design carParkingParkingMultiMulti--storey garagesstorey garagesFire securityFire securityTheft securityTheft securityNatural disasters securityNatural disasters securityVertical and horizontal circulation elements:Vertical and horizontal circulation elements:Made by:Made by: Reham Hossam el dinReham Hossam el dinStairsStairsRampsRampsElevatorsElevatorsEscalatorsEscalatorsExternal entranceExternal entranceEntranceEntranceEntrance hallEntrance hallCorridorsCorridorsCoCo--ordinations for designordinations for designExamplesExamplesInternational ExamplesInternational ExamplesMade by:Made by: Khaled mohamedKhaled mohamedSHOPPING MALLSSHOPPING MALLS
Layouts and DimensionsThere are two basic planning guidelines for laying out a retail alefloor. Six basic plan can help the designer to carry them out.The guidelines1 . 100 percent of the space allocated.2 . Do not sacrifice function foresthetics.Successful plan combine both to thefullestSix basic plans1 . Straight 2 . Pathway3 . Diagonal 4 . Curved5 . Varied 6 . GeometricThis diagonal pattern permits angulartraffic flow and creates perimeter designinterest and excitement in movement. Thecentral placement of the cash-wrap permitssecurity and vision1 . StraightA geometric plan canestablish interestwithout excessive cost.if the stores productcan accept it Ceilingand floors can belowered or raised tocreate zones anddepartments.People respond to circular and curvedshapes such as here-shown here. whichsoften the angular and square planThis pathway plan pulls patronsthrough the store to the rear withoutinterruption by floor fixtures. Themerits of such a layout are that thepath can take any shape and that itcreates a design pattern.This varied plan illustrates addedvariety of forms which can work toa designer’s advantage.This straight plan uses walls andprojections to create smallerspaces and is economical.3 . Diagonal4 . Curved6 . Geometric2 . Pathway5 . Varied
Merchandise is locatedaccording to classification staplegood are unobtrusively yetaccessibly placed; luxury itemsare spotted where theprospective customer cannothelp but be attracted to them.White counter areas areallocated to services :cashier,wrapper , information,etc..Attracting customers.This can be accomplished bymeans of advertising : all media location exterior designsigns catalogue direct mailcolorslighting entrance.Interiors1 . Merchandise and space must be organized tohelp the customer in making a selection2 . Easy circulation and exposing the customer tomax. amount of merchandise are part of gooddesign.3 . Avoid monotoy in circulation and display ofmerchandise4 . The location and design of the cashier areimportant and provide for several persons to beserviced.5 . Determine what customer accessories arerequired : seating,counters,tables, mirror,telephones,special lighting,floor covering.6 . Accessories will vary , depending on thestore’s location and type of customer.7 . Fitting and dressing rooms should be locatedconveniently near the item being sold.Customer flowThe customer sees more influenced bythe arrangement of the space and thewalking habits of customers than bythe intrinsic quality of the objectsexhibitedAn important factor in display is the relation between the possible viewing distance and the scale of themerchandise.1 . A stairway side wall or narrow passage is suited for small scale display only2 . Displays opposite doorways have more carrying power and consequently can be bolder.3 . It is possible to determine objects on display to make them stand apart from their neighbor and in thisway they are more desirable.4 . It is not always best to separate costly and inexpensive objects.ScalePrinciples ofshop design
They are equipped with spotlights, moststores have few possibilities of adjustingniche size ,and definitely not the location.There is always a need to change theproportion of space used for newpresentation.Differences in inventory levels,fabric density, and assortment width are notconstants. They are best handled by askilled merchandising and display staff onan hoc basis.Niches DisplayDisplayThe segregation of displays in areas specificallydesigned for the purpose, and in locations selectedwith respect to entrance and customer traffic flow,is easily accomplished in departmentalized storeplanningDisplay surfacesLocating display surfaceperpendicular to the line ofentrance may result in angularplans , or in the use of screens orfreestanding display cases,Locations for display niches, maydepend on space requirements ofthe various shop departments andupon the relationship to customerflow . This does not mean thatevery inch of space must becrowded with goods "on display,"because such practice causes lossof customer interest.
Changing displays is important. Windowsmust be "dressed" quickly. Windowdressing may be done in full public view incertain types of shops, as jewelry . Glazingof types which do not interfere with visionwill materially increase the show window‘value. Ease of window dressingmay be aided in several ways. Accesspanels should be large enough for easypassage for men and materials Accesspassages, segregated from the shopsinterior, may be provided. Dummywindows may be provided, sometimes onrolling platforms. Show window platformsshould not be too deep, from 4 ft to 5 ft.and should be on the low side , from 6 to24 inon the exterior , provision must be madefor protection when the store is closed byuse of an overhead rolling grille or afolding gate. This protection should beover all show windows and the entrancedoor.Show windowsShow-Window Lighting In many storesother than specialty shops, light intensitieshave been increased or aboverequirements for ordinary vision, in aneffort to overcome reflections.Diagrams optimum show-windowdepths. Within a 60° cone, the averagehuman eye comfortably, withoutappreciable physical effort. Optimumviewing planes are those in which objecton display can be seen in their entiretywithout causing the eye to encompassarcs greater than 60.DiagramDiagram 11 illustrates a graphic method ofillustrates a graphic method ofdetermining optimum viewing planet fordetermining optimum viewing planet forgiven bulkhead heights.given bulkhead heights.Diagram 2 shows theapplication of theseprinciples to secondfloor window ; sightlines are limited bypracticable windowdimension .Diagram 3 extends basicprinciples to include bothbasement and first-floorlevels,seen through onewindow.
Fitting roomsLighting levels, color, direction, and diffusion playan enormous role on the attitude of the customer ina fitting room. Too many stores use a singleoverhead fluorescent which has these effects on thecustomer:1 .The color turns the skin green.2 . The direction of the light creates shadowsunder the eyes and accentuates wrinkles.3 .The brightness hurts the eye and iscompensated by the iris diaphragm whichcloses down, making it harder to see thedetails.Dressing rooms are small. The amount oflight equates to the temperature level ,theamount of heal from light sources must bebalanced with air conditioningFitting Room in Grand Mall
EntranceStuff entraSeparatefrom customers ,ifnecessary inconjunction with goodsdelivery.1.Display windowextended by havingshop entrance behindit & staircase to upperfloors set back:internal w shop min 26002 .Very deep shops often permitextensive display windows,impressive even if shop itselfquite small3 .shops may have widevestibules with displaywindows at angle ,attracting customersaway from street traffic.4 .Central doors suitable forshops > 6 000-6 200 wide;counters may be installedon both sides , should becash/wrap near door.For narrow frontagerecess entrance toprovide larger displayarea & angles of viewthrough offsetsBy slanting entirewindow & having doorsin same line. Idea of (5)is having developed toits logical conclusionAutomatic installation for opening &closing doors (1-leafdoor with 2 - way passage, entrance &exit coupled ) : aphoto-el cell & light barrier , b contact mat.
Courreges boutiqueThe first is the circularsuspended tube—containing all the lightingfixtures and air-conditioning ductsAnotherexamples
Linear organizationdouble loadedCourt organization
Mean DataThe drawing illustrate the clearanceInvolved In hanging-typemerchandise cases . Rod heightshould be related not only to humaneach limitation but in certain casesto the sizes of the merchandisedisplayed.Shelving is probably used more than anyother single interior component for thestorage and/or display of merchandise. Notonly must the merchandise be within reachanthropometrically, but it must be fairlyvisible as well. The height established musttherefore be responsive to vertical grip reachdimension as well as to eye height. two setsof data are presented .One is based on thebody size of the smaller female and theother on the body size of the smaller male.Section through shop salesThe drawing shows the clearancesrequired for a medium heightdisplay counter .the suggested seatheight of 21 to 22 in, or 53.3 to 55 8cm, requires a footrest for the seatedcustomer. The counter height shownwill allow the display to be viewedby both the seated customer and thestanding sates clerk. The customeractivity zone allows adequate spacefor the chair.The drawing is of a low 30 in or76.2 cm. Display counter also foruse by aseated customer. For the standingusers optimum comfort, thecounter height should be about 2or 3 in, or 5 to 76 cm. belowelbow height. This will allow aperson to handle objectscomfortably on the countersurface or use the counter assupport for his or her arms. The30-in height is too low to permitsuch use.
Data for supermarketGood vision arc demand that topshelf be not over 5 ft high,permitting an angle of view notmore angle15° above the horizontal.Easy-to-reach zone starts at about 15In. above the floor, the minimumheight for the bottom shelf .face ofcans or pack ages should be asnearly at right Angles to eye aspractical. Cans for bottom shelvesare now designed to be legible lyingon their side.Length of super Island units varies, 9ft being the longest common use.Distance between shelf supportsvaries about a norm of 2 ft.Shoes shop data
Carpet shopsin GrandMallWatch shop in Arkadia MallCDs selling shop in Arkadia MallSupermarket in Arkadia Mall
Tie shops in Arkadia MallIn ArkadiaMallGenena MallSeparated stands in thecorridor of the Mall
CinemasSITINGGeneral considerationsThe siting of a commercial cinema must reflect the objective of_attracting theattention of the public or being easily accessible to a well populated area. Itmust be able to take advantage of generators of activity such ascommunication centres, shopping centres and centres with eveningamenities.The commercial cinema consists basically of four sections:1. Auditorium with seating facing a screen on which a picture is projected from aprojection room.2. Adjoining public spaces to provide for access, circulation, essential services,and ancillary functions depending upon the complexity of the project.3. Management spaces necessary for the administration and maintenance of thecinema.4. Engineering services.The largest of these functions is the auditorium and projection room. Theauditorium requires reasonable proportions and acceptable means of accessand exit. The relationship between access and the auditorium is particularlyimportant when the cinema forms part of a complex in which otherindependent uses are included.Although reasonable situations can be provided for gaining access to acinema at basement level, ground level and first floor level, above firstfloor creates difficulties. It is unlikely that large numbers of peoplewould accept lift access and lift exit from a cinema on an upper floor.Neither Hits nor escalator qualify as means of escape.
Access to auditoriums:(a) Cinema at ground floor. Deep foyer allows for ancillary uses overfront section of the building.(b) Cinema at ground floor. Ancillary uses in basement underauditorium. Consider compatibility of structural solution, noiseproblem and access.(c) Cinema at first floor level. Ancillary uses at ground floor. Considerease of access to first floor.(d) Cinema on upper floor. Ancillary uses below. Consider access andexits in relation to number of people concerned.(e) Cinema at basement level. Consider compatibility of structuralsolution and location of exits.(f) Two cinemas sharing entrance and foyer.(g) Four cinemas sharing foyer and projection room.(h) Two cinemas sharing foyer and projection room.
The basic planning of the normal commercial cinema consists of lour elements:auditorium and projection suite; entrance foyer and box office; administrationoffices; engineering services These are detailed in the following paragraphs.Auditorium and projection suite:General circulation within the auditorium must be related to the best areasfor viewing the screen, control and the degree of disturbance to aseated audience that would be acceptable.Lavatory accommodationfor the public should be available from the auditorium.Accommodation should also be provided in a refrigeration room forthe administration of auditorium sales.The projection room should beon the axis of the center of the screen.The entrance foyer:This accommodation should include ancillary rooms for the public; theentrance foyer forms a baffle to reduce the transmission of noise anddin from the street, to reduce heat loss in winter and heat gain insummer, and to provide a space for grading the lighting levels fromstreet to auditorium. It provides a means of directing the public andalso accommodates the box office and kiosk. It also provides accessto cloakroom, bar and other facilities.Administration and ancillaryaccommodations:Depending upon the size of the cinema and associated activities, the staffaccommodation will consist of managers office, assistant manager, clerical staff,female staff room and toilets, male staff room and toilets, administration stock room,cleaners’ room, and refuse store.Stockrooms and refuse room should be accessible from the Street and the managersoffice should be accessible from the foyer. The staff section could have separateaccess from the street, but this should not impair the general security of the cinema.Planning (circulation)
Engineering services and plant roomThe plant rooms comprise boiler room, oil storage, plenum, electrical intake, switch room, water storage, and battery room store. Floor and ceiling voids shouldprovide adequate service ducts as the auditorium and projection room complex are heavily controlled by services to provide the appropriate environment.Public areas and stores will also require extensive dueled ventilation that must be accommodated.Sales Kiosk:This consists of fixed sales counter to sell ice cream, confectionary, soft drinks, hot dogs and cigarettes .It may incorporate the main and/or secondary pay box. Thekiosk should be located between pay box and auditorium entrances and positioned to give maximum sales impact without restriction to normal traffic flow.A suggested minimum length for auditoria up to 750 seats is 5.5 m with an additional 300 mm for every further 250 seats. The minimum working space of 900 mmis recommended and the floor raised 150 mm. A hand basin is required with cold water if protected food is served and both hot and cold water if unprotected foodor drinks are served. Ventilation will be required for certain foods.Roll up or removable security grilles to protect merchandise should be available for simple installations when the kiosk is unattended.
Projection Room andScreensLighting, heating and ventilation ofprojection roomsLighting has to be carefully arranged so that no unnecessary light isspilled onto the screen via the projection ports. Bracket fittings mountedon the front wall to the right of each projector or narrow beam spotlightson adjustable arms suspended from the ceiling are usually recommended.When safety film is used and stored overnight, a minimum temperature of7°C is required; tubular electric heaters worked by thermostat switchesare normally used. The recommended, working temperature of projectionrooms is 18°C.Methods of projection:1-Direct Projection: where the light falls perpendicular to the screenplane.2-Indirect projection: the light is reflected before falling on thescreen plane using mirrors.
Screen position:Screens are usually spaced on the centerlines of auditoria and normal to them. In the case of curved screens centerlines are normal to the chord of the screenarc. Screens may be tilted from the vertical plane according to the location of the projector, the type of auditorium and the system of projection.Ingeneral, the limits of deviation for flat screen projection can be stipulated thus:α downward = maximum 12°α upward = maximum 5°where α is the angle of rake.
Data for auditoriums and sittingsSound reflectors:When the auditorium is large and the maximum distance to an audienceseat is over 18 m. ceiling reflectors are a great help. They should bedesigned so that the reflections are concentrated more on the mostdistant seats. Materials for reflectors must be smooth and non-porous and should weigh not less than 5 kg/m2 for speech only, or25 kg/m2 for music.One complication is that such reflectors will conflict with lightingpositions.Loudspeakers:In cinemas loudspeakers are usually housed behind the screen. Formonophonic sound only one speaker unit is required but for multichanneland stereophonic sound reproduction from 35 mm film, three units areused with one on the center line and the other two spaced equally oneither side.Sittings:Sizes depend on type of chair and determine chair spacing. Decide on chairstyle at outset. Traditional chairs require min spacing at 840 and are 500 wide—> (1); most common USA dimension 530. Modern chairs varyconsiderably: can need 1400 spacing and width of 750. Standing Space —>(2) formerly normal not usual in modern theatres. Seating usually laid out instraight or curved rows; in some theatres angled seating tried —>(3). Seatingradius centre point best established by trying alternative positions. Shortradius enables whole audience face centre of stage but this must be drawn toensure adequate circulation space at front stalls sides.
Minimum dimensions:A back-to-back distance between rows of seats withbacks: 760 mm (minimum)B back-to-back distance between rows of seatswithout backs 610 mm (minimum)C width of seats with arms 510 mm (minimum)D width of seat without arms 460 mm (minimum) Eunobstructed vertical space between rows (seatway) 305-mm.F Rows with more than twenty-two seats could bepossible, provided that the audience was netimperiled.G minimum width of gangway 1070 mm.
Rise R —»(2): difference in height between adjacent seating platformsFloor slope:Arrival point of sight : intersection of highest sightline at focal planepositioned 50 above stage platformDistance: horizontal distance from eye of seated spectator to APSD1= distance from eye of first row to APSDn = distance from eye of given row n to APSElevation: vertical height of eye of seated spectator above focal planeE1 = vertical height of eye of first row above focal planeEn = vertical height of eye of given row n above focal planeE1 = 0 establishes max stage height allowable, ie 1060Sight lines:Typical seated spectator—»(1)Eye height: 1120± 100Tread of seating tier (row spacing) T: 800-1150Head clearance C:C1 = 65: min clearance/row, assuming spectator will see betweenheads row in front (every-other-row vision)C2 = 130 allows av spectator see over head av specator in front(every-row vision)
Constant rise floor slope —>(2): sight lines from rows parallel; APSdetermined by intersection of sight line from last or highest row atfocal plane:R = t/d1 [E1+(N-1)+C]D1= t/r-c [e1+(n-1)c]E1= d1/t (r-c) – c(n-1)N = number of rows in seat bank.Heating and ventilation ofauditorium:The auditorium requires an air temperature of 65°F (18.3°C) and airshould be moved at the rate of 1,000 cu ft/hour (28 m²/hr) per personof which three-quarters should be fresh air from outside wherecomplete air conditioning is not required. For comprehensive airconditioning, the humidity should be 55% in summer and 65% inwinter.Diagram showing Relationship between publicspaces around the cinema
Exits and means of escapeEscape routes:At least two exits should be provided from each tier or floor andthey should be independent and remote from one another.Two exits close together would not in some circumstancesprovide an alternative means of escape, nor would theyprovide an alternative if they both joined into one commonspace such as a foyer. Exits from the auditorium must bedistributed with safety in mind, but they should also berelated to the normal circulation of the public. In anemergency it is easier for people to make their way out ofthe building in an orderly fashion if the route is alreadyfamiliar to them. It is better to avoid special emergencyexit routes if it is possible. If the building has to beevacuated because of an outbreak of fire on the stage, thepublic would not naturally go in the direction of a fire,even if the safety curtain had shut it off, and it is thereforeinadvisable to place the only exits close to the proscenium.Another reason why it is better to have exits at the back ofthe auditorium is that in an emergency it is less dangerousto travel up steps than down. However, there are alsohazards in the foyer area especially as now these oftencontain restaurants and coffee bars where cooking is done.The possibility of an emergency arising in this area willprobably justify some exits near the front of theauditorium.§ SR = The Building Standards (Scotland) (Consolidation) Regulations 1970§ HO = The Manual of Safety Requirements in theatres and other places of publicentertainment, issued by the Home Office§ csr = The Cinematograph Safety Regulations, for 1955, 1958 and 1965§ Glc = glc Places of Public Entertainment, Technical Regulations
Exit widths:The widths of exits should be related to their use. Some licensing and otherauthorities have fixed minimum widths. A recommendation given in Ministry ofWorks Post- War Building Study No. 20 is to allow for a rate of movement incinemas and theatres of 45 per-sons per minute per unit width of 520-530 mm. Innew buildings exit doorways should not be narrower than two such units, 1070mm, but in existing buildings not less than 960 mm in width is at presenttolerated.
Scissors escape stairs are an economic planningdevice which makes itpossible to get two completely independent, fire separated staircases intoone tower by using the maximum number of 16 permitted risers in eachflight.Doors and corridors:Widths must match exit requirements.doors to open outwards against exitflow in corridors and to be free of fastening except panic bolts. Projectionfor handrails up to 75 allowed into exit widths but doors must provideclear exit dimensions measured from door face to frame when standingopen. Doors generally required to be free and self closing.Staircases:Must also match exit requirements,clear width being measured betweenwalls or wall and balustrade not less than 3 risers permitted; not more than16 risers in straight flights. Maximum of 2 successive flights without turnallowed provided numbers of risers reduced to 12. Landings at top,bottom and between flights should equal width required. Stair risers (ukcode) not to exceed 150, treads at least 280; usa codes vary.
It includes audiovisual electronics, the video, which has become a vital, major element ofvisual presentation. Video has brought into the store motion, sound, special programs,promotions tied into marketing, advertising, and displays—all of the advances of strikingelectronics technology from Madison Avenue.This development has challenged the store planner/designer and the visual merchandiser tointegrate these devices imaginatively into store design. From point-of-purchase at the fixturelevel, from focal major presentations, from coordination with merchandise displays, toarresting video walls—all of these elements are competitively vital and provide an entirelynew dimension, indeed a whole new universe, to creative and advanced ideas of store design.Television has invaded the retail store. Many stores have established in-house productionfacilities to link sales campaigns with a face-to-face encounter with the customer.Monitor displaysMultimonitor displays, called "video walls," have providedincredible variety and power to sales presentations and havebrought into the store all of the impact, artistry, andpotential of cinematography.
Internet cafeIt consists of main computer connected to the other computer bya network called LAN working (Local Area Network)All the system is controlled by a huge electric power supply
The marketing concept was based on the observation that Internetenthusiasts stayed for hours surfing the World Wide Web in low-profilespecialist outlets, where they spent little on food and drink; here was amarket with clear potential for generating much higher revenues.Reception area: in order to create anillusion of space in what is essentially anoffice area, MET have designed double-height areas at certain points. In theforeground there is a "smart-card"terminal.The essence is to create an ambienceto explore new software and surf thenet.The delights of computer-based informationand entertainment products are presented ina series of seven educational displays withover one hundred pieces of equipment forvisitor to use.Cybersmith,White Plains,USATelecom world, Hong KongThe new retail format givesconsumers the opportunity toexperiment with new technologies,offering them a mixture of effort-free learning and "infotainment",of inter- active enjoyment andshopping. Its aim is to attract abroader public to the world ofvirtual consumerism: the market ofthe future.The 7-meter-high translucent dome containthe (Onto the web) exhibit which explorescyberspace.It contains a 100-seat auditorium, andvideo-conferencing rooms and businesssuites.The designers have used arestrained design vocabularywithout excessive gimmickry,allowing the Technology tospeak for itself in directinteraction with the visitor.CAFÉ CYBERIA, PARIS, FRANCEThe subject only became popular once multimedia and the Internet hadbegun to develop into communications technologies for the masses.The cables of the 18 computer terminals are channeled through the "lightbeam", a large, back-lit fixture which runs the full length of the ceiling.
Ten pin bowling centersCritical factorsConsult specialist companyCar parking provisionOverall space requirements as shown inthe guide and table belowControl of noiseLightingVentilation.Environmental factors and the formof construction.Efficient locations for, and local regulations for:(a) Food and drinks service(b) Retail sales area: pro shop, other merchandise(c) Coin operated games area(d) Nursery and meeting rooms(e) Billiards and snooker area(f) Other recreational areas(g) Storage for pins and other equipment (h)Mechanics work area.Facilities for those with disabilities, in the car park, atthe entrance, cloakrooms and toilets and bowlingareas.Requirements for bowls, control and scoring systems.Practical provisions for security.Expansion review and space allowances.Environmental factors and the formof construction.Efficient locations for, and local regulations for:(a) Food and drinks service(b) Retail sales area: pro shop, other merchandise(c) Coin operated games area(d) Nursery and meeting rooms(e) Billiards and snooker area(f) Other recreational areas(g) Storage for pins and other equipment (h)Mechanics work area.Facilities for those with disabilities, in the car park, atthe entrance, cloakrooms and toilets and bowlingareas.Requirements for bowls, control and scoring systems.Practical provisions for security.Expansion review and space allowances.SpaceAs a (rule of thumb) guide allowapproximately 94 sq m of building area perlane, or for 16 lanes or more allow at least85 sq m per lane.A whole range of attractive facilities of highquality up-market bowling center. These shouldat least include a bar and a fast-food outlet withlimited but good quality menu.A separate outside sales entrance may beconsidered are essential in a modern to bring innew business.The lounge should be designed to invite bowlers in.Where permitted a pass-through service windowto the concourse should be provided for waitressservice to the concourse. Storage and access to anoutside loading bay must be provided for all thesefacilities.Staff rest room. Facilities to complywith the Health•Storage and utility spaces. There must beadequate space for heating and air conditioningplant, utilities meters, cleaning equipment andsupplies storage for all service, managementand amenity rooms.Lockers. There should be rental lockers,probably near the toilets or opening off theconcourse, where customers of both sexes canstore clothes and belongings. Five lockers perlane are recommended.
Schedule of accommodationA center consists of multiple parallelbowling lanes plus the following ancillaryspaces to serve the lanes:Concourse. This is essentially a passagewayfor access to the lanes and other bowlingcenter facilities. The larger the number oflanes, the shallower the concourse needs be,but 3.65 m is a minimum. The concoursemay also be used for tables and chairs (allow2.5 m for each row of these), for food andvending drink sales, and for payphones.Unless the center is specifically planned as atournament center spectator seating is notrecommended here. See also Food and barlounge, below.Retail sales area and ball drilling.Provide a glassed-in area for the sale ofbowling balls and other supplies.Install modern merchandising displaysystems. The sales facility shouldenhance the product being promotedand be located so that it faces potentialretail customers. Power requirementsfor a ball driller are two 15-20 ampmains voltage circuits.Bowlers sealing area. This is situatedat the front end of the bowling lanesand opening off the concourse. Itshould be at least 3.66 m deep and 0.15m below concourse level. This containsthe automatic scoring and controlsystems.Ball racks. A space behind thebowlers seating area for the ballracks.Control counter. Thisis rather like the bridgeof a ship, and the floormust be raised to givethe control clerk acommanding view of allentrances, all lanes, andthe video area,regardless of the flow oftraffic. The countershould accommodate allthe sophisticatedelectronic scoring andbusiness equipment,which forms part of amodem center, andmust therefore haveample electrical points.A display area forrental show rackingand other merchandisemay be included.If the racks are on the same level as the bowler seating area. Racksmay be 16-ball mobile storage racks, or fixed built-in racks.Coat racks. These may be incorporated in the same area as ballstorage, or provided for in a special check room near the controlcounter.Pins potter service area. This is at the far end of the bowling lanes.This should accommodate storage of pins and other supplies, plus aservice aisle at least 1.8 m wide for maintenance personnel. Ideally alarge service room and a mechanics workshop should be accessiblefrom this service area.
Table tennisThe popularity of table tennis stretches across all ages and allsocio-economic groups. It is normally played indoors by two orfour players on a table of standardized size with a net across thecenter.Critical factorsOverall playing area including specified clearances around andclear height above a table Colour, reflection, friction andresilience characteristics of the floorFloors and walls of dark and non-reflective colourUniform light over the playing area without any stroboscopiceffectReduced lighting intensity over spectators outside the playingarea Good ventilation but without draughts.Space requirementsThe ideal venue is a purpose designed club facility or adedicated space within a table tennis or sports centerwith tables and lighting permanently available for playLighting and all other obstructions must be totally above theincreased clear height zone.Recreational play coaching purposesThough side by side is preferable, table layout should reflect spacelimitations with safety being the overriding factor.Competitive playTables should be laid out side-by-side and not end-to-end. Movable barriersmark out boundaries. It is recommended in a multi-table venue to leavegangways between playing areas, both to enable easier player official access tocourts and to give courts total independence from each other and reducedisturbance by balls from other courtsEquipmentTables and netsA table tennis top measures 2.743 x 1.524 x 0.762 from the floor. Differenttypes and qualities of tables are required for different levels of play fromcoaching recreational to international matches and tournaments.Net and post sets should be sturdy, simple to assemble and easy to attachto tables of any thickness. Removable nets Land posts are recommended.BarriersMore than one table is in use, each playing area should be divided bymovable, dark-coloured, non-reflective barrier units about 50-75 cmheight.The continuous side barrier is advisable, both to contain the ball anddefine gangway space
There may be much waiting for sports in abusy center, and the videogames help pass thetime. Properly supervised and controlled videogames and coin operated amusement machinescontribute support for the operation and awelcome diversion for waiting list bowlersduring peak periods. They should beconcentrated in an area unobtrusive to bowlerson the lanes but in full view of the controlcounter.The video game hall must be locatednear by the main entrance of the malland in sight-level of the childrenThese photos are taken fromArkadia, Grand Mall and FamilyLand.Video games
The main playground is divided into three sections: the adventure area, the ball game area,and the garden. The most important of these is the adventure area, which is the starting-pointand the heart of the whole schemeThe ball game area (65x45 feet) isdivided from the rest of theplayground by a 4-foot retaining wallof concrete blocks, with the excavatedmaterial from the building piledagainst it, shaped and graded. Thisbank was then surfaced with sprayedconcrete on steel mesh, and granitesetts were embedded in it to formsteps, climbing-stones and platforms.It is constantly used for climbing,running, sitting and watching.Children/ Kinder Gardenplaying zones
In the most secluded corner, an ambitious garden was originallyplanned but then dropped, partly because of its cost and partly tooffer the children the opportunity to make the garden themselves.The garden site was left with banks surrounding it, and a grove ofsycamores was planted on small mound. This free growth of activitiesdepending on the children themselves is an essential feature of theplayground.THE PLAYROOMThis is the largest room (20x30 feet); it is just inside the entrance to the building,and also has a door to the paved area on the other side. It is for games, meetings,dancing, Sable tennis and billiards. The tall narrow windows arc designed to allowchildren of all ages to see out and at the same time to reduce the glass area (andthus the breakages) to the minimum. The ceiling tiles provide heat insulation andsound absorption. Partly inset fluorescent ceiling lighting is used in continuousruns and with plastic diffusers. The well-equipped small kitchen enables the girlsto do some cooking, and snacks can be served through the hatch. This is so heavilyused that more space and a wider serving hatch would be fully justified.THE ACTIVITIES ROOM.The Fun Planet is achildren enjoying zone inArkadia MallThis room is linked tothe playroom by alobby lined withcupboards. It isdesigned for quieterand more sedentaryactivities, such aspainting, clay-modelingand crafts
BilliardsCritical factors• Overall area, including where appropriate officials sitting-outspace around the tables• A firm floor level and surface• Tables must not be moved once they have been set up andadequately protected when not in use• Match tables need adequate space for players and elevatedspectators• Uniform, shadow-free illumination provided by specialseparate lighting for each tableSpaceThe overall size of a full-sized billiard table is approximately 4x 2 m depending on the particular design. The Billiards andSnooker Control Council introduced (with world agreement)the 3.50 m standard table and for the first time this specifiesthe actual playing area size (3.50 x 1.75 m)A clear playing space of 2mall round the table isdesirable, so that a clear floorspace of 8 x 6 m is requiredfor actual play.Seating must be positionedoutside this area. If the clearplaying space around thetable is reduced to theabsolute minimum of 1.6 m,the total playing area can bereduced to a minimum of 7.0x 5.2 mTable weight and installationThe weight of a full-size traditionally designed billiard tableis approximately 1.5 tons spread on eight legs.Siting and layoutTables have to be plumbed and leveled accurately before use and therefore cannot bemoved to make room for other activities.It is best to arrange the tables end to end to limit the possible obstruction between playersat adjacent tables.Spectator facilitiesSpectator seating, if required,should be provided around at leastthree sides of one table butsufficiently distant from it to allowample space for the players.Permanent or removable seating isacceptable.A small cafeteria locatedbeside the billiard hallThe reception counterIn WonderlandIn Family land
ICERINKSHosed ice rinks in some countries on tennis courts, roller skating rinks and similarlarge areas (surrounding wall approx 100-150); water layer 20; drainage for letting outwater.Artificial ice rinks with refrigeration system 25 below screed. Pump system withdeep freeze salt solution or cold air chambers (usually ammonia compressionmethod) —»(3)-(5). Sometimes combination of roller skating rink summer and icerink winter. Refrigeration system 25-50 below top of rink surface (not possible onterrazzo).Photos of the ice skating rink inFamily-LandIt is a covered air-conditioned hall withspecial leveled spectator seating.Curling (1): ground I 42 m; w 4000 (30x 3000 also possible); intermediate tracks (strips)1 m; pitch ends > 600. Starting and aiming areas surrounded with easily crossed woodenbarrier on 3 sides.Scottish curling (2): field 142 m; target area (tee) 0 3650. To center point of tie 38.35 m.If ice poor, reduce to 29.26 m. Curling stone; weight as 19.958 kg, circumference 914,h>1/8 of circumference.Ice hockey (3): ground x 26 x 56 m, as 30x 61 m. Goal 1830 w. 1220 h; may be playedaround back. Pitch requires wooden barrier 1200 h_(3).ROLLER SKATING RINKS-1 Sports tracks roller skating hockey: (4)15 x 30/ 20 x40m 25x50m 10x 10/ 20 x 20 m.Impact board 250 h. 30 above track. 800 parapetsalong all sides. 2000 chain-link grid at narrow end (tocatch ball), surrounding walking areas 1200; 50-100deeper. Joints< 5-6, slope as 02%. Surface water ingutters or ditches, frost protection layer > 200_(4).
Equipment storageStores must be immediately adjacent to the halls or rooms theyserve with opening widths and heights, which do not inhibit the easytransfer of equipment. Extra area will be needed for non-sports useand for items of furniture, staging or exhibition standsMain hall storagePortable equipment is kept in the storage zoneuntil it is required.The preferred location for equipment stores iscentrally on the long side of the hall.This position has three advantages:1-It allows access promptly to any pan of the sportshall.2-It saves staff time in setting out and retrievingequipment.3-It avoids the problems associated with the designof doors around goal areas where wall surfaces andfittings are particularly vulnerable to damageA store is deep rather than shallow means thatitem, of equipment placed at the front have to beremoved in order to reach equipment stored at theback and poor utilization of space and internalcirculation may account for as much as 30-40% ofthe floor area provided.Store accessAdequately dimensioned openings are essential to facilitateeasy loading and unloading of equipment. Door openingsshould give direct access to the hall or roomAny equipment which constitutes a fire hazard could fall intothis category must be kept in a separate store constructed togive one hours fire resistance with lockable self-closing doors.The store should be fitted with a smoke detector linked to mainreception and the center’s alarm system. Small or valuableitems of equipment. There should be a separate, lockable storeor lockable cupboards for securing small-scale equipment,which is easily mislaid or damaged.
Administration and staff provisionOffices will be needed for the manager of the center and his staff — secretarialand executive — with probably a meeting space for the tenants associationA rest room and toilet facilities to statutory or recommended standardsfor the number of security and other staff employed will also be needed.The shopping centre has to tempt shoppers to dally — providingpoints for rest and refreshment and varying degrees ofentertainment, in addition to the primary aim of buying. It musthave a very special appeal to women shoppers, who may representup to 80% of the shopping population.General provision for customersAn essential to long-stay shopping is adequate and pleasant lavatoryaccommodation (now universally re-styled toilet facilities). This mustbe adequate for both sexes and must be conveniently situated andeasily identified, remembering the large proportion of women and alsochildren.
DIMENSIONS OF THE HUMAN FIGUREDIMENSIONS OF THE HUMAN FIGURETYPICALCOUNTER SERVICE DIMENSIONSTYPICALCOUNTER SERVICE DIMENSIONSSEATING REQUIREMENTSSEATING REQUIREMENTSLAYOUT OF SELF SERVING RESTAURANTLAYOUT OF SELF SERVING RESTAURANTASSISTED COUNTER SERVICEASSISTED COUNTER SERVICEDIFFERENTTYPES OF SERVING AREAS:DIFFERENTTYPES OF SERVING AREAS:DAUL LINE SERVING AREA:DAUL LINE SERVING AREA:ASSISTED SEPARATE SERVING AREAS:ASSISTED SEPARATE SERVING AREAS:SELFSELF--SERVICE SEPARATE SERVING AREAS:SERVICE SEPARATE SERVING AREAS:FOOD COURTS:FOOD COURTS:LAYOUT OF SEATING AREAS,LAYOUT OF SEATING AREAS,RESTAURANTS IN MALLSRESTAURANTS IN MALLSTYPES OF FOOD COURTS:TYPES OF FOOD COURTS:11-- “L” SHAPED“L” SHAPED22-- LINEARLINEAR33-- “U” SHAPED“U” SHAPED44-- CIRCULARCIRCULAREXAMPLES FOR FOOD COURTSEXAMPLES FOR FOOD COURTSEXAMPLES FOR RESTAURANTES IN MALLS:EXAMPLES FOR RESTAURANTES IN MALLS:SAWGRASS MILLS (ARQUITECTONICA):SAWGRASS MILLS (ARQUITECTONICA):CAMERON TOLL (MICHAEL LAIRED & PARTNERS):CAMERON TOLL (MICHAEL LAIRED & PARTNERS):THE RIVERCHASE GALLERIA:THE RIVERCHASE GALLERIA:RIO RETAIL CENTER (ARQUITECTONICA):RIO RETAIL CENTER (ARQUITECTONICA):REFERENCES:REFERENCES:TIMETIME--SAVER STANDARDSSAVER STANDARDSARCHITECTS’ DATA SHEETSARCHITECTS’ DATA SHEETSRESTAURANTS (FRED LAWSON)RESTAURANTS (FRED LAWSON)SHOP DESIGN SERIES (COMMERCIAL COMPLEXES)SHOP DESIGN SERIES (COMMERCIAL COMPLEXES)PRESENTED BY:PRESENTED BY:SHEHTA ELSAYED ELSAIDSHEHTA ELSAYED ELSAID 22ndnd YEAR ARCH. SEC.YEAR ARCH. SEC. 22
SEATING REQUIREMENTSSEATING REQUIREMENTSDimensions for varies tables and local seating densitiesDimensions for varies tables and local seating densitiesSeating and table arrangementsSeating and table arrangementsThereThere areare usuallyusually significantsignificant differencesdifferences inin thethe arrangementarrangement ofof seatingseating areas,areas, dependingdepending onon::** customercustomer profilesprofiles averageaverage spendspend naturenature ofof meal,meal, expectations,expectations,** CircumstancesCircumstances leisureleisure dining,dining, basicbasic meal,meal, refreshment,refreshment,** tabletable serviceservice selfself--service,service, waitedwaited service,service, countercounter seating,seating,** groupinggrouping tabletable sharing,sharing, flexibilityflexibility inin arrangement,arrangement,** roomroom characteristicscharacteristics dimensions,dimensions, windows,windows, obstructionsobstructions..The range of seating capacities, based on average requirements, is indicated below.The range of seating capacities, based on average requirements, is indicated below.
British Relay Ltd, CrawleyBritish Relay Ltd, CrawleyThe plan illustrates a selfThe plan illustrates a self--service restaurant designed to serveservice restaurant designed to serve 350350 diners overdiners overaa 11 11//22 hour period. An island salad bar has been provided to divide the flowhour period. An island salad bar has been provided to divide the flowand increase the speed of service, in addition to allowing a better presentation.and increase the speed of service, in addition to allowing a better presentation.
LAYOUT OF SELF SERVING RESTAURANTLAYOUT OF SELF SERVING RESTAURANTmobile benches and trolleys are used extensively in modern kitchens tomobile benches and trolleys are used extensively in modern kitchens toreduce unnecessary walking and carrying, seats may be provided inreduce unnecessary walking and carrying, seats may be provided inwork centers where the work is repetitive and restricts movement.work centers where the work is repetitive and restricts movement.
ASSISTED COUNTER SERVICEASSISTED COUNTER SERVICE
EXAMPLES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF SERVING AREASEXAMPLES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF SERVING AREAS
DAUL LINE SERVING AREA:DAUL LINE SERVING AREA:DIFFERENT MENUSDIFFERENT MENUSASSISTED SEPARATE SERVING AREAS: FULLASSISTED SEPARATE SERVING AREAS: FULLMEALAT THE POINT OF SERVICEMEALAT THE POINT OF SERVICE
SELFSELF--SERVICE SEPARATE SERVING AREAS:SERVICE SEPARATE SERVING AREAS:((A) High level register with cashier standing.A) High level register with cashier standing.(B) Cashier sitting at(B) Cashier sitting at 9090°° to the customer and tray slide. The average rate ofto the customer and tray slide. The average rate ofserving isserving is 66--99 customers per minute depending on the menu.customers per minute depending on the menu.Up toUp to 44 customers per minute may be served using credit type cards. Differentcustomers per minute may be served using credit type cards. Differentprices may be charged to dprices may be charged to diifferent categories of cardholder.fferent categories of cardholder.Mini register: the easiest option where only a small range of items areMini register: the easiest option where only a small range of items aresold (egsold (egsnack bar).snack bar).
BRITISH HOME STORESBRITISH HOME STORESearly as possible as some items of catering equipment have long deliveryearly as possible as some items of catering equipment have long deliveryperiods, and some service items need to be integrated into the structure.periods, and some service items need to be integrated into the structure.Flexibility will be needed and adequate general facilities provided to allowFlexibility will be needed and adequate general facilities provided to allowfuture variations in the kiosk operation to happen with as little disruption asfuture variations in the kiosk operation to happen with as little disruption aspossible.possible.Catering operation servicing is specialized and complex to be tailored to theCatering operation servicing is specialized and complex to be tailored to theparticular conditions of the food court in each center, and each project willparticular conditions of the food court in each center, and each project willneed careful and expert planning. It is worth pointing out certain generalneed careful and expert planning. It is worth pointing out certain generalconsiderations.considerations.Electricity, gas and water (hot and cold as appropriate) should be separatelyElectricity, gas and water (hot and cold as appropriate) should be separatelymetered to each kiosk, in positions accessible from outside themetered to each kiosk, in positions accessible from outside thekiosks.,Estimates for loadings and consumption will be needed for incomingkiosks.,Estimates for loadings and consumption will be needed for incomingservices, allowing maximum tolerance for future alterations. Gas should beservices, allowing maximum tolerance for future alterations. Gas should beavailable to all kiosks, even if not immediately required.available to all kiosks, even if not immediately required.Direct main supply of cold water" must be provided to preparation sinks,Direct main supply of cold water" must be provided to preparation sinks,boiling kettles, mixer units and all outlets where the water is to beboiling kettles, mixer units and all outlets where the water is to beconsumed, but the Water Authority must be consulted regarding tirnescaleconsumed, but the Water Authority must be consulted regarding tirnescalelevelslevels —— in case it is advisable to supply softened water to hot drinks,in case it is advisable to supply softened water to hot drinks,brewing equipment, ice makers and stonmers, etc. If so, the water softenerbrewing equipment, ice makers and stonmers, etc. If so, the water softenershould preferably be in a plant room serviced by "the management, whoshould preferably be in a plant room serviced by "the management, whowill be responsible for the replenishment and storage of salt.will be responsible for the replenishment and storage of salt.Cold water for washing and other purposes may be supplied from the mainCold water for washing and other purposes may be supplied from the maintank system of the center. Certain pieces of equipment may require specialtank system of the center. Certain pieces of equipment may require specialpressures in which case pressure reducing valves, or pressure booster pumpspressures in which case pressure reducing valves, or pressure booster pumpswill be needed, as appropriate.will be needed, as appropriate.Drainage points within the kiosks should be sited to allow for futureDrainage points within the kiosks should be sited to allow for futurealterations, be of sufficient number at lower level and accessible fromalterations, be of sufficient number at lower level and accessible fromperimeter wails and counters, and should not be run to shared collectionperimeter wails and counters, and should not be run to shared collectionpoints. Grease traps may be demanded to washpoints. Grease traps may be demanded to wash--up sinks and dishwashersup sinks and dishwashersarid. if so, should be recessed into the floor in positions where they will notarid. if so, should be recessed into the floor in positions where they will notaffect the equipment layout; this also applies to inspection chamber coversaffect the equipment layout; this also applies to inspection chamber coverswhich should allow a flush floor finish.which should allow a flush floor finish.FOOD COURTSFOOD COURTS
Condensate from cold rooms, and from steam discharge. highCondensate from cold rooms, and from steam discharge. high--pressure steamers and from ice makers. should discharge into tundishpressure steamers and from ice makers. should discharge into tundishgalleys.galleys.A dishwashers area will need aA dishwashers area will need a 5454--mm (mm (2 12 1//99 in) drain point and ain) drain point and atundish for direct waste connections, as watt as an open draintundish for direct waste connections, as watt as an open draindischarge from the dishwasher if allowed by the Environmentaldischarge from the dishwasher if allowed by the EnvironmentalHealth Officer, a stainlessHealth Officer, a stainlesssteel floor galley could be provided, with the floor finish laid to fallssteel floor galley could be provided, with the floor finish laid to fallsfor wash down. Trolley washing with hot water spray shouldfor wash down. Trolley washing with hot water spray should alsoalso bebeprovided, and floor galleys are recommended in the cleaners andprovided, and floor galleys are recommended in the cleaners andrefuse stores, if permuted.refuse stores, if permuted.SingleSingle--phase and threephase and three--phase supply should be provided to eachphase supply should be provided to eachkiosk, all electrical items used within the kiosk areaskiosk, all electrical items used within the kiosk areas —— includingincludinglight fittingslight fittings —— to be water and vapor proof. An acceptable level ofto be water and vapor proof. An acceptable level oflighting in production areas can be taken aslighting in production areas can be taken as 500500 lux.lux.Electrical equipment, isolators sockets and spur outlets should beElectrical equipment, isolators sockets and spur outlets should berecessed into the walls, and control panels and electrical equipmentrecessed into the walls, and control panels and electrical equipmentgenerally, should be coordinated to offer an orderly appearance.generally, should be coordinated to offer an orderly appearance.SpareSpare 1313 amp switchamp switch--socket outlets should be provided generallysocket outlets should be provided generallythroughout the area, and refrigerated storage equipment must bethroughout the area, and refrigerated storage equipment must beconnected to the building standby electrical generator plant.connected to the building standby electrical generator plant.GasGas--fired cooking appliances must have flame failure devices.fired cooking appliances must have flame failure devices.Earthling tapes required under the Regulations, to items of fabricatedEarthling tapes required under the Regulations, to items of fabricatedequipment, should provide flexibility for future alterations.equipment, should provide flexibility for future alterations.Service routing needs to be flexible for future modification, althoughService routing needs to be flexible for future modification, althoughi( is preferable to conceal it as far as possible, in order to reduce thei( is preferable to conceal it as far as possible, in order to reduce thecleaning problem.cleaning problem.Horizontal surface runs should be avoided; exposed pipe work andHorizontal surface runs should be avoided; exposed pipe work andconduit selfconduit self--finished and fixed approximatelyfinished and fixed approximately 2020 mm (mm (44//55 in.) clear ofin.) clear ofthe wall where exposed.the wall where exposed.LAYOUT OF SEATINGAREAS,LAYOUT OF SEATINGAREAS,KIOSKS AND STAFF SUPPORT FACILITIESKIOSKS AND STAFF SUPPORT FACILITIES
““L” SHAPED,LINEAR, “U” SHAPEDL” SHAPED,LINEAR, “U” SHAPEDAND CIRCULARAND CIRCULARTYPES OF FOOD COURTSTYPES OF FOOD COURTS11-- ““L” SHAPED:L” SHAPED:
EXAMPLES FOR FOOD COURTS:EXAMPLES FOR FOOD COURTS:
SAWGRASS MILLS (ARQUITECTONICA):SAWGRASS MILLS (ARQUITECTONICA):West side of fort lauderdale in Southern Florida.West side of fort lauderdale in Southern Florida.CAMERON TOLL (MICHAELLAIRED & PARTNERS):CAMERON TOLL (MICHAELLAIRED & PARTNERS):Scotland.Scotland.EXAMPLES FOR RESTAURANTES IN MALLS:EXAMPLES FOR RESTAURANTES IN MALLS:
THE RIVERCHASE GALLERIA:THE RIVERCHASE GALLERIA:BirminghanBirminghan
RIO RETAILCENTER (ARQUITECTONICA):RIO RETAILCENTER (ARQUITECTONICA):ItlantaItlanta
Arkadia MallArkadia MallPathew in food court are defined byPathew in food court are defined bydifferent kinds of floor finishesdifferent kinds of floor finishesPanoramic elevatorsPanoramic elevatorsSteel finishes at north part of the mallSteel finishes at north part of the mallFood courtFood courtRelation between court and other levelsRelation between court and other levels
FUNCTIONS OF LIGHTINGFUNCTIONS OF LIGHTINGPERFORMANCE OF TASKSPERFORMANCE OF TASKSENHANCEMENT OF SPACE AND STRUCTUREENHANCEMENT OF SPACE AND STRUCTUREFOCUSING ATTENTIONFOCUSING ATTENTIONPROVISION OF SECURITYPROVISION OF SECURITYISSUES TO CONSIDER IN LIGHTING DESIGNISSUES TO CONSIDER IN LIGHTING DESIGNLIGHTING THE HORIZONTAL PLANELIGHTING THE HORIZONTAL PLANEUNIFORMITYUNIFORMITYCONTRUSTCONTRUSTGLAREGLAREAVOIDING VEILING REFLECTIONSAVOIDING VEILING REFLECTIONSBATWING DISTRIBUTIONBATWING DISTRIBUTIONLUMINAIRE SELECTION PARAMETERSLUMINAIRE SELECTION PARAMETERSDISTRIBUTIONDISTRIBUTIONWHERE IS THE FIXTUREWHERE IS THE FIXTUREDIRECT GLAREDIRECT GLARESOURCE TYPE AND MAGNITUDESOURCE TYPE AND MAGNITUDEDAY LIGHTINGDAY LIGHTINGQUALITY IN DAYLQUALITY IN DAYL11GHTINGGHTINGSOLARSOLAR--THERMAL GAINS/LOSSESTHERMAL GAINS/LOSSESORIENTATIONORIENTATIONCONFIGURATIONCONFIGURATIONARCHITECTURAL CONTROLSARCHITECTURAL CONTROLSEXAMPLES OF VARIOUS TYPES OF SHADING DEVICESEXAMPLES OF VARIOUS TYPES OF SHADING DEVICESELECTRONICSELECTRONICSANDAND ANIMATEDANIMATED LIGHTLIGHTEFFECTS OF LIGHTING AND SPACE PERCEPTIONEFFECTS OF LIGHTING AND SPACE PERCEPTIONINTEGRATION OF ELECTRIC & DAY LIGHTINGINTEGRATION OF ELECTRIC & DAY LIGHTINGLIGHTING IN SHOPPING CENTERSLIGHTING IN SHOPPING CENTERSLIGHTING TO THE OPEN MALLLIGHTING TO THE OPEN MALLLIGHTING TO THE CLOSED MALLLIGHTING TO THE CLOSED MALLPRACTICAL DESIGNPRACTICAL DESIGNEMERGENCYLIGHTINGEMERGENCYLIGHTINGEXAMPLES FOR LIGHTING SYSTEMSEXAMPLES FOR LIGHTING SYSTEMSA NEW LOOK FOR BUILDINGS AND THE SKYLINEA NEW LOOK FOR BUILDINGS AND THE SKYLINEEXPANDED SELLING AREA, INCREASED STYLEEXPANDED SELLING AREA, INCREASED STYLELUXURY SHOPPING PRECIENTS UNDER GLASSLUXURY SHOPPING PRECIENTS UNDER GLASSOVERHEAD GLAZING SYSTEMSOVERHEAD GLAZING SYSTEMSREFERENCES:REFERENCES:ARCHITECTURAL LIGHTING DESIGN, GARY R.STEFFYARCHITECTURAL LIGHTING DESIGN, GARY R.STEFFYIBG INTERNATIONAL, WORLD GLASS DOMES & SKY LIGHTIBG INTERNATIONAL, WORLD GLASS DOMES & SKY LIGHTSKYLIGHT, ALUMINIUM & GLASS FOR SHOPPING CENTERSSKYLIGHT, ALUMINIUM & GLASS FOR SHOPPING CENTERSTHEORY & ELEMENTS OF STORE PLANNING & DESIGNTHEORY & ELEMENTS OF STORE PLANNING & DESIGNNEW ARCHITECTURE, SHOPPING MALLSNEW ARCHITECTURE, SHOPPING MALLSPRESENTED BY:PRESENTED BY:ASEM RAOUF KHORSHID AMINASEM RAOUF KHORSHID AMIN –– 22ndnd YEAR ARCH. SECYEAR ARCH. SEC 33LIGHTING DESIGN FOR SHOPPING MALLSLIGHTING DESIGN FOR SHOPPING MALLS
FUNCTIONS OF LIGHTINGFUNCTIONS OF LIGHTINGLight is one of many tools available to help us design space. It is wise at theLight is one of many tools available to help us design space. It is wise at thebeginning of any project to recall the functions of lighting and to be certain thatbeginning of any project to recall the functions of lighting and to be certain thateach function has been examined.each function has been examined.PERFORMANCE OF TASKS:PERFORMANCE OF TASKS:Visual work is a primary reason for providing lighting.Visual work is a primary reason for providing lighting.ENHANCEMENT OF SPACE AND STRUCTURE:ENHANCEMENT OF SPACE AND STRUCTURE:For centuries, structural systems evolved partly in response to aesthetic asFor centuries, structural systems evolved partly in response to aesthetic aswell as functional desires for light of a certain quality. The progress fromwell as functional desires for light of a certain quality. The progress frombearing wall to curtain wall was driven by the push of newly discoveredbearing wall to curtain wall was driven by the push of newly discoveredtechnologies (both in materials and in technique)technologies (both in materials and in technique)FOCUSINGATTENTION:FOCUSINGATTENTION:The quality of light in a space profoundly affects ones perception of thatThe quality of light in a space profoundly affects ones perception of thatspace. Lighting draws attention to points of interest and helps to guide the userspace. Lighting draws attention to points of interest and helps to guide the userof a space about.of a space about.PROVISIONPROVISION OFOF SECURITYSECURITY::LightingLighting cancan enhanceenhance visibilityvisibility andand therebythereby engenderengender aa sensesense ofof securitysecurity..LightingLighting cancan alsoalso bebe usedused toto illuminateilluminate hazards,hazards, suchsuch asas aa changingchanging floorfloor planeplaneoror movingmoving objectsobjects..
Good lighting design promotes seeing the sense of performing such visualGood lighting design promotes seeing the sense of performing such visualtasks as reading or operating equipment, and perceiving the space and itstasks as reading or operating equipment, and perceiving the space and itsvarious qualities (volume, color, texture).various qualities (volume, color, texture).Most lighting standards discuss the quantity of light in terms of incident light or lightMost lighting standards discuss the quantity of light in terms of incident light or lightthat falls onto a surface. This light, called luminance, is measured in foot candles orthat falls onto a surface. This light, called luminance, is measured in foot candles orlux.lux.COLORCOLOR:: EachEach lamplamp familyfamily hashas itsits ownown inherentinherent colorcolor characteristicscharacteristics.. TheThechartchart describesdescribes inin generalgeneral termsterms thethe variousvarious perceivedperceived colorcolor effectseffects..SIZE:SIZE:It is useful to think of sources and source/fixtureIt is useful to think of sources and source/fixture –– combinations classifiedcombinations classifiedinto point, tine, or area sources.into point, tine, or area sources.Line sources (bare fluorescent tubes and linear fluorescent fixtures) can beLine sources (bare fluorescent tubes and linear fluorescent fixtures) can becontrolled in their transverse axis of output, but not longitudinally. This makescontrolled in their transverse axis of output, but not longitudinally. This makesthem useful for lighting large open areas where repetitive rows of fixtures arethem useful for lighting large open areas where repetitive rows of fixtures aresuitable.suitable.ISSUES TO CONSIDER IN GOOD LIGHTING DESIGN:ISSUES TO CONSIDER IN GOOD LIGHTING DESIGN:LIGHTINGLIGHTING THETHE HORIZONTALHORIZONTALPLANEPLANE::The most commonly used measure of a lighting systems performance is theThe most commonly used measure of a lighting systems performance is theresulting luminance (the amount of foot candles delivered to the work surface).resulting luminance (the amount of foot candles delivered to the work surface).This is not because luminance is an effective measure of all aspects of quality,This is not because luminance is an effective measure of all aspects of quality,but because the luminance characteristics of lighting systems are wellbut because the luminance characteristics of lighting systems are wellunderstood and easily predicted.understood and easily predicted.The most common area source is a window, but also included in thisThe most common area source is a window, but also included in thiscategory are arrays of line sources covered by a diffusing element. Thesecategory are arrays of line sources covered by a diffusing element. Thesesources usually provide medium to high levels of light with little directionalsources usually provide medium to high levels of light with little directionalcontrol.control.
UNIFORMITY:UNIFORMITY:Uniformity is of interest to the lighting designer for two reasons. One is that itUniformity is of interest to the lighting designer for two reasons. One is that itis thought that excessive variations in brightness in the observers field of view inis thought that excessive variations in brightness in the observers field of view ina work environment can be unpleasant and lead to feelings of fatigue anda work environment can be unpleasant and lead to feelings of fatigue andsubsequently reduced performance.subsequently reduced performance.TheThe secondsecond interestinterest inin uniformityuniformity hashas toto dodo withwith thethe relativelyrelatively commoncommon needneed totoprovideprovide aa fixedfixed lightinglighting systemsystem forfor aa flexibleflexible (or(or.. unknownunknown atat thethe timetime ofof design)design)furniturefurniture planplan ThisThis situationsituation requiresrequires uniformityuniformity ofof luminanceluminance soso thatthat thetherequiredrequired amountamount ofof footfoot candlescandles isis presentpresent whereverwherever aa workwork surfacesurface mightmight bebepositionedpositioned..MoreMore efficientefficient overalloverall lightinglighting givengiven byby fluorescentfluorescent lampslamps fittedfitted aboveabove eggegg--cratecrateoror otherother formsforms ofof louveredlouvered falsefalse ceilingceiling-- SpeciallySpecially contouredcontoured plasticsplastics metallisedmetallisedlouverlouver gridsgrids concentrateconcentrate lightlight downwardsdownwards withwith lowlow brightnessbrightness appearanceappearance ofofceilingceiling..InIn airair--conditionedconditioned buildingbuilding extractextract airair shouldshould bebe drawndrawn throughthrough airair--handlinghandlingluminariesluminaries soso thatthat heatheat cancan bebe removedremoved fromfrom lampslamps andand controlcontrol geargear beforebefore entersentersrmrm.. ThisThis healheal maymay oftenoften bebe usefullyusefully recoveredrecovered forfor useuse inin perimeterperimeter areasareas..VariationVariation ofof luminanceluminance overover workingworking areaarea shouldshould notnot normallynormally bebe suchsuch thatthat minmin isislessless thanthan 00..88 ofof avav.. ToTo ensureensure thisthis manufacturersmanufacturers recommendedrecommended spacing/hspacing/h ratioratio(ratio(ratio ofof horizontalhorizontal distancedistance apart,apart, toto mountingmounting heightheight aboveabove workingworking plane)plane) shouldshouldnotnot bebe exceededexceeded..33-- EdgeEdge ofof maskingmasking cornicecornice shouldshould bebe highhigh enoughenough conceal!conceal! lampslamps.. ToTo avoidavoid darkdarkareasareas betweenbetween lampslamps tubestubes shouldshould bebe staggeredstaggered oror overlappedoverlapped.. HighHigh reflectancesreflectancesonon upperupper wallswalls andand coilingcoiling essentialessential toto redirectredirect lightlight onon workingworking planeplane..22-- HighHigh degreedegree ofof uniformityuniformity ofof lightinglighting cancan bebe providedprovided byby indirectindirect lightinglightingfromfrom cornicescornices inefficientinefficient inin termsterms ofof powerpower butbut maymay bebe desirabledesirable toto displaydisplayceilingsceilings ofof particularparticular architecturalarchitectural interestinterest..CONTRUST:CONTRUST:Objects are seen by contrast, either contained contrast or contrast with theirObjects are seen by contrast, either contained contrast or contrast with theirbackground: higher the contrast the more visible the object. Visibility of printedbackground: higher the contrast the more visible the object. Visibility of printedor written matter depends on contrast of marking material with paper. This canor written matter depends on contrast of marking material with paper. This canbe markedly dependent on lighting and viewing angles even if materials usedbe markedly dependent on lighting and viewing angles even if materials usednot obviously glossy Light sources should be kept out of “forbidden zone”not obviously glossy Light sources should be kept out of “forbidden zone”indicated, best position is to one side of worker rather than in front.indicated, best position is to one side of worker rather than in front.
GLARE:GLARE:Excessive brightness contrast in field of view can cause glare. If source, e.g.Excessive brightness contrast in field of view can cause glare. If source, e.g.window or unwindow or un--shaded desk lamp, seen close to visual task it can cause disabilityshaded desk lamp, seen close to visual task it can cause disabilityglare and reduce task visibility; can also be cause of discomfort; this can occurglare and reduce task visibility; can also be cause of discomfort; this can occureven when source is well away from task, e.g. luminaries on ceiling, and is mucheven when source is well away from task, e.g. luminaries on ceiling, and is muchmore common danger.more common danger.IES code gives recommendations for upper limit of discomfort glare index,IES code gives recommendations for upper limit of discomfort glare index,which is related to luminance and size of light sources, their number andwhich is related to luminance and size of light sources, their number andposition in field of view and luminance of their surroundings. Calculation of thisposition in field of view and luminance of their surroundings. Calculation of thisglare index can be performed as described.glare index can be performed as described.AVOIDING VEILING REFLECTIONS:AVOIDING VEILING REFLECTIONS:Fixtures located off to eachFixtures located off to eachside in an areaside in an area 2525°°--4545°° off theoff thetask surface will tend not totask surface will tend not toproduce veiling reflections:produce veiling reflections:The area above and directly inThe area above and directly infront of the task is called thefront of the task is called theoffending zone, since it is theoffending zone, since it is themost likely to cause veilingmost likely to cause veilingreflections (reflected glare).reflections (reflected glare).BATWING DISTRIBUTION:BATWING DISTRIBUTION:Fixture manufacturers have developed luminaries (mostly fluorescent) thatFixture manufacturers have developed luminaries (mostly fluorescent) thatproduce a light distribution that tends to reduce direct glare and veilingproduce a light distribution that tends to reduce direct glare and veilingreflections if used in large, uniform arrays and typical open office geometries.reflections if used in large, uniform arrays and typical open office geometries.This distribution pattern is called batwing and has the following characteristics:This distribution pattern is called batwing and has the following characteristics:The intensity of light straight below the fixture (The intensity of light straight below the fixture (00°°) is minimized so that) is minimized so thateven a fixture placed in the "offending zone" will not be as objectionable aseven a fixture placed in the "offending zone" will not be as objectionable asit otherwise might The intensity at angles betweenit otherwise might The intensity at angles between 3535°° andand 6060°° is maximizedis maximizedso that at typical spacing. peak intensities overlap at the work surface:so that at typical spacing. peak intensities overlap at the work surface:
InIn selectingselecting luminariesluminaries thatthat willwill contributecontribute toto thethe makingmakingofof anan appropriateappropriate environmentenvironment inin aa space,space, severalseveral factorsfactorsareare usuallyusually consideredconsidered::DISTRIBUTION:DISTRIBUTION:is the shape of the light output from a luminaries. It is illustrated by theis the shape of the light output from a luminaries. It is illustrated by thecandlepower distribution curve, a polar plot of intensities at specific angles.candlepower distribution curve, a polar plot of intensities at specific angles.Luminaries are classified by the percentage of their luminous output sent inLuminaries are classified by the percentage of their luminous output sent invarious directions.various directions.LUMINAIRELUMINAIRE SELECTIONSELECTION FF PARAMETERSPARAMETERS::WHERE IS THE FIXTURE:WHERE IS THE FIXTURE:relative to the space? Is it outside (i.e., recessed), inside on a surface (ceiling or wall),relative to the space? Is it outside (i.e., recessed), inside on a surface (ceiling or wall),or within: portable (table or floor)?or within: portable (table or floor)?DIRECT:DIRECT:All recessed lighting is an example of a direct lighting system, but a pendant fixtureAll recessed lighting is an example of a direct lighting system, but a pendant fixturecould be direct if it emits virtually no light above the horizontal. Unless extensivecould be direct if it emits virtually no light above the horizontal. Unless extensivewallwall--washing is used, the overall impression of a direct lighting system is one of lowwashing is used, the overall impression of a direct lighting system is one of lowgeneral brightness with the possibility of higher intensity accents.general brightness with the possibility of higher intensity accents.SEMIDIRECT:SEMIDIRECT:All systems other than direct ones necessarily imply that the lighting fixturesAll systems other than direct ones necessarily imply that the lighting fixturesare in the space, whether pendant mounted, surface mounted, or portable. Aare in the space, whether pendant mounted, surface mounted, or portable. Asemi direct system will provide good luminance on horizontal surfaces, withsemi direct system will provide good luminance on horizontal surfaces, withmoderate general brightness.moderate general brightness.
GENERALDIFFUSE:GENERALDIFFUSE:A general diffuse system most typically consists of suspended fixtures,A general diffuse system most typically consists of suspended fixtures,with predominantly translucent surfaces on all sides.with predominantly translucent surfaces on all sides.DIRECTDIRECT--INDIRECT:INDIRECT:A directA direct--indirect lighting system will tend to equally emphasize the upperindirect lighting system will tend to equally emphasize the upperand lower horizontal planes in a space (i.e., the ceiling and the floor).and lower horizontal planes in a space (i.e., the ceiling and the floor).SEMIISEMII--NDIRECT:NDIRECT:AA semi indirect system will place the emphasis on the ^ceiling, with somesemi indirect system will place the emphasis on the ^ceiling, with somedownward or outwarddownward or outward--directed light.directed light.INDIRECTINDIRECT::AA fullyfully indirectindirect systemsystem willwill bouncebounce allall thethe lightlight offoff thethe ceiling,ceiling,resultingresulting inin aa lowlow--contrastcontrast environmentenvironment withwith littlelittle shadowshadow..DIRECT GLARE:DIRECT GLARE:Direct glare is produced by excessive luminance in the visual field whichDirect glare is produced by excessive luminance in the visual field whichaffects the visual systems as the individual looks around the environment. It isaffects the visual systems as the individual looks around the environment. It isusually associated with the luminaries zone fromusually associated with the luminaries zone from 4545°° toto 9090°°. To minimize direct. To minimize directglare, the luminous intensity should be kept out of theglare, the luminous intensity should be kept out of the 4545°°--9090°° zone.zone.SOURCE TYPE AND MAGNITUDE:SOURCE TYPE AND MAGNITUDE:The lumen output of a fixture must be proportionate to the desiredThe lumen output of a fixture must be proportionate to the desiredluminance level and the size of the space. The color of the source must alsoluminance level and the size of the space. The color of the source must alsobe appropriate to the area/space and activity being lighted.be appropriate to the area/space and activity being lighted.
DAYDAY LIGHTINGLIGHTING::AmpleAmple daylightdaylight isis availableavailable throughoutthroughout mostmost ofof NorthNorth AmericaAmerica forfor lightinglightinginteriorinterior spacesspaces duringduring aa largelarge portionportionwith electric task lights. Daylight is thought by most to be psychologicallywith electric task lights. Daylight is thought by most to be psychologicallydesirable and there is much evidence that it is biologically beneficial. Thedesirable and there is much evidence that it is biologically beneficial. Thevariability of daylight from one moment to the next produces visual stimulusvariability of daylight from one moment to the next produces visual stimulusand provides a psychological contact with the outdoors which most peopleand provides a psychological contact with the outdoors which most peoplefind extremely satisfying. Its use in place of, or in conjunction with, otherfind extremely satisfying. Its use in place of, or in conjunction with, otherlighting sources pan conserve energy, but energy is conserved only if electriclighting sources pan conserve energy, but energy is conserved only if electriclight sources are adequately controlled through onlight sources are adequately controlled through on--off switching and/oroff switching and/ordimming.dimming.OVERCAST:OVERCAST: Diffuse,steady,bright or dark.Diffuse,steady,bright or dark.PARTLYCLOUDY:PARTLYCLOUDY: Intense,diffuse,direct bright.Intense,diffuse,direct bright.CLEAR:CLEAR: Intense,direct bright,blue.Intense,direct bright,blue.SOLARSOLAR--THERMALGAINS/LOSSESTHERMALGAINS/LOSSESDaylight includes a significant amount of radiation that produces heat. This may beDaylight includes a significant amount of radiation that produces heat. This may bebeneficial during the heating season, allowing for a reduction in other interiorbeneficial during the heating season, allowing for a reduction in other interiorheating, or it may be detrimental during the cooling season, requiring additional airheating, or it may be detrimental during the cooling season, requiring additional airconditioning. Shading can be configured to reduce direct sun heating during warmconditioning. Shading can be configured to reduce direct sun heating during warmweather while allowing some sun penetration in winter.weather while allowing some sun penetration in winter.QUALITYIN DAYLQUALITYIN DAYL11GHTING:GHTING:The principles of good lighting apply equally to daylight and electric light. OfThe principles of good lighting apply equally to daylight and electric light. Ofprincipal concern in day lighting is the glare that may result when building occupantsprincipal concern in day lighting is the glare that may result when building occupantsperipherally see bright clouds or sun lighted surfaces while trying to perform visualperipherally see bright clouds or sun lighted surfaces while trying to perform visualtasks.Energytasks.Energy --savings from switching or dimming of electric lights depend onsavings from switching or dimming of electric lights depend ondaylight intensity and on the percentage of the year that daylight is available.daylight intensity and on the percentage of the year that daylight is available.
East and west facades require treatment to avoid the bright early and late direct sun.East and west facades require treatment to avoid the bright early and late direct sun.This is usually best accomplished with vertical louvers or a mix of vertical and horizontalThis is usually best accomplished with vertical louvers or a mix of vertical and horizontal(egg crate) louvers.(egg crate) louvers.SouthSouth facadesfacades provideprovide thethe bestbest opportunityopportunity forfor daylightdaylight--mgmg.. HorizontalHorizontal controlscontrols (e(e..gg..,,overhangs,overhangs, lightlight shelves,shelves, louvers,louvers, VenetianVenetian blinds)blinds) respondrespond bestbest toto thethe sunsun inin thethe southernsouthernskysky quadrantquadrant.. AperturesApertures cancan bebe designeddesigned suchsuch thatthat whenwhen thethe sunsun isis highhigh inin thethe skyskyduringduring thethe summersummer therethere isis nono sunsun penetration,penetration, butbut inin thethe winterwinter somesome lowlow--altitudealtitude sunsuncancan bebe admittedadmitted..ORIENTATION:ORIENTATION:Apertures to the north receive only skyApertures to the north receive only sky--contributed illumination and so will requirecontributed illumination and so will requirelarger areas of glazing than orientations with exposure to direct sun. Advantages oflarger areas of glazing than orientations with exposure to direct sun. Advantages ofnorth apertures include the resulting soft, diffuse north sky light and lack of need for sunnorth apertures include the resulting soft, diffuse north sky light and lack of need for suncontrols. However, sky glare controls still need to be considered.controls. However, sky glare controls still need to be considered.CONFIGURATION:CONFIGURATION:Building configuration is also important in day lighting. Buildings wrapped aroundBuilding configuration is also important in day lighting. Buildings wrapped aroundcourtyards, light wells, and atria can be effectively day lighted if properly designed.courtyards, light wells, and atria can be effectively day lighted if properly designed.Open spaces must be large enough so as not to block light from the sky fromOpen spaces must be large enough so as not to block light from the sky fromreaching interior spaces.The effectiveness of such light wells can be improved byreaching interior spaces.The effectiveness of such light wells can be improved byusing highusing high--reflecting, diffuse exterior finishes such as white paint, lightreflecting, diffuse exterior finishes such as white paint, light--colored tile,colored tile,or concrete. Direct sun illuminating these surfaces, however, may make them veryor concrete. Direct sun illuminating these surfaces, however, may make them verybright when viewed from the building interior.bright when viewed from the building interior.ARCHITECTURALCONTROLS:ARCHITECTURALCONTROLS:Shading/Reflecting Devices: Shading devices can be used to preventShading/Reflecting Devices: Shading devices can be used to preventpenetration of direct sun and to shield view of the sky. Some shadingpenetration of direct sun and to shield view of the sky. Some shadingdevices also reflect daylight toward the interior.devices also reflect daylight toward the interior.Sun screen consisting of tiny horizontal louvers can also be effective inSun screen consisting of tiny horizontal louvers can also be effective inshading.shading.Tinted glazing (glass or plastic) reduces the apparent brightness ofTinted glazing (glass or plastic) reduces the apparent brightness ofexterior objects from the interior, but it also reduces the amount ofexterior objects from the interior, but it also reduces the amount oftransmitted daylight, which must be supplemented by electric light.transmitted daylight, which must be supplemented by electric light.Directional glass block is useful in directing incoming light toward theDirectional glass block is useful in directing incoming light toward theceiling, providing a low brightness image from the interior.ceiling, providing a low brightness image from the interior.AperturesApertures:: Windows,Windows, clerestories,clerestories, andand skylightsskylights cancan bebe usedused forfor effectiveeffectivedayday lighting,lighting, providedprovided theythey areare equippedequipped withwith properproper shadingshading devicesdevices..GlazingGlazing locatedlocated aboveabove thethe workwork planeplane isis moremore effectiveeffective inin producingproducing workworkplaneplane illuminationillumination thanthan glazingglazing closeclose toto thethe floorfloor..The effect of clerestories can be improved by using lightThe effect of clerestories can be improved by using light--colored roofcolored roofsurfaces to reflect exterior daylight into the aperture, but direct sunsurfaces to reflect exterior daylight into the aperture, but direct sunpenetration may still be a concern. Clerestories and skylights both maypenetration may still be a concern. Clerestories and skylights both mayproduce glare if the sky is not properly shielded from interior view.produce glare if the sky is not properly shielded from interior view.
TheThe illustrationsillustrations showshow aa numbernumber ofof basicbasic typestypes ofof devices,devices, classifiedclassified asas horizontal,horizontal,vertical,vertical, andand eggegg cratecrate typestypes.. TheThe dashdash lineslines shownshown inin thethe sectionsection diagramdiagram inin eacheachcasecase indicateindicate thethe sunsun angleangle atat thethe timetime ofof 100100%% shadingshading.. TheThe shadingshading maskmask forfor eacheachdevicedevice isis alsoalso shown,shown, thethe extentextent ofof 100100%% shadingshading beingbeing indicatedindicated byby thethe graygray areaarea..EXAMPLES OF VARIOUS TYPES OF SHADING DEVICES:EXAMPLES OF VARIOUS TYPES OF SHADING DEVICES:BecauseBecause ofof thisthis typestypes highhigh shadingshading ratioratio andand lowlow winterwinter headhead admissionadmission;; itsits bestbestuseuse isis inin hothot climateclimate regionsregions.. ForFor northnorth walls,walls, fixedfixed verticalvertical devicesdevices arearerecommendedrecommended;; however,however, theirtheir useuse isis neededneeded onlyonly forfor largelarge glassglass surfaces,surfaces, oror inin hothotregionsregions.. AtAt lowlow latitudeslatitudes onon bothboth southsouth andand northnorth exposuresexposures eggegg cratecrate devicesdevicesworkwork efficientlyefficiently..GeneralGeneral rulesrules cancan bebe deduceddeduced--forfor thethe typestypes ofof shadingshading devicesdevices toto bebe usedused forfordifferentdifferent orientationsorientations SoutherlySoutherly orientationsorientations callcall forfor shadingshading devicesdevices withwithsegmentalsegmental maskmask characteristics,characteristics, andand horizontalhorizontal devicesdevices workwork inin thesethese directionsdirectionsefficientlyefficiently.. ForFor easterlyeasterly andand westerlywesterly orientationsorientations verticalvertical devicesdevices serveserve welt,welt,havinghaving radialradial shadingshading masksmasks.. IfIf slanted,slanted, theythey shouldshould inclineincline towardtoward thethe north,north, totogivegive moremore protectionprotection fromfrom thethe southernsouthern positionspositions ofof thethe sunsun.. TheThe eggegg cratecrate typetype ofofshadingshading devicedevice worksworks weltwelt onon wallswalls facingfacing southeast,southeast, andand isis particularlyparticularly effectiveeffectiveforfor southwestsouthwest orientationsorientations..Whether the shading devices be fixed or movable, the sameWhether the shading devices be fixed or movable, the samerecommendations apply in respect to the different orientations. Therecommendations apply in respect to the different orientations. Themovable types can be most efficiently utilized where the suns altitudemovable types can be most efficiently utilized where the suns altitudeand bearing angles change rapidly: on the east, southeast, andand bearing angles change rapidly: on the east, southeast, andespecially, because of the afternoon heat. on the southwest and west.especially, because of the afternoon heat. on the southwest and west.HORIZONTALHORIZONTALTYPESTYPES::HorizontalHorizontal overhangsoverhangs areare mostmost efficientefficient towardtoward south,south, oror aroundaround southernsouthernorientationsorientations.. TheirTheir maskmask characteristicscharacteristics areare segmentalsegmental..LouversLouvers parallelparallel totowallwall havehave thethe advantageadvantage ofof permittingpermitting airair circulationcirculation nearnear thethe elevationelevation..SlantedSlanted louverslouvers willwill havehave thethe samesame characteristicscharacteristics asas solidsolid overhangs,overhangs, andand cancanbebe mademade retractableretractable.. WhenWhen protectionprotection isis neededneeded forfor lowlow sunsun angles,angles, louverslouvershunghung fromfrom solidsolid horizontalhorizontal overhangsoverhangs areare efficientefficient.. AA solid,solid, oror perforatedperforatedscreenscreen stripstrip parallelparallel toto wallwall cutscuts outout thethe lowerlower raysrays ofof thethe sunsun.. MovableMovablehorizontalhorizontal louverslouvers changechange theirtheir segmentalsegmental maskmask characteristicscharacteristics accordingaccording tototheirtheir positioningpositioning..VERTICALTYPES:VERTICALTYPES:Vertical fins serve well toward the near east and near west orientations. TheirVertical fins serve well toward the near east and near west orientations. Theirmask characteristics are radial. Vertical fins oblique to wall will result inmask characteristics are radial. Vertical fins oblique to wall will result inasymmetrical mask. Separation from wall will prevent heat transmission.asymmetrical mask. Separation from wall will prevent heat transmission.Movable fins can shade the whole wall, or open up in different directionsMovable fins can shade the whole wall, or open up in different directionsaccording to the suns position.according to the suns position.EGG CRATE TYPES:EGG CRATE TYPES:Egg crate types are combinations of horizontal and vertical types, and theirEgg crate types are combinations of horizontal and vertical types, and theirmasks are superimposed diagrams of the two masks. Solid eyeties withmasks are superimposed diagrams of the two masks. Solid eyeties withslanting vertical fins results in asymmetrical mask. Egg crate device withslanting vertical fins results in asymmetrical mask. Egg crate device withmovable horizontal elements shows flexible mask characteristics. Because ofmovable horizontal elements shows flexible mask characteristics. Because oftheir high shading ratio, egg crates are efficient in hot climates.their high shading ratio, egg crates are efficient in hot climates.
EXAMPLES OF VARIOUS TYPES OF SHADING DEVICES:EXAMPLES OF VARIOUS TYPES OF SHADING DEVICES:
EFFECTS OF LIGHTINGAND SPACEEFFECTS OF LIGHTINGAND SPACEPERCEPTION:PERCEPTION:Color reacts to and affects lighting. Dark colors absorb, lightColor reacts to and affects lighting. Dark colors absorb, lightcolors reflect. A color selected under natural light will lookcolors reflect. A color selected under natural light will lookamazingly different when placed under incandescent or fluorescentamazingly different when placed under incandescent or fluorescentlight. It is necessary for the designer to select a color palette underlight. It is necessary for the designer to select a color palette underlight conditions that are as close as possible to those that will existlight conditions that are as close as possible to those that will existin the actual proposed space.in the actual proposed space.Illumination engineers have developed empirical tables thatIllumination engineers have developed empirical tables thatestablish room factors based on color intensities. If a dark colorestablish room factors based on color intensities. If a dark colorscheme is established, more wattage and footscheme is established, more wattage and foot--candles are requiredcandles are requiredto render the space agreeable and to highlight the merchandise. If ato render the space agreeable and to highlight the merchandise. If adark floor is specified, its absorption of light tends to produce adark floor is specified, its absorption of light tends to produce ashadow effect at the ceiling and to make the space feel poorlyshadow effect at the ceiling and to make the space feel poorlylighted.lighted.Additional upAdditional up--component light sources are required to achieve acomponent light sources are required to achieve acheerful ambient space effect. Cool colors tend to turn ceilings graycheerful ambient space effect. Cool colors tend to turn ceilings grayand unpleasant; warm colors tend to radiate warm reflections onand unpleasant; warm colors tend to radiate warm reflections onceilings.ceilings.It is quite well known that dark and intense colors seem to bringIt is quite well known that dark and intense colors seem to bringa wall surface closer and seem to reduce the size of a space. Lighta wall surface closer and seem to reduce the size of a space. Lightcolors, by contrast. seem to open the size of a space.colors, by contrast. seem to open the size of a space.An understanding of these perceptions allows the decorator toAn understanding of these perceptions allows the decorator toimprove and modify an awkwardly proportioned space. On theimprove and modify an awkwardly proportioned space. On theother hand, the use of intense color at a strategically placed wallother hand, the use of intense color at a strategically placed wallwill generate excitement and tend to pull a customer to itwill generate excitement and tend to pull a customer to it..The evaluation of these often conflicting effects is perhaps theThe evaluation of these often conflicting effects is perhaps themost important challenge to the designer, who must reconcile andmost important challenge to the designer, who must reconcile andimpose upon them an overall style consistent with the search for aimpose upon them an overall style consistent with the search for atasteful, imaginative, appropriate, and unforgettable store image.tasteful, imaginative, appropriate, and unforgettable store image.TechnologicalTechnological developmentdevelopment havehave profoundlyprofoundly influencedinfluenced thethe possibilitiespossibilities ofof transmittingtransmittinganimatedanimated messagesmessages throughthrough displaydisplay AnAn entireentire universeuniverse ofof possibilitiespossibilities hashas beenbeen revealedrevealedjustjust inin electronicselectronics andand programmedprogrammed animationanimation systemssystems.. ReferenceReference hashas beenbeen mademade totovideovideo andand thethe videovideo wall,wall, whichwhich integratesintegrates computercomputer animationanimation forfor multimediamultimediapresentationspresentations.. ThisThis isis anan IncredibleIncredible sellingselling instrument!instrument!ItIt offersoffers aa dramaticdramatic wayway inin whichwhich toto projectproject fashionfashion stories,stories, sight,sight, andand soundsound fromfrom thethestudiostudio intointo thethe epicenterepicenter ofof sellingselling.. CoordinatedCoordinated withwith fashionfashion advertisingadvertising onon thethe printedprintedpagepage.. asas wellwell asas onon television,television, thethe impactimpact inin thethe storestore ofof allall ofof thethe artsarts ofof cinematographycinematographyandand fashionfashion designdesign isis enormousenormous.. TheThe ImaginativeImaginative andand cleverclever integrationintegration ofof multiplemultipletelevisiontelevision monitorsmonitors intointo thethe architecture,architecture, storestore design,design, andand merchandisemerchandise presentationpresentationelementselements ofof thethe storestore addsadds aa newnew dimensiondimension toto storestore designdesign..Similar opportunities open up for dramatically coordinating Into the elements of aSimilar opportunities open up for dramatically coordinating Into the elements of astores interior design all of the other electronic and animatedstores interior design all of the other electronic and animatedELECTRONICSELECTRONICS ANDAND ANIMATEDANIMATED LIGHTLIGHT::
EvenEven inin wellwell daylight,daylight, lightlight hashas toto bebe usedused onon winterwinter afternoonsafternoons whenwhen daylightdaylightladeslades..WhenWhen sideside--litlit rmrm deepdeep enoughenough forfor workwork requiringrequiring illuminanceilluminance 500500 IxIx toto bebe carriedcarriedoutout atat distancedistance fromfrom windowwindow greatergreater thanthan heightheight ofof windowwindow headhead aboveabove workingworkingplane,plane, elel lightlight requiredrequired forfor moremore thanthan 1515%% ofof workingworking yearyear asas DFDF willwill probablyprobably bebelessless thanthan 1010%%.. ThisThis requirementrequirement increasesincreases toto aboutabout 5050%%.. atat depthdepth ofof 11½½ -- 22 windowwindowheadhead heightheight andand toto practicallypractically 100100%%.. eveneven withwith fullyfully glazedglazed wall,wall, ifif depthdepth greatergreaterthanthan 55 xx thatthat heightheight.. IfIf tintedtinted glazingglazing usedused thesethese depthsdepths greatlygreatly reducedreduced..ThereforeTherefore arrangearrange generalgeneral lightinglighting luminariesluminaries inin rowsrows parallelparallel toto windowwindow wallwall..eacheach rowrow switchedswitched separatelyseparately.. SwitchesSwitches shouldshould bebe locatedlocated soso thatthat theythey cancan bebeconvenientlyconveniently operatedoperated byby occupantsoccupants asas requiredrequired andand soso thatthat itit isis clearclear whichwhich rowsrowstheythey operateoperate.. OftenOften possiblepossible provideprovide pendantpendant switchesswitches controllingcontrolling individualindividualluminariesluminaries withwith thinthin lightlight cordscords whichwhich cancan bebe reachedreached fromfrom standingstanding positionposition..Fluorescent lamps should be chosen from intermediate color range compatibleFluorescent lamps should be chosen from intermediate color range compatiblewith color rendering requirements and with warmth of lighting required at night.with color rendering requirements and with warmth of lighting required at night.El lighting should be designed to provide luminance recommended for particularEl lighting should be designed to provide luminance recommended for particulartasks carried out in interior, but not less thantasks carried out in interior, but not less than 3030 (x on over working plane. For max(x on over working plane. For maxconservation of energy automatic control should be installed in new building toconservation of energy automatic control should be installed in new building toswitch off.switch off.oror preferablypreferably dimdim.. thosethose rowsrows ofof luminariesluminaries lightinglighting thethe workingworking areaarea whichwhichareare notnot requiredrequired whenwhen daylightdaylight risesrises toto provideprovide luminanceluminance atat thatthat depthdepth suchsuchthatthat fullfull elel lightinglighting notnot necessarynecessary..UnderUnder thesethese conditionsconditions windowswindows needneed notnot bebe designeddesigned toto achieveachieve maxmaxpenetrationpenetration ofof daylightdaylight;; moremore attentionattention cancan bebe paidpaid toto anyany requirementsrequirements forforobtainingobtaining maxmax benefitbenefit fromfrom exteriorexterior view,view, ee..gg.. byby providingproviding widewideuninterrupteduninterrupted windowswindows ratherrather thanthan highhigh andand narrownarrow onesones.. OpportunityOpportunity cancanbebe takentaken toto reducereduce contrastcontrast ofof wallwall aboveabove oror betweenbetween windowswindows withwith exteriorexteriorseenseen throughthrough themthem byby maintainingmaintaining lightlight colorcolor andand arrangingarranging (or(or somesome wallwallwashingwashing byby artificialartificial lightinglighting..In topIn top--lit interiors with sufficient glazing to provide an average DF oflit interiors with sufficient glazing to provide an average DF of 1010%%over working area el lighting will similarly be required forover working area el lighting will similarly be required for 1515% of working% of workingyear for tasks on whichyear for tasks on which 500500 Ix required, and (or longer than this whereIx required, and (or longer than this wherehigher luminance required or lower DF provided. It there is differencehigher luminance required or lower DF provided. It there is differencebetween activities carried out in different areas, requiring differentbetween activities carried out in different areas, requiring differentluminances or different periods of occupation, el lighting may be switchedluminances or different periods of occupation, el lighting may be switchedby areas. Otherwise whole installation can be linked toby areas. Otherwise whole installation can be linked to 11 controller. This maycontroller. This maybe photobe photo--electric switch or photoelectric switch or photo--electric dimming control where fluorescentelectric dimming control where fluorescentlighting is used; but at the dale of writing there is little experience oflighting is used; but at the dale of writing there is little experience ofapplication of such control to other types of discharge lamps.application of such control to other types of discharge lamps.INTEGRATIONINTEGRATION OFOF ELECTRICELECTRIC LIGHTINGLIGHTING && DAYDAY LIGHTINGLIGHTING::Day time control of luminaries in relation to depth of interior spaceDay time control of luminaries in relation to depth of interior space
LIGHTING IN SHOPPING CENTERS:LIGHTING IN SHOPPING CENTERS:The problems of lighting a shopping center are highly technical andThe problems of lighting a shopping center are highly technical andthe equipment available is constantly changing. Although the lightingthe equipment available is constantly changing. Although the lightingconsultant will almost inevitably form part of the design team, theconsultant will almost inevitably form part of the design team, thedesigner of the center will need to be acquainted with the vocabulary ofdesigner of the center will need to be acquainted with the vocabulary oflight sources and aware of their variety and practical application, aslight sources and aware of their variety and practical application, aslighting is bound to form a major element in the design and must belighting is bound to form a major element in the design and must beconsidered in architectural terms from briefing stage onwards.considered in architectural terms from briefing stage onwards.One main design problem will be to maintain the correct balance ofOne main design problem will be to maintain the correct balance ofillumination between the shops and the malls; to provide in the mallsillumination between the shops and the malls; to provide in the mallsand courts an adequate overall lighting level both in daylight and nightand courts an adequate overall lighting level both in daylight and nighttime conditions, adding interest and a further dimension, with varietytime conditions, adding interest and a further dimension, with varietyof lighting to highlight planting features, special areas and so on, butof lighting to highlight planting features, special areas and so on, butnot to the detriment of the shops or shop fronts. All this must be at annot to the detriment of the shops or shop fronts. All this must be at anacceptable running cost and ease and economy of maintenance.acceptable running cost and ease and economy of maintenance.Artificial lighting levels in shops are extremely high as they cannotArtificial lighting levels in shops are extremely high as they cannotrely on daylight owing to their configuration and the need for highrely on daylight owing to their configuration and the need for highintensity to attract customers and display merchandise. It should beintensity to attract customers and display merchandise. It should beassumed in calculating overall electrical demand that the lighting loadassumed in calculating overall electrical demand that the lighting loadmay be betweenmay be between 4040 andand 5050 W mW m22 ((1212--1515 W.fTW.fT22) overall in shop units;) overall in shop units;these of course will provide their own electrical installation but athese of course will provide their own electrical installation but ameasure of control will need to be imposed by the center. For instance,measure of control will need to be imposed by the center. For instance,all shops should be lit when the center is open, particularly the shopall shops should be lit when the center is open, particularly the shopfronts.fronts.A minimum lighting level should be demanded as the center will relyA minimum lighting level should be demanded as the center will relyvery largely for its impact and attraction on shop front lighting whichvery largely for its impact and attraction on shop front lighting whichmay be greater than that of the mall, saymay be greater than that of the mall, say 600600--700700 lux, at the entrancelux, at the entrancethough this may fail tothough this may fail to 300300 lux inside, while major units may have alux inside, while major units may have alevel oflevel of 10001000 lux within the shop area.lux within the shop area.Certainly a minimum lighting level at shop entrances can reasonablyCertainly a minimum lighting level at shop entrances can reasonablybe demanded. In the open center where shop fronts are glazed, a highbe demanded. In the open center where shop fronts are glazed, a highlighting level is necessary in any event within the shop front to competelighting level is necessary in any event within the shop front to competewith daylight and to avoid reflection.with daylight and to avoid reflection.
Lighting to the open mall:Lighting to the open mall: Lighting to the closed mall:Lighting to the closed mall:The newer closed centers and refurbished ones tend to be favored with aThe newer closed centers and refurbished ones tend to be favored with aconsiderable element of daylight^considerable element of daylight^ --^^we^^we--s^n. This will vary with sunlight ands^n. This will vary with sunlight andshade, time of day, weather, seasons and climate and even in bright conditions willshade, time of day, weather, seasons and climate and even in bright conditions willneed supplementing by artificial light to ensure an adequate level of generalneed supplementing by artificial light to ensure an adequate level of generalbrightness and to accentuate certain areas and features.brightness and to accentuate certain areas and features.There will be a transition from day to night which will require design decisions;There will be a transition from day to night which will require design decisions;for instance, is artificial lighting to take over gradually as dusk turns to night, orfor instance, is artificial lighting to take over gradually as dusk turns to night, ordramatically and suddenly at certain times? To what extent is it to alter thedramatically and suddenly at certain times? To what extent is it to alter theappearance of the center between day and night conditions? The transition willappearance of the center between day and night conditions? The transition willgenerally be automatically controlled by solar cell or as part of an energygenerally be automatically controlled by solar cell or as part of an energymanagement system, programmed and controlled by computer from themanagement system, programmed and controlled by computer from themanagement center. As already indicated, malls in a closed center will be lit to anmanagement center. As already indicated, malls in a closed center will be lit to anoverall acceptable level by a system of general lighting, supplemented by featureoverall acceptable level by a system of general lighting, supplemented by featurelighting avoiding monotony and blandness.lighting avoiding monotony and blandness.There is considerable diversity of opinion about mall lighting levels and theirThere is considerable diversity of opinion about mall lighting levels and theirrelation to shop front lighting. Earlier centers tended to offer a low level of mallrelation to shop front lighting. Earlier centers tended to offer a low level of malllighting, relying on shop front lighting as a dominant feature. This has nowlighting, relying on shop front lighting as a dominant feature. This has nowchanged and it is realized that the malls need to contribute their own excitement,changed and it is realized that the malls need to contribute their own excitement,color and invitation.color and invitation.The problem of lighting to the malls in the open center will be similar to thatThe problem of lighting to the malls in the open center will be similar to thatof any street, though scale and design of suitable lamp standards or canopyof any street, though scale and design of suitable lamp standards or canopylighting must be sympathetic to the character of the center; a modicum oflighting must be sympathetic to the character of the center; a modicum offlood lighting should be introduced to identify features, sculpture, plantingflood lighting should be introduced to identify features, sculpture, plantingand provide interest.and provide interest.When the artificial lighting goes on at dusk the whole character of the centerWhen the artificial lighting goes on at dusk the whole character of the centerwill alter. This also applies to closed centers relying on daylight for majorwill alter. This also applies to closed centers relying on daylight for majorlighting of the mall, though the problems are intensified and there are manylighting of the mall, though the problems are intensified and there are manyadditional ones.additional ones.
The contrast between say aThe contrast between say a 600600 toto 700700 lux shop front and the earlierlux shop front and the earlieraccepted levels of perhaps onlyaccepted levels of perhaps only 8080 lux was too great; too low a malllux was too great; too low a malllighting level can have a depressing effect. The feeling generated in thelighting level can have a depressing effect. The feeling generated in themalls must surely be one of sparkle and interest and invitation.malls must surely be one of sparkle and interest and invitation.Lighting design must be considered in relation to the color andLighting design must be considered in relation to the color andmaterials used in finishes, particularly those of ceilings and floors.materials used in finishes, particularly those of ceilings and floors.External lighting will be important to the image of the center. TheExternal lighting will be important to the image of the center. Theentrances to malls should be sufficiently brightly lit to form a focusentrances to malls should be sufficiently brightly lit to form a focuslooking in from the outside, in contrast with the surrounding externallooking in from the outside, in contrast with the surrounding externalscene, particularly in a developed area where a positive message ofscene, particularly in a developed area where a positive message ofinvitation and excitement is needed.invitation and excitement is needed.This is a major constituent of the entrance design, othersThis is a major constituent of the entrance design, othersbeing dimensions, type of signing and so on as we havebeing dimensions, type of signing and so on as we havealready seen. Where a center makes a major visualalready seen. Where a center makes a major visualcontribution to its environment, night time lighting mustcontribution to its environment, night time lighting mustbe designed accordingly, possibly in discussion with thebe designed accordingly, possibly in discussion with thelocal authority, to reveal and emphasis the elevationlocal authority, to reveal and emphasis the elevationimpact.impact.
Practical design:Practical design:Now to some practical considerations. Lighting design will in the main be a matter of choosing theNow to some practical considerations. Lighting design will in the main be a matter of choosing thetype of lamp, type of fitting, situation and distribution to give the required illumination, direction andtype of lamp, type of fitting, situation and distribution to give the required illumination, direction andcharacter of light required.character of light required.There are many options open in the design of general lighting to malls and courts, with theThere are many options open in the design of general lighting to malls and courts, with theintroduction of high pressure mercury and high pressure sodium discharge lamps (as an alternative tointroduction of high pressure mercury and high pressure sodium discharge lamps (as an alternative tothe familiar fluorescent tube).the familiar fluorescent tube).These newer lamps have considerable advantages;These newer lamps have considerable advantages;they give more light for the same heat; as an example, at the rate ofthey give more light for the same heat; as an example, at the rate of 250250 W the mercury lamps will giveW the mercury lamps will give77--88 times more light for the same heat than fluorescent lighting. Moreover. the estimated life of atimes more light for the same heat than fluorescent lighting. Moreover. the estimated life of amercury lamp is quoted asmercury lamp is quoted as 10 00010 000 hours, and that of the sodiumhours, and that of the sodium 20 00020 000 hours (or put another wayhours (or put another wayindefinite!).indefinite!).This is in itself a considerable advantage as accessibility for lamp changing is always aThis is in itself a considerable advantage as accessibility for lamp changing is always aproblem in high malls and courts. These high pressure discharge lamps have specialproblem in high malls and courts. These high pressure discharge lamps have specialfeatures, they nearly always have remote control gear. The gear might be sayfeatures, they nearly always have remote control gear. The gear might be say 200200 xx 100100 xx5555 mm (mm (88xx44xx22 in.) per lamp and must be in ventilated positions as it generates heat.in.) per lamp and must be in ventilated positions as it generates heat.Fittings can be chosen which have the accompanying gear enclosed in steel casing.Fittings can be chosen which have the accompanying gear enclosed in steel casing.High pressure sodium lamps are now available in low wattage form, i.e.High pressure sodium lamps are now available in low wattage form, i.e. 5050 andand 7070W. TheW. Themercury lamp which has been in use for a considerable time already is available inmercury lamp which has been in use for a considerable time already is available in 8080--125125W ratings andW ratings and 5050 W has now been introduced. Both sodium and mercury lamps haveW has now been introduced. Both sodium and mercury lamps havesuffered from the disadvantage of poor color rendering, the mercury being in the bluesuffered from the disadvantage of poor color rendering, the mercury being in the bluerange while the sodium, until recently, gave too yellow a light to be used in any situationrange while the sodium, until recently, gave too yellow a light to be used in any situationwhere natural effects were needed.where natural effects were needed.We have all experienced the shock of seeing ordinary human beings under the effects ofWe have all experienced the shock of seeing ordinary human beings under the effects ofthe low pressure sodium street lamps turn into ghostly faces from another world. However,the low pressure sodium street lamps turn into ghostly faces from another world. However,in the newest high pressure sodium lamps the color is improved, being whiter, e.g. whitein the newest high pressure sodium lamps the color is improved, being whiter, e.g. whiteSON, although the cost of these lamps at present is high, the solution is to combine theseSON, although the cost of these lamps at present is high, the solution is to combine thesewith mercury lamps.with mercury lamps.
However, general lighting is not sufficient and a display lighting dimension must alsoHowever, general lighting is not sufficient and a display lighting dimension must alsobe available. For floodlighting the tungsten halogen, quartz iodine filament lamp is inbe available. For floodlighting the tungsten halogen, quartz iodine filament lamp is ingeneral use but for individual highlighting of display features there are various lightgeneral use but for individual highlighting of display features there are various lightsources available for either track or individually mounted fittings, etc., such as lowsources available for either track or individually mounted fittings, etc., such as lowvoltage diachronic lamps.voltage diachronic lamps.Discharge lamps have simple circuits and little to fail but they takeDischarge lamps have simple circuits and little to fail but they take 1010 minutes to runminutes to runup to full operation. Again it must be emphasized they are for general lighting andup to full operation. Again it must be emphasized they are for general lighting andneed to be supplemented by architectural light to pick out features and give threeneed to be supplemented by architectural light to pick out features and give three--dimensional depth and variety.dimensional depth and variety.Where daylight is introduced into the malls problems of color are encountered.Where daylight is introduced into the malls problems of color are encountered.Variations are exaggerated in daylight and there is an immediate awareness of theVariations are exaggerated in daylight and there is an immediate awareness of thecontrast with the artificial lighting which may be discordant. The other choice iscontrast with the artificial lighting which may be discordant. The other choice iswhether to bring on the artificial light suddenly or gradually.whether to bring on the artificial light suddenly or gradually.It is not possible to dim high pressure discharge lamps as with tungsten. SwitchIt is not possible to dim high pressure discharge lamps as with tungsten. Switchcontrol will probably be by time switch and can be solar controlled as for streetcontrol will probably be by time switch and can be solar controlled as for streetlighting. This can be arranged to camouflage the changelighting. This can be arranged to camouflage the change--over by gradually increasingover by gradually increasingthe artificial lighting as daylight fails.the artificial lighting as daylight fails.Guide to general characteristics of lampGuide to general characteristics of lampFluorescent tubes are now available with electronic ballasts. These have theFluorescent tubes are now available with electronic ballasts. These have theadvantage of being smaller and lighter, and one type is available which canadvantage of being smaller and lighter, and one type is available which canbe dimmed and therefore directly solar controlled.be dimmed and therefore directly solar controlled.Fluorescent low wattage (maximumFluorescent low wattage (maximum 2626 W) tubes are now available inW) tubes are now available incompact form fittings, some with builtcompact form fittings, some with built--in control gear.in control gear.Service and warehouse areas must not be forgotten in consideringService and warehouse areas must not be forgotten in consideringlighting. Lighting installations in racked out areas will have to be kept highlighting. Lighting installations in racked out areas will have to be kept highand clear of forkand clear of fork--lift or other distribution systems.lift or other distribution systems.The lamps will be industrial fittings; lighting levels are likely to be say,The lamps will be industrial fittings; lighting levels are likely to be say, 150150lux and where racking extends almost to the ceiling overall general lightinglux and where racking extends almost to the ceiling overall general lightingmay not be possible, each racking row having to be independently lit tomay not be possible, each racking row having to be independently lit toavoid shadow, probably in this case by fluorescent fittings, with specialavoid shadow, probably in this case by fluorescent fittings, with specialreflectors.reflectors.One cardinal principle in design of landlords lighting, both in public andOne cardinal principle in design of landlords lighting, both in public andin service areas is that in order to reduce vandalism and the risk of crimein service areas is that in order to reduce vandalism and the risk of crimethere should be no dark spaces.there should be no dark spaces.
Emergency lighting:Emergency lighting:The whole center will have to be provided with an emergency lightingThe whole center will have to be provided with an emergency lightinginstallation not only in case of fire but to cater for possible power failures andinstallation not only in case of fire but to cater for possible power failures andshould conform to the latest British Standards. The interpolation of the typicalshould conform to the latest British Standards. The interpolation of the typicalemergency lighting fitting can be an irritation to the designer. A requirementemergency lighting fitting can be an irritation to the designer. A requirementwill be instant operation, i.e. withinwill be instant operation, i.e. within 55 seconds (or more at the discretion of theseconds (or more at the discretion of theenforcing authority) of failure.enforcing authority) of failure.The emergency lighting system in all communal areas will be designed into theThe emergency lighting system in all communal areas will be designed into thelandlords lighting scheme with control also over that in the large units. Thelandlords lighting scheme with control also over that in the large units. Thefittings wilt be either selffittings wilt be either self--contained (fed by trickle charge in normal running) orcontained (fed by trickle charge in normal running) orfed from a central system, operated by a standby generator automaticallyfed from a central system, operated by a standby generator automaticallystarted, or by central battery storage.started, or by central battery storage.If there are two alternative town supplies available, one being what is known asIf there are two alternative town supplies available, one being what is known asa firm supply from the supply authority to provide a standby system, thisa firm supply from the supply authority to provide a standby system, thismay be preferable though it also has a disadvantage in that a power strike ormay be preferable though it also has a disadvantage in that a power strike orpower failure would inhibit the supply.power failure would inhibit the supply.The disadvantage of central battery storage is the considerable accommodationThe disadvantage of central battery storage is the considerable accommodationspace and ventilation needed, with disciplined regular maintenance. There mayspace and ventilation needed, with disciplined regular maintenance. There mayalso be a noticeable voltage drop between the central point and the furthestalso be a noticeable voltage drop between the central point and the furthestemergency light position.emergency light position.The disadvantage of the selfThe disadvantage of the self--contained fitting is its visual interruption of thecontained fitting is its visual interruption of thedesigned ceiling pattern already confused by ceiling grilles, light fittings,designed ceiling pattern already confused by ceiling grilles, light fittings,sprinklers, etc.sprinklers, etc.The location of the standby generator is important, with particular respect to itsThe location of the standby generator is important, with particular respect to itscooling and aspiration. It should preferably not be internal as it needs a wellcooling and aspiration. It should preferably not be internal as it needs a well--ventilated area with calculated intake and exhaust and be of a size related toventilated area with calculated intake and exhaust and be of a size related tostarting currents and the motors served. Generators may be diesel or gas fed;starting currents and the motors served. Generators may be diesel or gas fed;dependent on circumstances. For diesel, oil storage must be provided.dependent on circumstances. For diesel, oil storage must be provided.A standby generator will anyway be needed to serve emergency equipmentA standby generator will anyway be needed to serve emergency equipmentsuch as warning system, smoke venting, sprinkler pumps, fire lifts andsuch as warning system, smoke venting, sprinkler pumps, fire lifts andpassenger conveyor where these latter are acceptable as Means of Escape.passenger conveyor where these latter are acceptable as Means of Escape.
A “NEW LOOK” FOR BUILDINGS AND THE SKYLINE:A “NEW LOOK” FOR BUILDINGS AND THE SKYLINE:ALUMIMIUM AND GLASS CREAT A NEW FEELING OF SPACEALUMIMIUM AND GLASS CREAT A NEW FEELING OF SPACETo create that special plus for a commercial building, the glass roof constructions canTo create that special plus for a commercial building, the glass roof constructions canprovide the desired effect. Spectacular skylights put the building and its appearance in theprovide the desired effect. Spectacular skylights put the building and its appearance in thebest light! Investment in structural image pays for itself many times over. By increasedbest light! Investment in structural image pays for itself many times over. By increasedcustomer attraction and thus higher turnover, combined with the fact that the cost factorcustomer attraction and thus higher turnover, combined with the fact that the cost factorfor glassfor glass--covered space is often lower than with conventional buildings of a comparablecovered space is often lower than with conventional buildings of a comparabletype.type.Architectural glass revolution makes shopping a real experience: After a fine renovation,Architectural glass revolution makes shopping a real experience: After a fine renovation,this department store now presents an excellent shopping area expected today in a majorthis department store now presents an excellent shopping area expected today in a majorcity. The journey by escalator from the basement to the glass. roof alone is an impressivecity. The journey by escalator from the basement to the glass. roof alone is an impressiveexperience for the customer. Even though the exterior surroundings are visibly enriched byexperience for the customer. Even though the exterior surroundings are visibly enriched bythe glass roof, the main intention was to provide a pleasing and exciting effect on thethe glass roof, the main intention was to provide a pleasing and exciting effect on theenvironment inside. This attractive improvement successfully lifts the shop above the level ofenvironment inside. This attractive improvement successfully lifts the shop above the level ofits competitors and puts new life into the traditional department store.its competitors and puts new life into the traditional department store.Pleasure in Buying andPleasure in Buying andDriving: Fine productsDriving: Fine productscan hardly be presentedcan hardly be presentedbetter. Under thisbetter. Under thistransparent rooftransparent roofstructure, quality carsstructure, quality carslike these con be seen tolike these con be seen totheir best effect.their best effect.Architecture whichArchitecture whichcaptures the attention:captures the attention:This glass pyramid hasThis glass pyramid hasbecome the outstandingbecome the outstandingfocus of a new displayfocus of a new displaycenter. The ventilationcenter. The ventilationflaps at the apex areflaps at the apex areparticularly intriguing.particularly intriguing.
EXPANDED SELLING AREA, INCREASED STYLE:EXPANDED SELLING AREA, INCREASED STYLE:GALLERIES AS AN INVITING FORM OF SHOP FRONTGALLERIES AS AN INVITING FORM OF SHOP FRONTShops and boutiques which are always in season. Even duringShops and boutiques which are always in season. Even duringtraditional "off season" times, these two shopping areas ore always fulltraditional "off season" times, these two shopping areas ore always fullof people. Glass roof constructions provide shelter from the elements: aof people. Glass roof constructions provide shelter from the elements: along ridged roof and a steep pyramid. Daylight and sunshine create along ridged roof and a steep pyramid. Daylight and sunshine create adelightfully pleasant atmosphere.delightfully pleasant atmosphere.These pictures show the answer for individual shops, but in supermarketThese pictures show the answer for individual shops, but in supermarketproportions. Substantial ports of the sales area hove been moved forwardproportions. Substantial ports of the sales area hove been moved forward -- in frontin frontof the building itselfof the building itself -- using long, gallery type forward structures. Designs like thisusing long, gallery type forward structures. Designs like thisore ideal for existing buildings because they substantially increase the sales area.ore ideal for existing buildings because they substantially increase the sales area.But even for new buildings this is a highly effective concept for sales promotion,But even for new buildings this is a highly effective concept for sales promotion,because the new, inviting shop fronts also become in effect large panoramic displaybecause the new, inviting shop fronts also become in effect large panoramic displaywindows.windows.A building whichA building whichadvertises itself. Thisadvertises itself. Thisannex, made ofannex, made ofaluminum and gloss,aluminum and gloss,gives a new look to agives a new look to abuilding that used to bebuilding that used to berather plain. Therather plain. Thetransparency of the gtransparency of the gass walls turns it into aass walls turns it into ahuge showroom whichhuge showroom whichadvertises itself.advertises itself.The supermarket withThe supermarket withthe two color effect. Darkthe two color effect. Darkbrown on the outside andbrown on the outside andfresh green on the insidefresh green on the inside-- plus the large area ofplus the large area ofglass. The supermarket,glass. The supermarket,which is also lit bywhich is also lit bysunlight, is a pleasingsunlight, is a pleasingcontrast to conventionalcontrast to conventionalhalls which are usuallyhalls which are usuallyenclosed and artificiallyenclosed and artificiallylit.lit.
The shopping center that customersThe shopping center that customersprefer. More and more people choose toprefer. More and more people choose toshop in high quality surroundings: withshop in high quality surroundings: withexciting impressions created by color,exciting impressions created by color,design and style adding to the pleasure.design and style adding to the pleasure.solar constructions createsolar constructions create the structuralthe structuralambience required to provide this. Theyambience required to provide this. Theylend buildings a new architecturallend buildings a new architecturalattraction, by way of glass coveredattraction, by way of glass coveredpassages, bays, arcades and galleries. Topassages, bays, arcades and galleries. Toprovide the exciting shoppingprovide the exciting shoppingenvironment for customers.environment for customers.An old shopping center shining in new found brilliance.An old shopping center shining in new found brilliance.Huge glass canopies in buildings and covering areas. The architectural expression of protectedHuge glass canopies in buildings and covering areas. The architectural expression of protectedhistoric buildings combined with new construction. Glasshistoric buildings combined with new construction. Glass--covered streets and passage ways joincovered streets and passage ways joinseparate areas of the city to form a unique center. Even when ifs raining you can always go onseparate areas of the city to form a unique center. Even when ifs raining you can always go onextended shopping trips.extended shopping trips.After completion, an old city center restructured in this way will have ten times the shop areaAfter completion, an old city center restructured in this way will have ten times the shop areaavailable than before. Even now, this unusual building attracts a growing number of delightedavailable than before. Even now, this unusual building attracts a growing number of delightedcustomers.customers.LUXURY SHOPPING PRECIENTS UNDER GLASSLUXURY SHOPPING PRECIENTS UNDER GLASS
SEASONAL GLORYSEASONAL GLORYAutumn leaves. But a maintenance headache? Not with the enclosed guest pool atAutumn leaves. But a maintenance headache? Not with the enclosed guest pool atthis Ontario hotel. IBG Canadas glass dome, mounted on anthis Ontario hotel. IBG Canadas glass dome, mounted on an 88--inch concrete curb,inch concrete curb,isis 6060 feet in diameter. Aluminum structural frame consists of square tubes.feet in diameter. Aluminum structural frame consists of square tubes.Project: Holiday Inn, FlemingdonProject: Holiday Inn, FlemingdonPark, TorontoPark, TorontoArchitect: Raymond MoriyamaArchitect: Raymond MoriyamaBURNISHEDBURNISHED BRIDGEBRIDGEBronzeBronze--tinted acrylic glazing and bronze anodized structural aluminum combinetinted acrylic glazing and bronze anodized structural aluminum combinewith the rich warmth of custom carpeting to stunning effect in thiswith the rich warmth of custom carpeting to stunning effect in this 128128--foot longfoot longcovered walkway at a Cyprus seaside hotel. IBG walkway system integratescovered walkway at a Cyprus seaside hotel. IBG walkway system integrateshemispherical BarrelVault and vertical wall.hemispherical BarrelVault and vertical wall.Project: Amathus Beach Hotel, Limassol, CyprusProject: Amathus Beach Hotel, Limassol, CyprusArchitect: The Architects Collaborative, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Colakides &Architect: The Architects Collaborative, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Colakides &Associates, Architectects, Limassol CyprusAssociates, Architectects, Limassol CyprusLUMINOUSLUMINOUSAfterAfter--dark dining and entertainment are made memorabledark dining and entertainment are made memorableby glowing colors, dramatic lighting effects, spiraling levelsby glowing colors, dramatic lighting effects, spiraling levelsof activity, lush interiorscaping, reflective pool andof activity, lush interiorscaping, reflective pool andfountain and a generous serving of Chicagos night sky.fountain and a generous serving of Chicagos night sky.Credit IBGCredit IBG 112112--foot byfoot by 118118--foot grid and gutter skylightfoot grid and gutter skylightand overhead glazing systems.and overhead glazing systems.Project: Hyatt Regency, ChicagoProject: Hyatt Regency, ChicagoArchitect: A. Epstein & Sons, Chicago.Architect: A. Epstein & Sons, Chicago.OVERHEAD GLAZING SYSTEMSOVERHEAD GLAZING SYSTEMS
edged frames–Linear and multi1-it takes big spans .2-the edges are being increased to have more resistance for the forces .
cables*its properties :1-it is not fixed , it can be put or removed any time.2-its shape changes with changing the loads on it .3-the most simple shapes of the ceilings consisting of cables ,some of them holed from the stressed columns and which able toresist buckling .4-cheap and light .5-the ceiling is made of heavy materials to avoid vibrationscaused by the wind .
Columns and beams1-columns are vertical units holding the beams .2-advantage of beams is its high resistance to the bending in case of wood ironand reinforced concrete .3-it is used in case of small spans .Using the columns and beams for thespace to hold the roof
Trusses1-it is used to increase spans it reaches 40 m .2-it is used in big span halls and it takes different geometrical shapes.3-it may be used also in cinemas and theaters , libraries entertainment .4-it may take several shapes ,curved or flat .
space frames1-it is used in covering space which contains several purposes .2-it may be flat ceilings or inclined to cover with glass the atrium spaces orspaces in the last floor of the building .3-it may continue in the walls to the ceilings and it plays a big role intechnologyUsing the frame structure to make skylight overthe atrium
shell structure.1-thin2-it takes large spansDomes : its shape shows its geometric properties
tent structured.1-light in its weight .2-used in different construction purpose3-it may cover hundreds of meter sewers4-it can be fixed by tension wires to resist the compression caused by winds5-it can be fixed the cradles.
pneumatic structures.1-it is not fixed2-it can be used and then we can get rid of it .3-light in its weight , easily transferred and cheep .4-used in temporarily stores and we can take it to spaceplatesfolded
continuous arches.1-it is used for transudation , public spaces and for commercial pursues andfor car parking covering .2-made from steel3-small resistance for it wasn’t treated by materials .
construction• The special difficulty is difference between .TH.requirements ofshops and for malls and courts ,the shapes requirements andservices will be different .offices ,car parking and otherconsiderations may affect structural system .Shop unit cosiderationneeds to be flexible in both size and use .The possibility of of futureexpansion must be considered .• Give vaariety of unit letting , for example an 11 m gridwill allow a permutation of frontages bet 3.7 and 5.5 and7.3 , but the longer the span the deeper the beam and thegreater required floor to floor height , front to back depthof the unit may vary bet 12 m and 36 m which will help todetermine the grid depth while allowing variation of unitplan shaped• KINDS OF CONSTRUCTIONS• Reinforced concrete and framed beam construction is prefrable toflat slab ,waffle or prestressed concrete .These suggest veryconsiderable problems when alterations are needed as precast andinfilled beam construction are easier to adapt than in stu systems.Remodelling is on 12 year cycle . Steel frame construction is anattractive alternative ,but needs careful programming and detailing.It is economical , flexible and easily erected ,but if concrete casingis required as fire protection it suffers wet trades ,shuttering,setting time ,additional loads and large members .Futuredeveloppments may include the use of site steel treated with acombined fire and corrusion protection system with hightemperature properties. Structural frame:in designing it frames and beams supportingparty walls between units should not be widerthan the walls they support as where hoists ,lifts staircases and escalators are required bytenants they are likely to be sited against theparty walls and will want flush verticalsurfaces to maximize use of shop width andavoid unusable floor areasCar parking gridconsideration:the determination of a suitable grid iscompliated where basement car parking is incorporated asan economical car park grid of 16 m . 19m is not compatiblewith shop dimensions , altering the grid at any level involvescomplicated construction wasteful in construction time ,beam depths and cost although pressure on this may bebrought on the developper by key tenants
• Floor height:• Floor - to - floor height large space users will want,say, 3.66m (12ft) minimum clear height withadequate depth, say, 1.2m (4 ft) between ceiling andstructure slab for ducting. Smaller units may preferlimited height, say, 3m (10ft) clear height, to avoidexcessive costs in heating/cooling, ventilation, and inmulti-level units to avoid unnecessary effort by staffor customers in vertical circulation.Dimensions ;gridsize must be related tostandard unit , dimensions givinga shop frontage centre line tocentre of bet 5 m to 6 m gives aworkable shop unit but a gridwidth as large as possible willCladding in finishes :two popular internal claddingtechniques are referred as finishes,they are glass reinforced gypsum andfibrous plaster. Other claddingmaterials as marble , brick , stone ,stainless steel , mirror tiles , faience ,mosaic …….ease and security offixing repair and replacement,cleaning methods , wearing qualitiesand aesthetic aspect need to beassessed•Columns grids:•the position of columns between mall and shops isimportant as already indicated. Columns do not necessarysarily have to be situated on the main shop front line,where they tend to restrict shop front design and the use ofindividual scale to express the large unit. If columns play asubsidiary role to the shop front they allow variety oftreatment and emphasise the individual retailer. If it isnecessary to place them on the shop front line they shouldreally be so restricted. It should be accepted that retailersmay like to express the size of their unit. A rigid verticalemphasis offers the danger of a monotony of treatment anda distorted scale.In single level trading it may be possible byproviding a height of 4 m (14 ft) floor to undersideof slab, to offer smaller units the facility ofmezzanine or balcony level storage or sales•Roof: I•f the roof are to be used the slab and finish will have to dedesigned accordingly. The construction on the roof ramps,and canopies and their finish is critical, as damage or waterpenetration requiring internal repair may involve heavyclaims. A maximum length between joints should be 150 m(500 tt). It may even be necessary to design to ‘fail - safe’standards involving gutters and evaporation trays underjoints.
• Glazing material : galzing method savry with theglazing material . Mateials available are plastic or glass.The preferred plastic id polycarbonate. On verticalsurfaces it can dish with unfortunate results and somerigorous conditions of temperature extremes maypreclude its use. Glass is a well tried material but heavierthan polycarbonate. Toughened glass is resistant totemperature variations and is less vulnerable in use thanlaminated glass, in single, double or triple glazing andsandwich form provide differing degrees of solar controland insulationFloor decks: floor decks on upper floors may becomecantilevered or edge-supported balconies possibly in a longopen mall connected by bridges. Upstand balconies or edgebeams may contribute to smoke control. If solid mall ceilingsare evisaged they may need to be a minimum of 1 m (3 ft 3 in.)higher than shop front opening to provide smoke reservoirs• Roof glazing: Roof design will relate to daylight provision - open,fully glazed, with or without translucent intermediate ceiling - clear storey,or solid with artificial lighting only. Areas of glazing, poses problems,where introducing daylight is dealt with here in some detail. Even wheremalls are provided with cooling, solar heat gain must be minimised, else itwill substantially add to maintenance costs and service charges. The taskis to provide adequate ventilation while preventing unwelcome solar gainand maintaining a comfortable temperature. The colour and type ofinternal finishes affecting the degree of radiation, galzing methods andmaterials. There are obviously physical design precautions which may betaken to avoid projecting excessive direct sunlight, heat and glare intovulnerable shopping areas. For example, limiting the amount of daylightto, say, 30% as of roofing - clear - storey glazing, protection of glazedareas from direct sunlight, the design profile configuration of the roof, theheight of walls and, of course, orientation.The ‘greenhouse effect’ is radiation from the sun in short - wave formpenetrates clear glass, will be absorbed by interior surfaces (and people)and reradiate in a longer wavelength which cannot penetrate backthrough the glass. Without some means of escape temperatures canrapidly escalate..A carefully designed ventilation system, forced or will help to disperse orremove excess heated air, and is likely to be.
Structure of glazing material: The usual glazingmethod is a mechanically restrained support system (such asaluminium patent glazing) transferred as necessary to structuralsupports, traditionally supported on two edges; this inevitablyresults in some air leakage. With improvement in glass technologylarger modules have facilitated four edge supports and a sealedsystem. But in the four - sided method retention of the glassdepends on the silicone quality and very rigorous.Safe and easy access must be available for cleaning and repair, soglazing should be fitted from the outside. Although carefuldetailing may ensure virtual self-cleansing externally, internalsurfaces will require periodic attention. Smoke venting must beallowed for and the roof construction kept as flexible as possible toallow for correct distribution of ventilation outlets. Whethernatural or powered, as well as for smoke vents.The floor construction generally must be sufficiently rigid andwith deflection so designed as not to affect finishes. All floors willneed to be waterproofed major enemy must be designed for withbest practice.Mall spans: mall spans may vary from 4.5m to 12 mfor major malls - centre courts wide span up to 21 m withsuitable support. Height will depend on the number ofstoreys.• Flooring : floor is the most vulnerable in terms of maintenance.Selection of flooring materials for malls is of major importance in anycentre. They are better designed in pattern and limited module size tofacilitate repair and avoid expansion and cracking.Granite, marble, clay tiles and terrazo have proved satisfactory finishesif correctly laid and jointed. In all cases cost of replacement andavailability of matching materials must be faced. Is the floor to be fixedor floating? USA practice tends to be to machine bond to the screedwhich is laid on polythene sheet taped and sealed at joints, on a loosesand bed 5 mm (1/5 in.) thick minimum, the slab being finished with atampedceramic tiles tend to have wide joints.Floors must not be slippery. Protective matting at enterances will avoidadditional hazard on wet days. Colour is important. Pattern and colourcan be used with imagination to identify circulation routes• Wall finishes :Walls vulnerable to the public, such as toilets,telephone kiosks, etc. must be graffiti-deterrent at least for a height of2.9 to 3 m (9 ft 6 in. to 10 ft). Hard, easy- clean, durable surfaces, suchas glazed tile, melamine and terrazzo, are preferable.Painted surface will, however, need the discipline of regular periodicrepainting to be considered in terms of accessibility, disturbance andcost.• Ceiling finishes: need to be chosen in relation to many factorsboth aesthetic and practical. They may be open or sealed. The methodand type of lighting will also affect ceiling design, of which it is a part.The reflective properties as well as colour of any ceiling or soffit willcontribute positively to overall appearance.• Machanical and electrical services: the extent, qualitymethod and system of providing environmental control to the shoppingcentre is of prime importance.
• Finishes : Selection of external finishes part of aesthetics. In UKlightweight cladding systems may be acceptable in greenfield sites but lesslikely in established urban communities, external facing materials must bedurable and maintenance - free - and present an image of permanence andquality. Climatic conditions and weathering must be taken into account inselection, where natural lighting is to be introduced selecting transparentor translucent material - glass or its substitute, and factors which must betaken into account are quality of light, penetration, fire resistance andaccessibility for regular cleaning.An attractive and striking appearance of the centre is to be aimed at.St. Enoch’s Square Development, Glasgow:unique project, Adequate allocation of cost for high quality constructionand elevational design, both externally and internally, as justified on thegrounds of low maintenance and of publicity and attraction of theshopper, must be accepted.Malls, consequently, are the major coordinating design feature of thecentre, and require utmost skill and care in development, design andfinish. Fire precautions, will be restricting and finishing materials in theUK.A shopping centre endures intensive use with very fast and intensivethroughput of user. Materials to provide minimum maintenance,durability, and certainly high quality standards are essential in publicareas malls, car parks, etc.A permanent building of civic significance within Glasgow’s vigorousengineering tradition, allowing internal flexibility without affectingplanning approval.Energy conservation is becoming a major issue in construction,overheating is a constant problem in shop design.The acoustic effect of all finishes taken together must be carefullyassessed; a certain modicum of background noise is a necessary adjunct toa shopping centre in order to give a feeling of ‘busyness’ and activity. Butexcessive noise of echo caused by interaction of reflective surfaces isdistracting and there is a need for clarity and audibility of public address.
Constructions & Finishes ofFirst MallGlass handrail framed by wooden frameMarble floor finishesBeam & column concrete constructionis shownColumn grid in the parking areaInterior view of constructionGlazing skylight constructed on aconcrete ceiling
CarCar ParksParksStandard designStandard designcarcar::L AL A 4750 55004750 5500W BW B 1800 20301800 2030H CH C 1700 1631700 163Door opening clearance DDoor opening clearance D 500500Wheel base (worst cases) EWheel base (worst cases) E 2900 32502900 3250FF 900 890900 890GG 1100 13501100 1350Turning circle (dia)Turning circle (dia)Kerb HKerb H 13000 655013000 6550Wall JWall J 14000 701014000 7010Ground clearance KGround clearance K 100 1220100 1220Parking:Parking:9090 parkingparkingA B C DA B C DIn bldgIn bldg 3000 4600 2300 32603000 4600 2300 3260In openIn open 3390 5500 2400 38903390 5500 2400 3890E FE FIn bldgIn bldg 5000 28005000 2800In openIn open 5500 28005500 2800--300030004545 parkingparkingB C FB C FIn bldgIn bldg 4600 2300 60004600 2300 6000In openIn open 5500 2400 61005500 2400 6100--67006700Parallel parkingParallel parkingA B CA B CIn bldgIn bldg 5800 4600 22005800 4600 2200--23002300In openIn open 61006100--6700 5500 24006700 5500 2400
Desirable parking area=Desirable parking area=00..55--11% of population of whole built% of population of whole built--up areaup areaParking Lanes:Parking Lanes:Gap between end of parking lane & bldg line >Gap between end of parking lane & bldg line > 60006000,, 1000010000preferred.preferred.Safety stripsSafety strips 500500 wide recommended between parking lanes &wide recommended between parking lanes &moving traffic.moving traffic.Circulation:Circulation:ArrangementArrangementfor narrow sitefor narrow siteRoad at angle givesRoad at angle giveseconomical use of space foreconomical use of space fordifferent car sizes, savesdifferent car sizes, savesapproxapprox 1010% floor ar% floor arPopulation:Population:9090 parking for trucksparking for trucks4545 parking forparking forlarge carslarge carsreversingreversing4545 parkingparkingfor mediumfor mediumcarscarsreversingreversing4545 drivedrive--throughthroughparking forparking formedium tomedium tosmall carssmall cars(no(noreversing)reversing)4545 drivedrive--throughthroughparkingparkingfor largefor largecars (nocars (noreversingreversing
Turning dimensions:Turning dimensions:U drive diagram with table ofU drive diagram with table ofturning dimensionsturning dimensionsVehicle R RVehicle R R11 T D CT D CSmall carSmall car 66..05 305 3..28 328 3..7 37 3..05 005 0..1515Standard carStandard car 66..83 383 3..84 484 4..57 357 3..4 04 0..22Large carLarge car 77..01 301 3..84 484 4..57 357 3..66 066 0..2323AmbulanceAmbulance 99..14 514 5..72 772 7..62 462 4..04 004 0..33Circular drivewaysCircular drivewaysMinimum values: R=Minimum values: R=2929’’--00” ,” ,W=W=1111’’--00”, r=”, r=1818’’--00””Formula: H=square rootFormula: H=square root(G((G(22R+R+22rr--G)), in which G=RG)), in which G=R--11//22WWLandings & easingLandings & easingMinimum valuesMinimum valuesR=R=2929’’--00”, r=”, r=1818’’--00”, W=”, W=1111’’--00””K M K MK M K M7474’’--44”” 0 770 77’’--00”” 1515’’--1010””7575’’--00”” 88’’--00”” 7878’’--00”” 1818’’--88””7676’’--00”” 1212’’--11”” 7979’’--00”” 2121’’--22””8080’’--00”” 2323’’--55””Elliptical drivewaysElliptical drivewaysFormula:Formula:H’=square root (G(H’=square root (G(22R’+R’+22r’r’--G)G)--(w’+r’(w’+r’--Q’) in which G=r’+Q’) in which G=r’+11//22(L+W’)(L+W’)R”=(g square +h square)/R”=(g square +h square)/22gg ––R’ inR’ inwhich g=R’+which g=R’+11//22(L(L--W’, h=H’+R’W’, h=H’+R’--QQMinimum values:Minimum values:P=P=4848’’--00” R’=” R’=6060’’--00””Q=Q=3636’’--00” W’=” W’=99’’--66””R=R=3030’’--00” W=” W=1111’’--00””r=r=1919’’--00” r’=” r’=4444’’--44””r”=r”=4949’’77””
LandingsLandingsMinimum valuesMinimum valuesR=R=2929’’--00”, W=”, W=1111’’--00”, r=”, r=1818’’--00””Compound curvesCompound curvesMinimum valuesMinimum valuesP=P=4848’’--00” Q=” Q=3636’’--00””R=R=3030’’--00” R’=” R’=6060’’--00””W’=W’=99’’--66” W=” W=1111’’--00””R=R=1919’’--00” r’=” r’=4444’’--44””Multi storey garages:Multi storey garages:The following must be provided :The following must be provided :11-- Elevators for rapid ascending & descending ofElevators for rapid ascending & descending ofcars & personscars & persons22-- staircases for people ascending & escapingstaircases for people ascending & escaping33-- Security rooms on entrances to inspect the cars &Security rooms on entrances to inspect the cars &changer on the existchanger on the exist44-- Elevators & escalators directly to the high floorsElevators & escalators directly to the high floors55-- Upwards for ascending & others for descending,Upwards for ascending & others for descending,straight or circlestraight or circleNote:Note:Among the probabilities which faced great success was theAmong the probabilities which faced great success was thejoint buildings of garages with the commercialjoint buildings of garages with the commercial centers ofcenters ofmulti floors so as each floor leads to a garage &to a similarmulti floors so as each floor leads to a garage &to a similarused floor taking into consideration the arrangementused floor taking into consideration the arrangementbetween the slabs, as result of height differences, bybetween the slabs, as result of height differences, byproviding internal staircasesproviding internal staircasesRatio of parking area to gross floorRatio of parking area to gross floorarea:area:Shopping centersShopping centers 22..00--22..33Clean height :Clean height :For aboutFor about 33mmEntranceEntrance::Width for separated entrance & exit >Width for separated entrance & exit >22..44mmWidth for common entrance & exit >Width for common entrance & exit >44..88mmBarrier capacity:Barrier capacity:Entry barrierEntry barrier 400400 vehicle / hrvehicle / hrExit barrierExit barrierLighting:Lighting:Mean service illumination for public should be (lx):Mean service illumination for public should be (lx):Parking areasParking areas 2020 roofroof 2020DrivewaysDriveways 5050 entrance &exitentrance &exit 150150RampsRamps 7070
RampsRamps ::Ramp slopes ( transitions are required only if rampRamp slopes ( transitions are required only if rampslope exceedsslope exceeds 1010% )% )Driveway exitsDriveway exitsTypes of rampsTypes of ramps ::Minimum site widthMinimum site widthrequired for a ramprequired for a rampgarage isgarage is 100100 toto 110110 ftftThe diameter of the rampThe diameter of the rampis controlled by theis controlled by therequired turning radius : arequired turning radius : aminimum ofminimum of 4545ftft
Circle descending ( cottonCircle descending ( cottonstock market in Alexandria )stock market in Alexandria )Ascending slabs system (Ascending slabs system (opera garage )opera garage )Diversified levels slabs allowsDiversified levels slabs allowshorizontal waitinghorizontal waitingDouble and mid crossingDouble and mid crossingdescendingdescendingDescending slabs on anDescending slabs on anadditional crossing in theadditional crossing in themiddlemiddleAscending upwardsAscending upwardsand other descendingand other descendingfrom one sidefrom one side
Multi floor garage with two circleMulti floor garage with two circleinterfere descending and by theinterfere descending and by theseparation between ascending andseparation between ascending anddescendingdescendingMulti floor garage with twoMulti floor garage with twoseparate circle descending , one isseparate circle descending , one isup and other is down .up and other is down .ElevatorsElevatorsForFor 3030 lotslots 3333mmForFor 5050 lotslots 5555mmForFor 6060 lotslots 6666mmFor smaller radius of ramp itsFor smaller radius of ramp itswidth must be widerwidth must be wider11-- diameterdiameter 99..22mm22-- diameterdiameter 1313..33mmSeparating the up and down by twoSeparating the up and down by twodescending , the difference betweendescending , the difference betweenthem in the level is one floorthem in the level is one floorSeparating the up and down with twoSeparating the up and down with twodescending with both sides of thedescending with both sides of thegaragegarage
Examples :Examples :11-- The ramps , situated in opposite corners , are angled to facilitateThe ramps , situated in opposite corners , are angled to facilitatethe movement from the floors to the rampsthe movement from the floors to the ramps22-- entrance and exits have been provided on two streets on separateentrance and exits have been provided on two streets on separatelevelslevels11-- The overall dimensions of theThe overall dimensions of the 352352 space facility arespace facility are 120120 byby240240 ft .ft . 9090degree parkingdegree parking22-- the stairs and elevators location is to afford minimumthe stairs and elevators location is to afford minimumwalking distanceswalking distancesMain floorMain floor Main floorMain floorTypical floorTypical floor Typical floorTypical floorFunctional plan for twin spiral garageFunctional plan for twin spiral garage Functional plan for staggered floor garageFunctional plan for staggered floor garageSection ASection A--A’A’
11-- the garage has one way aislesthe garage has one way aisles22-- the entrance and exit were on the same street , they arethe entrance and exit were on the same street , they arewidely separated to reduce conflicts .widely separated to reduce conflicts .33-- the overall dimensions of the facility arethe overall dimensions of the facility are 183183 byby 165165 ftft44-- in a sloping floor or continues ramp garage , the aislesin a sloping floor or continues ramp garage , the aislesserve two purposes : axis to the parking stalls , and floor toserve two purposes : axis to the parking stalls , and floor tofloor Circulationfloor CirculationOne pedestrian elevator and three stair ways have beenOne pedestrian elevator and three stair ways have beenprovided for the five level facilityprovided for the five level facilityMain floorMain floorTypical floorTypical floorTypical floorTypical floorMain floorMain floorFunctional plan for straight ramp garageFunctional plan for straight ramp garageSection ASection A--A’A’Functional plan for sloping floor garageFunctional plan for sloping floor garageSection ASection A--A’A’
Under black car park Geneva SwitzerlandUnder black car park Geneva SwitzerlandDesign C ZschokkeDesign C ZschokkeSectionSectionPlan of fist floorPlan of fist floorMulti floors garages with two continuous descendingMulti floors garages with two continuous descendingoutside the building , one descending and the otheroutside the building , one descending and the otherascendingascendingLuckhertd , AnkerLuckhertd , Anker140140 place for each floorplace for each floorEsleben SchneiderEsleben SchneiderGarage in DusseldorfGarage in DusseldorfCars enter different floor by outside ramps and thereCars enter different floor by outside ramps and thereis maintenance for cars in the ground flooris maintenance for cars in the ground floor
FalcontFalcont –– Paris garageParis garageRomeRomeDouble spiral ascending ramps in the centerDouble spiral ascending ramps in the center
The relation between the location of the garageThe relation between the location of the garageand the rest of the building :and the rest of the building :