16-1
Part Four                        ANALYSIS AND                    PRESENTATION OF DATA 16-2McGraw-Hill/Irwin             © ...
Chapter Sixteen       EXPLORING, DISPLAYING,        AND EXAMINING DATA16-3
Types of Data Analysis       • Exploratory data analysis         – the data guide the choice of analysis--or a           r...
Techniques to Display             and Examine Distributions       • Frequency Table       • Visual Displays         – Hist...
Techniques to Display             and Examine Distributions       • Histograms         – Display all intervals in a distri...
Techniques to Display          and Examine Distributions (cont.)       • Box-plot (box and whisker-plot)         – Rectang...
Techniques to Display          and Examine Distributions (cont.)       • Transformation         – To improve interpretatio...
Improvement & Control Analysis       • Statistical process control         – Uses statistical tools to analyze, monitor,  ...
Types of Control Charts        • Variables data          (ratio or interval measurements)          – X-bar          – R-ch...
Geographic Information Systems        • Systems of hardware, software, and          procedures that capture, store,       ...
Geographic Information Systems        • Minimum four components          – Integrating information from various           ...
Crosstabulation        • A technique for comparing two          classification variables          – Cells          – Margi...
Percentaging Errors        • Averaging percentages without          weighting        • Using too-large percentages (>100%)...
Other Table-based Analysis        • Automatic Interaction Detection (AID)          – Sequential partitioning procedure tha...
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Business Research Methods Chap016

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Business Research Methods Chap016

  1. 1. 16-1
  2. 2. Part Four ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF DATA 16-2McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Chapter Sixteen EXPLORING, DISPLAYING, AND EXAMINING DATA16-3
  4. 4. Types of Data Analysis • Exploratory data analysis – the data guide the choice of analysis--or a revision of the planned analysis • Confirmatory data analysis – closer to classical statistical inference in its use of significance and confidence – may use information from a closely related data set or by validating findings through the gathering and analyzing of new data16-4
  5. 5. Techniques to Display and Examine Distributions • Frequency Table • Visual Displays – Histograms – Stem-and-leaf display – Box-plot • Crosstabulation of Variables16-5
  6. 6. Techniques to Display and Examine Distributions • Histograms – Display all intervals in a distribution, even without observed values – Examine the shape of the distribution for skewness, kurtosis, and the modal pattern16-6
  7. 7. Techniques to Display and Examine Distributions (cont.) • Box-plot (box and whisker-plot) – Rectangular plot encompasses 50% of the data values • Edges of the box (hinges) – Center line through the width of the box marks the median – Whiskers extend from the right and left hinges to the largest and smallest values16-7
  8. 8. Techniques to Display and Examine Distributions (cont.) • Transformation – To improve interpretation and compatibility with other data sets – To enhance symmetry and stabilize spread – To improve linear relationships between and among variables16-8
  9. 9. Improvement & Control Analysis • Statistical process control – Uses statistical tools to analyze, monitor, and improve process performance – Total Quality Management – Control chart • Displays sequential measurements of a process together with a center line and control limits – Upper control limit – Lower control limit16-9
  10. 10. Types of Control Charts • Variables data (ratio or interval measurements) – X-bar – R-charts – s-charts – Pareto Diagrams • Bar chart whose percentages sum to 100 percent16-10
  11. 11. Geographic Information Systems • Systems of hardware, software, and procedures that capture, store, manipulate, integrate, and display spatially-referenced data16-11
  12. 12. Geographic Information Systems • Minimum four components – Integrating information from various sources – Capturing data – Projection and restructuring – Modeling16-12
  13. 13. Crosstabulation • A technique for comparing two classification variables – Cells – Marginals – Contingency tables16-13
  14. 14. Percentaging Errors • Averaging percentages without weighting • Using too-large percentages (>100%) • Using percentage with very small sample • Citing percentage decrease exceeding 100 percent16-14
  15. 15. Other Table-based Analysis • Automatic Interaction Detection (AID) – Sequential partitioning procedure that uses a dependent variable and set of predictors – Searches among up to 300 variables for the best single division of data into subsets according to each predictor variable, – Chooses one division approach – Splits the sample using chi-square tests to create multi-way splits.16-15

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