13-1
Part Three                      SOURCES AND                    COLLECTION OF DATA 13-2McGraw-Hill/Irwin           © 2003 T...
Chapter Thirteen       OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES13-3
Observation       • Nonbehavioral observation       • Behavioral observation13-4
Observation       Nonbehavioral observation       • Record analysis       • Physical condition analysis       • Process or...
Observation       Behavioral observation       • Nonverbal analysis       • Linguistic analysis       • Extralinguistic an...
Advantages of the Observational Method       • Collect the original data at the time it         occurs       • Secure info...
Advantages of the Observational Method                          (cont.)       • Capture the whole event as it occurs in   ...
Limitations of the Observational Method       • Observer or recording equipment must         be at the scene of the event ...
Limitations of the Observational Method (cont.)        • Research environment is more likely          suited to subjective...
Relationship between               Observer and Participant        • Direct or indirect observation        • Observer’s pr...
Observation Methods        •   Direct        •   Indirect        •   Participant        •   Simple        •   Systematic13...
Guidelines for Selecting Observers        • Ability to concentrate in a setting full of          distractions        • Abi...
Observation Data Collection        • Who        • What          – Event Sampling          – Time Sampling        • When   ...
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Business Research Methods Chap013

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Business Research Methods Chap013

  1. 1. 13-1
  2. 2. Part Three SOURCES AND COLLECTION OF DATA 13-2McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Chapter Thirteen OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES13-3
  4. 4. Observation • Nonbehavioral observation • Behavioral observation13-4
  5. 5. Observation Nonbehavioral observation • Record analysis • Physical condition analysis • Process or activity analysis13-5
  6. 6. Observation Behavioral observation • Nonverbal analysis • Linguistic analysis • Extralinguistic analysis • Spatial analysis13-6
  7. 7. Advantages of the Observational Method • Collect the original data at the time it occurs • Secure information that participants would ignore because it’s so common it is not seen as relevant • Only method available to collect certain types of data13-7
  8. 8. Advantages of the Observational Method (cont.) • Capture the whole event as it occurs in its natural environment • Participants seem to accept an observational intrusion better than they respond to questioning13-8
  9. 9. Limitations of the Observational Method • Observer or recording equipment must be at the scene of the event when it takes place • Slow process • Expensive process • Most reliable results are restricted to information that can be learned by overt action or surface indicators13-9
  10. 10. Limitations of the Observational Method (cont.) • Research environment is more likely suited to subjective assessment and recording of data than to quantification of events • Limited as a way to learn about the past • Cannot observe rationale for actions, only actions themselves13-10
  11. 11. Relationship between Observer and Participant • Direct or indirect observation • Observer’s presence known or unknown to the participant • Observer is involved or not involved with the participant13-11
  12. 12. Observation Methods • Direct • Indirect • Participant • Simple • Systematic13-12
  13. 13. Guidelines for Selecting Observers • Ability to concentrate in a setting full of distractions • Ability to remember details of an experience • Ability to be unobtrusive in the observational situation • Ability to extract the most from an observational study13-13
  14. 14. Observation Data Collection • Who • What – Event Sampling – Time Sampling • When • How • Where13-14
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