MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIAIntegrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools          Curriculum Specifications              ...
Copyright © 2002 by Ministry of Education MalaysiaCopyright reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or util...
TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                            PageTHEME:    INTRODUCING SCIENCE    Learning...
THE NATIONAL PHILOSOPHYOur nation Malaysia is dedicated to achieving a greater unity for all her peoples; maintaining a de...
NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATIONEducation in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential of individual...
NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY   In consonance with the National Education Philosophy,            science education...
PREFACEThe aspiration of the nation to become an industrialised             In a recent development, the Government has ma...
INTRODUCTION        As articulated in the National Education Policy,             science, innovative, and able to apply sc...
AIMSThe aims of the science curriculum for secondary school are to   5.     Face challenges in the scientific and technolo...
SCIENTIFIC SKILLS                                                                     Inferring           Using      past ...
Manipulative SkillsDefining        Defining all variables as they areOperationally   used in the experiment by            ...
Thinking skills can be categorised into critical thinking skills and   Sequencing       Arranging      objects    andcreat...
Creative Thinking SkillsA brief description of each creative thinking skill is as follows:   Synthesising       Combining ...
Thinking StrategyDescription of each thinking strategy is as follows:               Mastering of thinking skills and think...
Figure 1 : TSTS Model in Science                        Thinking Skills                              manner. It is a menta...
Teaching and Learning based on Thinking SkillsScience Process Skills   Thinking Skills             and Scientific SkillsUs...
SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLE VALUES                                                                        Giving emphas...
Practise reducing the use, reusing     TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES                            and recycling of materi...
skills and scientific skills are thus developed further during the   Contextual Learninginquiry process. However, the inqu...
need to be aware of the multiple intelligences that exist among     should provide students with the opportunities to desi...
report, an artefact or in other forms needs to be presented to        The use of other tools such as data loggers and comp...
avoid employing a teaching strategy that tries to achieve eachlearning outcome separately according to the order stated in...
THEME:            INTRODUCING SCIENCELearning Area:         1. Introduction to Science  Learning                    Sugges...
Learning              Suggested Learning Activities      Learning Outcomes         Notes                   VocabularyObjec...
Learning                  Suggested Learning Activities                 Learning Outcomes                  Notes          ...
Learning                 Suggested Learning Activities                Learning Outcomes                   Notes           ...
Learning                  Suggested Learning Activities               Learning Outcomes                   Notes           ...
Learning              Suggested Learning Activities      Learning Outcomes   Notes   VocabularyObjectives             stan...
THEME:          MAN AND THE VARIETY OF LIVING THINGSLearning Area:        1. Cell as a Unit of Life  Learning             ...
Learning                   Suggested Learning Activities               Learning Outcomes                     Notes        ...
Learning                  Suggested Learning Activities            Learning Outcomes          Notes         Vocabulary  Ob...
THEME:          MATTER IN NATURELearning Area:        1. Matter  Learning                   Suggested Learning Activities ...
Learning                  Suggested Learning Activities                 Learning Outcomes                     Notes       ...
Learning Area:       2. The Variety of Resources on Earth  Learning                  Suggested Learning Activities        ...
Learning                  Suggested Learning Activities                Learning Outcomes               Notes          Voca...
Learning              Suggested Learning Activities       Learning Outcomes   Notes   VocabularyObjectives             Car...
Learning Area:        3. The Air Around Us  Learning                   Suggested Learning Activities             Learning ...
Learning                 Suggested Learning Activities                Learning Outcomes              Notes          Vocabu...
Learning                  Suggested Learning Activities               Learning Outcomes                       Notes       ...
Learning                   Suggested Learning Activities               Learning Outcomes               Notes          Voca...
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  1. 1. MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIAIntegrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools Curriculum Specifications SCIENCE Form 1 Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia 2002
  2. 2. Copyright © 2002 by Ministry of Education MalaysiaCopyright reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilization of this work in any form orby any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, includingphotocopying, and recording is forbidden without the prior written permission from the Director of theCurriculum Development Centre, Ministry of Education Malaysia. i
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS PageTHEME: INTRODUCING SCIENCE Learning Area: 1. Introduction to Science 3THEME: MAN AND THE VARIETY OF LIVING THINGS Learning Area: 1. Cell as a Unit of Life 9THEME: MATTER IN NATURE Learning Area: 1. Matter 12 Learning Area: 2. The Variety of Resources on Earth 14 Learning Area: 3. The Air Around Us 17THEME: ENERGY Learning Area: 1. Sources of Energy 21 Learning Area: 2. Heat 23 ii
  4. 4. THE NATIONAL PHILOSOPHYOur nation Malaysia is dedicated to achieving a greater unity for all her peoples; maintaining a democratic way oflife; creating a just society in which the wealth of the nation shall be equitably distributed; ensuring a liberalapproach to her rich and diverse cultural traditions; building a progressive society, orientated towards modernscience and technology;The people of Malaysia pledge their united efforts to attain these ends guided by the following principles:BELIEF IN GODLOYALTY TO KING AND COUNTRYSUPREMACY OF CONSTITUTIONRULE OF LAWMUTUAL RESPECT AND GOOD SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR iii
  5. 5. NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATIONEducation in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential of individuals in a holistic andintegrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physicallybalanced and harmonious based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produceMalaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who areresponsible and capable of achieving a high level of personal well being as well as being able to contribute to theharmony and betterment of the family, society and the nation at large. iv
  6. 6. NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY In consonance with the National Education Philosophy, science education in Malaysia nurtures a Science and Technology Culture by focusing on the development of individuals who are competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient and ableto master scientific knowledge and technological competency. v
  7. 7. PREFACEThe aspiration of the nation to become an industrialised In a recent development, the Government has made asociety depends on science and technology. It is envisaged decision to introduce English as the medium of instruction inthat success in providing quality science education to the teaching and learning of science and mathematics. ThisMalaysians from an early age will serve to spearhead the measure will enable students to keep abreast of developmentsnation into becoming a knowledge society and a competitive in science and technology in contemporary society byplayer in the global arena. Towards this end, the Malaysian enhancing their capability and know-how to tap the diverseeducation system is giving greater emphasis to science and sources of information on science written in the Englishmathematics education. language. At the same time, this move would also provide opportunities for students to use the English language andThe Science curriculum has been designed not only to provide hence, increase their proficiency in the language. Thus, inopportunities for students to acquire science knowledge and implementing the science curriculum, attention is given toskills, develop thinking skills and thinking strategies, and to developing students’ ability to use English for study andapply this knowledge and skills in everyday life, but also to communication, especially in the early years of learning.inculcate in them noble values and the spirit of patriotism. It ishoped that the educational process en route to achieving The development of this curriculum and the preparation of thethese aims would produce well-balanced citizens capable of corresponding Curriculum Specifications have been the workcontributing to the harmony and prosperity of the nation and its of many individuals over a period of time. To all those whopeople. have contributed in one way or another to this effort, may I, on behalf of the Ministry of Education, express my sincereThe Science curriculum aims at producing active learners. To gratitude and thanks for the time and labour expended.this end, students are given ample opportunities to engage inscientific investigations through hands-on activities andexperimentations. The inquiry approach, incorporating thinkingskills, thinking strategies and thoughtful learning, should be (Dr. SHARIFAH MAIMUNAH SYED ZIN)emphasised throughout the teaching-learning process. The Directorcontent and contexts suggested are chosen based on their Curriculum Development Centrerelevance and appeal to students so that their interest in the Ministry of Education Malaysiasubject is enhanced. vi
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION As articulated in the National Education Policy, science, innovative, and able to apply scientific knowledge ineducation in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards developing decision-making and problem solving in everyday life.the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated mannerto produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, The elective science subjects prepare students whoemotionally and physically balanced and harmonious. The are more scientifically inclined to pursue the study of scienceprimary and secondary school science curriculum is developed at post-secondary level. This group of students would take upwith the aim of producing such individuals. careers in the field of science and technology and play a leading role in this field for national development. As a nation that is progressing towards a developednation status, Malaysia needs to create a society that is For every science subject, the curriculum for the year isscientifically oriented, progressive, knowledgeable, having a articulated in two documents: the syllabus and the curriculumhigh capacity for change, forward-looking, innovative and a specifications. The syllabus presents the aims, objectives andcontributor to scientific and technological developments in the the outline of the curriculum content for a period of 2 years forfuture. In line with this, there is a need to produce citizens who elective science subjects and 5 years for core scienceare creative, critical, inquisitive, open-minded and competent subjects. The curriculum specifications provide the details ofin science and technology. the curriculum which includes the aims and objectives of the curriculum, brief descriptions on thinking skills and thinking The Malaysian science curriculum comprises three strategies, scientific skills, scientific attitudes and noble values,core science subjects and four elective science subjects. The teaching and learning strategies, and curriculum content. Thecore subjects are Science at primary school level, Science at curriculum content provides the learning objectives, suggestedlower secondary level and Science at upper secondary level. learning activities, the intended learning outcomes, andElective science subjects are offered at the upper secondary vocabulary.level and consist of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, andAdditional Science. The core science subjects for the primary and lowersecondary levels are designed to provide students with basicscience knowledge, prepare students to be literate in science,and enable students to continue their science education at theupper secondary level. Core Science at the upper secondarylevel is designed to produce students who are literate in 1
  9. 9. AIMSThe aims of the science curriculum for secondary school are to 5. Face challenges in the scientific and technological worldprovide students with the knowledge and skills in science and and be willing to contribute towards the development of sciencetechnology and enable them to solve problems and make and technology.decisions in everyday life based on scientific attitudes andnoble values. 6. Evaluate science- and technology-related information wisely and effectively.Students who have followed the secondary science curriculumwill have the foundation in science to enable them to pursue 7. Practise and internalise scientific attitudes and goodformal and informal further education in science and moral values.technology. 8. Realise the importance of inter-dependence amongThe curriculum also aims to develop a concerned, dynamic and living things and the management of nature for survival ofprogressive society with a science and technology culture that mankind.values nature and works towards the preservation andconservation of the environment. 9. Appreciate the contributions of science and technology towards national development and the well-being of mankind.OBJECTIVES 10. Realise that scientific discoveries are the result of human endeavour to the best of his or her intellectual and mental capabilities to understand natural phenomena for theThe science curriculum for secondary school enables students betterment of mankind.to: 11. Create awareness on the need to love and care for the1. Acquire knowledge in science and technology in the environment and play an active role in its preservation andcontext of natural phenomena and everyday life experiences. conservation.2. Understand developments in the field of science andtechnology.3. Acquire scientific and thinking skills.4. Apply knowledge and skills in a creative and criticalmanner for problem solving and decision-making. 2
  10. 10. SCIENTIFIC SKILLS Inferring Using past experiences or previously collected data to draw conclusions and make explanationsScience emphasises inquiry and problem solving. In inquiry and of events.problem solving processes, scientific and thinking skills areutilised. Scientific skills are important in any scientificinvestigation such as conducting experiments and carrying out Predicting Stating the outcome of a futureprojects. event based on prior knowledge gained through experiences orScientific skills encompass science process skills and collected data.manipulative skills.Science Process Skills Communicating Using words or graphic symbols such as tables, graphs, figures orScience process skills enable students to formulate their models to describe an action, objectquestions and find out the answers systematically. or event.Descriptions of the science process skills are as follows: Using Space- Describing changes in parameterObserving Using the sense of hearing, touch, Time with time. Examples of parameters smell, taste and sight to collect Relationship are location, direction, shape, size, information about an object or a volume, weight and mass. phenomenon. Interpreting Data Giving rational explanations aboutClassifying Using observations to group an object, event or pattern derived objects or events according to from collected data. similarities or differences.Measuring and Making quantitative observationsUsing using numbers and tools withNumbers standardised units. Measuring makes observation more accurate. 2
  11. 11. Manipulative SkillsDefining Defining all variables as they areOperationally used in the experiment by Manipulative skills in scientific investigation are psychomotor describing what must be done and skills that enable students to: what should be observed. Use and handle science apparatus and laboratory substances correctly.Controlling Identifying the fixed variable, Handle specimens correctly and carefully.Variables manipulated variable, and Draw specimens, apparatus and laboratory substances responding variable in an accurately. investigation. The manipulated Clean science apparatus correctly, and variable is changed to observe its Store science apparatus and laboratory substances relationship with the responding correctly and safely. variable. At the same time, the fixed variable is kept constant. THINKING SKILLSHypothesising Making a general statement about the relationship between a Thinking is a mental process that requires an individual to manipulated variable and a integrate knowledge, skills and attitude in an effort to responding variable in order to understand the environment. explain an event or observation. This statement can be tested to One of the objectives of the national education system is to determine its validity. enhance the thinking ability of students. This objective can be achieved through a curriculum that emphasises thoughtful learning. Teaching and learning that emphasises thinking skillsExperimenting Planning and conducting activities is a foundation for thoughtful learning. to test a certain hypothesis. These activities include collecting, Thoughtful learning is achieved if students are actively involved analysing and interpreting data and in the teaching and learning process. Activities should be making conclusions. organised to provide opportunities for students to apply thinking skills in conceptualisation, problem solving and decision- making. 3
  12. 12. Thinking skills can be categorised into critical thinking skills and Sequencing Arranging objects andcreative thinking skills. A person who thinks critically always information in order based onevaluates an idea in a systematic manner before accepting it. A the quality or quantity ofperson who thinks creatively has a high level of imagination, is common characteristics orable to generate original and innovative ideas, and modify features such as size, time,ideas and products. shape or number.Thinking strategies are higher order thinking processes thatinvolve various steps. Each step involves various critical and Prioritising Arranging objects andcreative thinking skills. The ability to formulate thinking information in order based onstrategies is the ultimate aim of introducing thinking activities in their importance or priority.the teaching and learning process. Analysing Examining information in detailCritical Thinking Skills by breaking it down into smaller parts to find implicitA brief description of each critical thinking skill is as follows: meaning and relationships. Attributing Identifying criteria such as Detecting Bias Identifying views or opinions characteristics, features, that have the tendency to qualities and elements of a support or oppose something concept or an object. in an unfair or misleading way. Comparing and Finding similarities and Contrasting differences based on criteria Evaluating Making judgements on the such as characteristics, quality or value of something features, qualities and based on valid reasons or elements of a concept or evidence. event. Grouping and Separating and grouping Making Making a statement about the Classifying objects or phenomena into Conclusions outcome of an investigation categories based on certain that is based on a hypothesis. criteria such as common characteristics or features. 4
  13. 13. Creative Thinking SkillsA brief description of each creative thinking skill is as follows: Synthesising Combining separate elements or parts to form a general Generating Ideas Producing or giving ideas in a picture in various forms such discussion. as writing, drawing or artefact. Relating Making connections in a certain situation to determine a Making Making a general statement structure or pattern of Hypotheses on the relationship between relationship. manipulated variables and responding variables in order Making Using past experiences or to explain a certain thing or Inferences previously collected data to happening. This statement is draw conclusions and make thought to be true and can be explanations of events. tested to determine its validity. Predicting Stating the outcome of a future event based on prior Making Analogies Understanding a certain knowledge gained through abstract or complex concept experiences or collected data. by relating it to a simpler or concrete concept with similar Making Making a general conclusion characteristics. Generalisations about a group based on observations made on, or some information from, Inventing Producing something new or samples of the group. adapting something already in existence to overcome Visualising Recalling or forming mental problems in a systematic images about a particular idea, manner. concept, situation or vision. 5
  14. 14. Thinking StrategyDescription of each thinking strategy is as follows: Mastering of thinking skills and thinking strategies (TSTS) through the teaching and learning of science can be developed through the following phases:Conceptualising Making generalisations based on inter-related and common 1. Introducing TSTS. characteristics in order to 2. Practising TSTS with teacher’s guidance. construct meaning, concept or 3. Practising TSTS without teacher’s guidance. model. 4. Applying TSTS in new situations with teacher’s guidance.Making Decisions Selecting the best solution from 5. Applying TSTS together with other skills to accomplish various alternatives based on thinking tasks. specific criteria to achieve a specific aim. Further information about phases of implementing TSTS can be found in the guidebook “Buku Panduan Penerapan KemahiranProblem Solving Finding solutions to challenging Berfikir dan Strategi Berfikir dalam Pengajaran dan or unfamiliar situations or Pembelajaran Sains” (Curriculum Development Centre, 1999). unanticipated difficulties in a systematic manner.Besides the above thinking skills and thinking strategies,another skill emphasised is reasoning. Reasoning is askill used in making logical, just and rational judgements.Mastering of critical and creative thinking skills andthinking strategies is made simpler if an individual is ableto reason in an inductive and deductive manner. Figure 1gives a general picture of thinking skills and thinkingstrategies. 6
  15. 15. Figure 1 : TSTS Model in Science Thinking Skills manner. It is a mental process that promotes critical, creative, analytical and systematic thinking. Mastering of science process skills and the possession of suitable attitudes and knowledge enable students to think effectively. Critical Creative The mastering of science process skills involves the Attributing Generating ideas mastering of the relevant thinking skills. The thinking skills that Comparing and Relating are related to a particular science process skill are as follows: contrasting Making inferences Grouping and Predicting classifying Making Reasoning Science Process Skills Thinking Skills Sequencing hypotheses Prioritising Synthesising Analysing Making Detecting bias Observing Attributing generalisations Evaluating Comparing and contrasting Visualising Making Making analogies Relating conclusions Inventing Classifying Attributing Comparing and contrasting Grouping and classifying Thinking Strategies Conceptualising Measuring and Using Relating Making decisions Numbers Comparing and contrasting Problem solving Making Inferences Relating Comparing and contrastingRelationship between Thinking Skills and Science Process AnalysingSkills Making inferencesScience process skills are skills that are required in the process Predicting Relatingof finding solutions to a problem or making decisions in a Visualisingsystematic 7
  16. 16. Teaching and Learning based on Thinking SkillsScience Process Skills Thinking Skills and Scientific SkillsUsing Space-Time SequencingRelationship Prioritising This science curriculum emphasises thoughtful learning based on thinking skills and scientific skills. Mastery of thinking skillsInterpreting data Comparing and contrasting and scientific skills are integrated with the acquisition of Analysing knowledge in the intended learning outcomes. Thus, in Detecting bias teaching and learning, teachers need to emphasise the mastery Making conclusions of skills together with the acquisition of knowledge and the Generalising inculcation of noble values and scientific attitudes. Evaluating The following is an example and explanation of a learningDefining operationally Relating outcome based on thinking skills and scientific skills. Making analogy Visualising Analysing Example:Controlling variables Attributing Comparing and contrasting Learning Outcome: Compare and contrast metallic Relating elements and non-metallic elements. AnalysingMaking hypothesis Attributing Thinking Skills: Comparing and contrasting Relating Comparing and contrasting Generating ideas Explanation: Making hypothesis Predicting To achieve the above learning outcome, knowledge of the Synthesising characteristics and uses of metals and non-metals in everyday life are learned through comparing and contrasting. The masteryExperimenting All thinking skills of the skill of comparing and contrasting is as important as the knowledge about the elements of metal and the elements ofCommunicating All thinking skills non-metal. 8
  17. 17. SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLE VALUES Giving emphasis to these attitudes and values.Science learning experiences can be used as a means to Practising and internalising these scientific attitudes andinculcate scientific attitudes and noble values in students. noble values.These attitudes and values encompass the following: Having an interest and curiosity towards the environment. When planning teaching and learning activities, Being honest and accurate in recording and validating data. teachers need to give due consideration to the above stages to Being diligent and persevering. ensure the continuous and effective inculcation of scientific Being responsible about the safety of oneself, others, and attitudes and values. For example, during science practical the environment. work, the teacher should remind pupils and ensure that they Realising that science is a means to understand nature. carry out experiments in a careful, cooperative and honest Appreciating and practising clean and healthy living. manner. Appreciating the balance of nature. Proper planning is required for effective inculcation of Being respectful and well-mannered. scientific attitudes and noble values during science lessons. Appreciating the contribution of science and technology. Before the first lesson related to a learning objective, teachers Being thankful to God. should examine all related learning outcomes and suggested Having critical and analytical thinking. teaching-learning activities that provide opportunities for the Being flexible and open-minded. inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values. Being kind-hearted and caring. Being objective. The following is an example of a learning outcome Being systematic. pertaining to the inculcation of scientific attitudes and values. Being cooperative. Being fair and just. Example: Daring to try. Year: Form One Thinking rationally. Being confident and independent. Learning Area: 1. MatterThe inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values generallyoccurs through the following stages: Learning Objective: 2.3 Appreciating the importance of Being aware of the importance and the need for scientific the variety of earth’s resources to attitudes and noble values. man. Learning Outcome: 9
  18. 18. Practise reducing the use, reusing TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES and recycling of materials, e.g. using old unfinished exercise books Teaching and learning strategies in the science curriculum as notebooks and collecting old emphasise thoughtful learning. Thoughtful learning is a process newspaper for recycling. that helps students acquire knowledge and master skills that Suggested Learning will help them develop their minds to the optimum level. Activities Carry out projects, campaigns, or Thoughtful learning can occur through various learning competitions on reducing the use, approaches such as inquiry, constructivism, contextual reusing and recycling of materials. learning, and mastery learning. Learning activities should Scientific attitudes and therefore be geared towards activating students’ critical and noble values Love and respect for the creative thinking skills and not be confined to routine or rote environment. learning. Students should be made aware of the thinking skills and thinking strategies that they use in their learning. They Being responsible for the safety of should be challenged with higher order questions and problems oneself, others and the and be required to solve problems utilising their creativity and environment. critical thinking. The teaching and learning process should enable students to acquire knowledge, master skills and Appreciating the balance of nature. develop scientific attitudes and noble values in an integrated manner. Being systematic. Being cooperative. Teaching and Learning Approaches in Science Inquiry-DiscoveryInculcating Patriotism nquiry-discovery emphasises learning through experiences. Inquiry generally means to find information, to question and toThe science curriculum provides an opportunity for the investigate a phenomenon that occurs in the environment.development and strengthening of patriotism among students. Discovery is the main characteristic of inquiry. Learning throughFor example, in learning about the earth’s resources, the discovery occurs when the main concepts and principles ofrichness and variety of living things and the development of science are investigated and discovered by studentsscience and technology in the country, students will appreciate themselves. Through activities such as experiments, studentsthe diversity of natural and human resources of the country and investigate a phenomenon and draw conclusions bydeepen their love for the country. themselves. Teachers then lead students to understand the science concepts through the results of the inquiry. Thinking 10
  19. 19. skills and scientific skills are thus developed further during the Contextual Learninginquiry process. However, the inquiry approach may not besuitable for all teaching and learning situations. Sometimes, it Contextual learning is an approach that associates learningmay be more appropriate for teachers to present concepts and with daily experiences of students. In this way, students areprinciples directly to students. able to appreciate the relevance of science learning to their lives. In contextual learning, students learn through investigations as in the inquiry-discovery approach.ConstructivismConstructivism suggests that students learn about something Mastery Learningwhen they construct their own understanding. The importantattributes of constructivism are as follows: Mastery learning is an approach that ensures all students are able to acquire and master the intended learning objectives. Taking into account students’ prior knowledge. This approach is based on the principle that students are able Learning occurring as a result of students’ own to learn if they are given adequate opportunities. Students effort. should be allowed to learn at their own pace, with the Learning occurring when students restructure their incorporation of remedial and enrichment activities as part of existing ideas by relating new ideas to old ones. the teaching-learning process. Providing opportunities to cooperate, sharing ideas and experiences, and reflecting on their learning. Teaching and Learning Methods Teaching and learning approaches can be implementedScience, Technology and Society through various methods such as experiments, discussions, simulations, projects, and visits. In this curriculum, theMeaningful learning occurs if students can relate their learning teaching-learning methods suggested are stated under thewith their daily experiences. Meaningful learning occurs in column “Suggested Learning Activities.” However, teacherslearning approaches such as contextual learning and Science, can modify the suggested activities when the need arises.Technology and Society (STS). The use of a variety of teaching and learning methods canLearning themes and learning objectives that carry elements of enhance students’ interest in science. Science lessons that areSTS are incorporated into the curriculum. STS approach not interesting will not motivate students to learn andsuggests that science learning takes place through subsequently will affect their performance. The choice ofinvestigation and discussion based on science and technology teaching methods should be based on the curriculum content,issues in society. In the STS approach, knowledge in science students’ abilities, students’ repertoire of intelligences, and theand technology is to be learned with the application of the availability of resources and infrastructure. Besides playing theprinciples of science and technology and their impact on role of knowledge presenters and experts, teachers need to actsociety. as facilitators in the process of teaching and learning. Teachers 11
  20. 20. need to be aware of the multiple intelligences that exist among should provide students with the opportunities to design theirstudents. Different teaching and learning activities should be own experiments. This involves students drawing up plans asplanned to cater for students with different learning styles and to how to conduct experiments, how to measure and analyseintelligences. data, and how to present the outcomes of their experiment.The following are brief descriptions of some teaching andlearning methods. Discussion A discussion is an activity in which students exchangeExperiment questions and opinions based on valid reasons. DiscussionsAn experiment is a method commonly used in science lessons. can be conducted before, during or after an activity. TeachersIn experiments, students test hypotheses through investigations should play the role of a facilitator and lead a discussion byto discover specific science concepts and principles. asking questions that stimulate thinking and getting students toConducting an experiment involves thinking skills, scientific express themselves.skills, and manipulative skills.Usually, an experiment involves the following steps: Simulation Identifying a problem. In simulation, an activity that resembles the actual situation is Making a hypothesis. carried out. Examples of simulation are role-play, games and Planning the experiment the use of models. In role-play, students play out a particular - controlling variables. role based on certain pre-determined conditions. Games - determining the equipment and materials require procedures that need to be followed. Students play needed. games in order to learn a particular principle or to understand - determining the procedure of the experiment and the process of decision-making. Models are used to represent the method of data collection and analysis. objects or actual situations so that students can visualise the Conducting the experiment. said objects or situations and thus understand the concepts Collecting data. and principles to be learned. Analysing data. Interpreting data. Project Making conclusions. Writing a report. A project is a learning activity that is generally undertaken by an individual or a group of students to achieve a certain learning objective. A project generally requires several lessons In the implementation of this curriculum, besides guiding to complete. The outcome of the project either in the form of a students to do an experiment, where appropriate, teachers 12
  21. 21. report, an artefact or in other forms needs to be presented to The use of other tools such as data loggers and computerthe teacher and other students. Project work promotes the interfacing in experiments and projects also enhance thedevelopment of problem-solving skills, time management skills, effectiveness of teaching and learning of science.and independent learning.Visits and Use of External Resources CONTENT ORGANISATIONThe learning of science is not limited to activities carried out inthe school compound. Learning of science can be enhanced The science curriculum is organised around themes. Eachthrough the use of external resources such as zoos, museums, theme consists of various learning areas, each of whichscience centres, research institutes, mangrove swamps, and consists of a number of learning objectives. A learning objectivefactories. Visits to these places make the learning of science has one or more learning outcomes.more interesting, meaningful and effective. To optimise learningopportunities, visits need to be carefully planned. Students maybe involved in the planning process and specific educational Learning outcomes are written based on the hierarchy of thetasks should be assigned during the visit. No educational visit is cognitive and affective domains. Levels in the cognitive domaincomplete without a post-visit discussion. are: knowledge, understanding, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Levels in the affective domain are: to be aware of, to be in awe, to be appreciative, to be thankful, to love, toUse of Technology practise, and to internalise. Where possible, learning outcomes relating to the affective domain are explicitly stated. TheTechnology is a powerful tool that has great potential in inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values should beenhancing the learning of science. Through the use of integrated into every learning activity. This ensures a moretechnology such as television, radio, video, computer, and spontaneous and natural inculcation of attitudes and values.Internet, the teaching and learning of science can be made Learning areas in the psychomotor domain are implicit in themore interesting and effective. learning activities.Computer simulation and animation are effective tools for theteaching and learning of abstract or difficult science concepts. Learning outcomes are written in the form of measurableComputer simulation and animation can be presented through behavioural terms. In general, the learning outcomes for acourseware or Web page. Application tools such, as word particular learning objective are organised in order ofprocessors, graphic presentation software and electronic complexity. However, in the process of teaching and learning,spreadsheets are valuable tools for the analysis and learning activities should be planned in a holistic and integratedpresentation of data. manner that enables the achievement of multiple learning outcomes according to needs and context. Teachers should 13
  22. 22. avoid employing a teaching strategy that tries to achieve eachlearning outcome separately according to the order stated inthe curriculum specifications.The Suggested Learning Activities provide information on thescope and dimension of learning outcomes. The learningactivities stated under the column Suggested LearningActivities are given with the intention of providing someguidance as to how learning outcomes can be achieved. Asuggested activity may cover one or more learning outcomes.At the same time, more than one activity may be suggested fora particular learning outcome. Teachers may modify thesuggested activity to suit the ability and style of learning of theirstudents. Teachers are encouraged to design other innovativeand effective learning activities to enhance the learning ofscience. 14
  23. 23. THEME: INTRODUCING SCIENCELearning Area: 1. Introduction to Science Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives1.1 Describe examples of natural A student is able to: During learning benefit – faedahUnderstanding phenomena that students see activities, bring out career – kerjayathat science is around them: list what he sees around him the science discuss – bincangkanpart of a) growth of human from a baby that is related to science, concepts and educator – pendidikeveryday life. to an adult, explain the importance of principles students importance – kepentingan b) fall of a ball to the ground, science in everyday life, have learned in professional – profesional c) melting of ice. name some careers in science primary school. related – berkaitan such as: role play – main peranan Discuss the uses and benefits of a) science teachers Talks on careers talks – ceramah science in everyday life. b) doctors in science by natural phenomena – c) engineers professionals. fenomena alam Attend talks on careers in science. d) environmental scientists1.2 Carry out a scientific A student is able to: Scientific affect – mempengaruhiUnderstanding investigation/experiment, investigation determine – menentukanthe steps in e.g. ‘To find out what affects the state the steps in a scientific involves the use of hypothesis – hipotesisscientific number of times a pendulum investigation/experiment, science process identify – mengenal pastiinvestigation. swings back and forth in a given carry out a scientific skills. investigation – penyiasatan time (oscillations)‘. investigation. involve – melibatkan measure – mengukur observe – memerhati 15
  24. 24. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjectives Students will be: There should be a guided discussion oscillations – ayunan a) determining what they want to for steps (a) to (c) lengkap find out (identifying the before students swings back and forth – problem), carry out the berayun ulang alik b) making a smart guess (forming experiment. pendulum – bandul a hypothesis), variable – pemboleh ubah c) planning how to test the hypothesis (planning the experiment) identifying the variables, determining the apparatus and materials required, determining the procedure to carry out the experiment, method to collect and analise data. d) carrying out the experiment, e) writing down what has been observed (collecting data), f) finding a meaning for what has This activity helps been observed (analysing and the teacher to interpreting data), identify students’ g) deciding whether the capabilities to hypothesis is true (making carry out a conclusions), scientific h) writing a report on the investigation. investigation (reporting). 16
  25. 25. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Students can be asked to report their investigations to the class. They should emphasise the steps they have taken; what they have changed; what they have kept the same and what they have measured.1.3 Identify physical quantities (length, A student is able to: Product abbreviation – singkatanKnowing mass, time, temperature and descriptions can appropriate – sesuaiphysical electric current), their values and state the physical quantities be found on corresponding symbol –quantities and units found on product length, mass, time, temperature labels, boxes of simbol berpadanantheir units. descriptions. and electric current, electrical electric current – arus state the S.I. units and the appliances, food elektrik Find words with the prefixes used corresponding symbols for packets, etc. length – panjang in measurements such as kilo-, these physical quantities, mass – jisim centi-, and milli- . state the symbols and values of S.I. is an measurement – ukuran prefixes for unit of length and abbreviation for physical quantity – kuantiti Find the symbols used for these mass: milli-, centi-, and kilo-, the French term fizik units of measurement. identify and use appropriate Systéme prefix – imbuhan prefixes in the measurement of International symbol – simbol Find the values of these prefixes. length and mass. d’Unités which value – nilai means international system for units. 17
  26. 26. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives1.4 Measure the lengths of straight A student is able to: Make sure calipers – angkupUnderstanding lines, curves and the diameters of students take curve – garis lengkungthe use of objects using rulers, threads and choose the right tool and measurements displacement – sesaranmeasuring calipers. measure length, correctly and estimate – menganggarkantools. estimate the area of regular accurately. irregular – tidak sekata Estimate the areas of regular and and irregular shapes using regular – sekata irregular shapes using graph graph paper, volume – isi padu paper. choose the right tool and measure the volume of liquid, Measure the volume of liquids choose the right tool to using measuring cylinders, measure the body temperature pipettes and burettes. and the temperature of a liquid, determine the volume of solid Determine the volume of regular using the water displacement and irregular solids using the method. water displacement method. Measure the body temperature and the temperature of water. Discuss the right choice of tools in making measurements. Apply the above measuring skills in the context of experiments. 18
  27. 27. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives1.5 Find the weights of different A student is able to: Unit for weight: beam balance – neraca alurUnderstanding objects using a spring balance. newton determine – menentukanthe concept of determine the weight of an Unit for mass: difference – perbezaanmass. Discuss weight as the pull of the object, kilogram force – daya earth (gravitational force) on an explain the concept of weight, lever balance – neraca tuas object. explain the concept of mass, Carry out an mass – jisim determine the mass of an experiment in matter – jirim Discuss mass as quantity of object, which students pull – tarikan matter. explain the difference between have to apply the spring balance – neraca mass and weight, skill of measuring spring Find the mass of different objects apply the use of spring and mass and weight. weight – berat using beam balance or lever beam/lever balance in the balance. context of an experiment. Discuss the difference between mass and weight. Apply the skills of using spring balance and beam/lever balance in the context of an experiment.1.6 Discuss the various units of A student is able to: act out – lakonkanRealising the measurements, e.g. units for advantage – kebaikanimportance of length (foot, yard, chain, mile, give examples of problems that arise – timbulstandard units meter, kilometer), units for weight may arise if standard units are disadvantage – keburukanin everyday (pound, ounce, kati, tahil, gram, not used. realising – menyedarilife. kilogram). standard – piawai scene – babak Act out a scene to show the various – pelbagai problems caused by not using 19
  28. 28. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjectives standard units e.g. buying things at the market. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using different units of measurement. 20
  29. 29. THEME: MAN AND THE VARIETY OF LIVING THINGSLearning Area: 1. Cell as a Unit of Life Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives1.1 Gather information on living A student is able to: General structure animal cell – sel haiwanUnderstanding organisms and identify the of a cell may cell wall – dinding selcells. smallest living unit that makes up identify that cell is the basic unit include cell wall, cheek cells – sel pipi the organism. of living things, cell membrane, chloroplast – kloroplas prepare slides following the protoplasm cytoplasm – sitoplasma Prepare slides of cheek cells and proper procedure, (cytoplasm and handling – mengendali onion cells. use a microscope properly, nucleus), general – umum identify the general structures chloroplast and microscope – mikroskop Study the general structure of of animal cells and plant cells, vacuole. nucleus – nukleus cheek cells and onion cells under draw the general structure of onion – bawang a microscope using the correct an animal cell and a plant cell, The usage and plant cell – sel tumbuhan procedure. label the general structure of handling of a precaution – langkah an animal cell and a plant cell, microscope is keselamatan Draw and label the different state the function of each cell introduced in this prepare – sediakan structures of an animal cell and a structure, learning area. protoplasm – protoplasma plant cell. remind – ingatkan state the similarities and Remind pupils of sample – sampel differences between an animal Compare an animal cell to a plant the safety slide – slaid cell and a plant cell. cell. precautions to be structure – struktur taken when vacuole – vakuol Gather information on cell preparing samples structures and discuss their of cheek cells. functions. 21
  30. 30. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives1.2 Gather information about A student is able to: Use prepared multicellular organism –Understanding unicellular organisms and slides or fresh organisma multiselunicellular multicellular organisms. state the meaning of unicellular specimens. unicellular organism –organism and organism and multicellular organisma satu selmulticellular Provide students with picture organism, Introduce the term microorganism –organism. cards, name cards, cards with the give examples of unicellular ‘microorganisms’. mikroorganisma labels ‘unicellular’ and organism and multicellular ‘multicellular’. Students match the organism. three cards for each organism. Observe examples of unicellular organisms and multicellular organisms under a microscope.1.3 Gather information and discuss A student is able to: arrange sequentially –Understanding the following: susun mengikut urutanthat cells form a) types of human cells, name the different types of cell – seltissues, organs b) functions of different types of human cells, function – fungsiand systems in human cells. state the function of different human being – manusiathe human types of human cells, ladder – tanggabody. arrange sequentially cell organ – organ organisation from simple to organisation of cells – complex using the terms cell, organisasi sel tissue, organ, system and system – sistem organism. simple – mudah tissue – tisu 22
  31. 31. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Use a graphic organiser (e.g. ladder of hierarchy) to show the hierarchy of cell organisation: cell tissue organ system organism organism syste organ tissue cell1.4 Discuss why human beings are A student is able to: complex organism –Realising that complex organisms. organisma komplekshumans are explain why human beings are human being – manusiacomplex complex organisms. realising – menyedariorganisms. 23
  32. 32. THEME: MATTER IN NATURELearning Area: 1. Matter Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives1.1 Through activities, show that A student is able to: air – udaraUnderstanding things such as book, air, water, living things – benda hidupthat matter has soil and living things have mass state that things have mass and mass – jisimmass and occupy space. occupy space, matter – jirimand occupies explain what matter is, occupies – memenuhispace. Discuss what matter is. relate things and matter, water – air carry out activities to show that soil – tanih List examples of matter. air, water, soil and living things have mass and occupy space.1.2 Gather information and discuss A student is able to: particle – zarahUnderstanding a) what matter is made up of, simulate – membuatthe three b) what the three states of matter state that matter is made up of simulasistates of are. particles, arrangement – susunanmatter. state the three states of matter, movement – gerakan Compare the three states of state the arrangement of state of matter – keadaan matter in terms of: particles in the three states of jirim a) the arrangement of particles, matter, b) the movement of particles. state the differences in the movement of particles in the Simulate the arrangement and three states of matter. movement of particles in the three states of matter. 24
  33. 33. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives1.3 Recall the definition of density. A student is able to: Archimedes definition – takrifanUnderstanding Principle need not explain – menerangkanthe concept of Through activities, find the define density, be introduced. float – timbuldensity. densities of: explain why some objects and liquid – cecair a) objects with regular shape and liquids float, object with irregular shape – objects with irregular shape, solve simple problems related objek berbentuk tak sekata b) different liquids. to density, object with regular shape – carry out activities to explore objek berbentuk sekata Discuss why some objects and the densities of objects and recall – ingat semula liquids float by relating to density. liquids. solve – selesaikan1.4 Gather information and discuss A student is able to: aplication – aplikasiAppreciating how: appreciating – menghargaithe use of describe how man uses the applies – mengaplikasiproperties of a) man uses his knowledge of different states of matter, build – binamatter in different states of matter to describe how man applies the float – pelampungeveryday life. store and transport gases and concept of density, gas – gas liquids, carry out an activity to explore property – sifat b) man uses the concept of the applications of the concept raft – rakit density in making rafts, floats of floating and sinking related to store – menyimpan etc. density. transport – mengangkut Carry out an activity to explore the applications of the concept of floating and sinking related to density. 25
  34. 34. Learning Area: 2. The Variety of Resources on Earth Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives2.1 Gather information about the A student is able to: life – kehidupanKnowing the resources on earth, i.e. water, air, knowing – mengetahuidifferent soil, minerals, fossil fuels and list the resources on earth resource – sumberresources on living things. needed to sustain life, to sustain life – menyokongearth. list the resources on earth used kesinambungan kehidupan in everyday life.2.2 Gather information and discuss A student is able to: appearance – rupaUnderstanding a) what elements, characterstic – cirielements, compounds and mixtures are, state what elements, classify – mengelaskancompounds b) what metals and non- compounds and mixtures are, compound – sebatianand mixtures. metals are, give examples of elements, component – komponen c) examples of elements, compounds and mixtures, conductivity – compounds, mixtures, metals state the differences between kekonduksian and non-metals. elements, compounds and electricity – elektrik mixtures, element – unsur Compare and contrast the carry out activities to compare hardness – kekerasan properties of elements, and contrast the properties of heat – haba compounds and mixtures. different metals and non- mixture – campuran metals, separate – mengasingkan Carry out activities to compare the classify elements as metals and understanding – properties of metals and non- non-metals based on their memahami metals in terms of appearance, characteristics, hardness, conductivity of heat and give examples of metals and conductivity of electricity. non-metals, 26
  35. 35. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Carry out activities to separate the carry out activities to separate components of mixtures e.g. the components of a mixture. a) mixture of iron filings and sulphur powder, b) mixture of sand and salt. 2.3 Discuss the importance of earth’s A student is able to: appreciating – menghargaiAppreciating resources (water, air, soil, concept map – petathe importance minerals, fossil fuels and living explain the importance of konsepof the variety things) to man. variety of earth’s resources to conservation –of earth’s man, pemuliharaanresources to Draw a concept map to show the state the meaning of the needs of life – keperluanman. relationship between these preservation and conservation of hidup resources to the basic needs of resources on earth, preservation – life. state the importance of the pemeliharaan preservation and conservation of resource – sumber Gather information on the resources on earth, relationship – hubung kait preservation and conservation of practise reducing the use, sustainable development – resources on earth. reusing and recycling of pembangunan lestari materials. Discuss the importance of the preservation and conservation of resources on earth (e.g. recycling of paper reduces the cutting down of trees; conserving clean water prevents water shortage). 27
  36. 36. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjectives Carry out a project, campaign or competition on reducing the use, reusing and recycling of materials e.g. using old unfinished exercise books as note books and collecting old newspapers. 28
  37. 37. Learning Area: 3. The Air Around Us Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives3.1 Gather information on: A student is able to: Air is a mixture of carbon dioxide – karbonUnderstanding a) the composition of air, nitrogen, oxygen, dioksidawhat air is b) the percentage of nitrogen, state what air is made up of, carbon dioxide, composition – komposisimade up of. oxygen and carbon dioxide in explain why air is a mixture, inert gases, water dust – habuk air. state the percentage of vapour, microorganism – nitrogen, oxygen and carbon microorganisms mikroorganisma Carry out activities to show: dioxide in air, and dust. nitrogen – nitrogen a) the percentage of oxygen in carry out activities to show: oxygen – oksigen air, a) the percentage of oxygen in inert gas – gas nadir b) that air contains water vapour, air, water vapour – wap air microorganisms and dust. b) that air contains water vapour, microorganisms and dust.3.2 Gather information on the A student is able to: lime water – air kapurUnderstanding properties of oxygen and carbon glowing – berbarathe properties dioxide. list the properties of oxygen indicator – penunjukof oxygen and and carbon dioxide, reaction – tindak balascarbon dioxide. Carry out activities to show the identify oxygen and carbon solubility – keterlarutan properties of oxygen and carbon dioxide based on their wooden splint – kayu uji dioxide in the following aspects: properties, choose a suitable test for a) solubility in water, oxygen and carbon dioxide b) reaction with sodium hydroxide, 29
  38. 38. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives c) the effect on: glowing and burning wooden splinter, litmus paper, lime water, bicarbonate indicator.3.3 Gather information and discuss A student is able to: energy – tenagaUnderstanding respiration. exhaled air – udarathat oxygen is state that energy, carbon dioxide hembusanneeded in Carry out an experiment to show and water vapour are the inhaled air – udararespiration. that during respiration, living products of respiration, sedutan things relate that living things use role – peranan (a) use oxygen, oxygen and give out carbon rate of respiration – kadar (b) give out carbon dioxide. i oxide during respiration, respirasi compare and contrast the yeast – yis content of oxygen in inhaled and exhaled air in humans, state that oxygen is needed for respiration, carry out an experiment to show that living things use oxygen and give out carbon dioxide during respiration. 30
  39. 39. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives3.4 Gather information and discuss A student is able to: Charcoal is an candle – lilinUnderstanding combustion. example of carbon. charcoal – arangthat oxygen is state what combustion is, combustion – pembakaranneeded for Carry out experiments to: state that oxygen is needed for carbon – karboncombustion a) show that oxygen is needed combustion, product – hasil(burning). for combustion, list the products of combustion, b) investigate the effect of the carry out experiments to size of a container on the investigate combustion. length of time a candle burns. Carry out activity to test for the products of combustion of charcoal and candle.3.5 Gather information and discuss: A student is able to: air pollution –Analysing the control – kawalaneffects of air a) explain what air pollution is, effect – kesanpollution. hat air pollution is, list examples of air pollutants, analysing – menganalisis b) list the sources of air pollutants, environment – alam sekitar xamples of air pollutants, prevent – mencegah c) escribe the effects of air pollutant – bahan cemar he sources of air pollutants, pollution, source – sumber d) he effects of air pollution on xplain the steps needed to man and the environment, prevent and control air e) pollution. he steps needed to control air pollution. 31
  40. 40. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Carry out a project to study: a) ir pollution in an area around the school, b) he effects of air pollution.3.6 Gather information and discuss: A student is able to: describe – perihalkanRealising the habit – amalanimportance of a) how life would be without clean suggest – cadangkankeeping the air air, escribe how life would beclean. b) ways to keep the air clean, without clean air, c) habits that keep the air clean. suggest ways to keep the air clean, Carry out an activity to show the practise habits that keep the air pollutants in cigarette smoke. clean. 32

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