Programmer Anarchy (English)
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Programmer Anarchy (English)

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Programmer Anarchy

The Agile movement shifted the relationship between clients and developers in a profound way. In waterfall processes, clients specified large amounts of functionality, then nervously faded into the background until the fateful day-of-delivery. With Agile, developers strove to engage with clients continuously, and delivered much more frequently against their needs. A new trust was established.

At the Forward Internet Group in London, we are implementing a second major shift between clients and developers. The trust of the clients in developers evolves into a broader trust of the developers to deliver business value without resorting to a series of well-defined stories. In essence, the business has empowered the developers to do what they think is right for the business. This model, popularized by Facebook, has several labels, but the one we prefer for our flavor is Programmer Anarchy.

We will start with stock Agile, and begin to apply environmental factors that led us to drop “standard” Agile practices. We will also watch as well-defined Agile roles evaporate completely as other environmental factors are applied. Finally, we will arrive at Programmer Anarchy, an organization often following none of the standard Agile practices, having no BA or QA roles, and even missing any managers of programmers.

We will summarize our environmental factors, and postulate on the required and optional factors. We will make bold, controversial assertions. We will back up these assertions with actual experiences.

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Programmer Anarchy (English) Programmer Anarchy (English) Presentation Transcript

  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 1
  • PROGRAMMER ANARCHYFred GeorgeForward Internet Group, London, UKfredgeorge@acm.orgCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 1
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 2
  • Experiences at...Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 2
  • Experiences at...Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 2
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 3
  • PerformanceCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 3
  • PerformanceCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 3
  • Performance £3m £7m £13m £27m £55mCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 3
  • Performance £3m £7m £13m £27m £55m £0.5m £0.7m £1.0m £3.9m £10.0mCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 3
  • £100mPerformance £3m £7m £13m £27m £55m £0.5m £0.7m £1.0m £3.9m £10.0m £15mCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 3
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 4
  • Why is Forward Working?Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 4
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 5
  • Cynefin Framework:Model for ProblemsCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 5
  • Cynefin Framework:Model for Problems✦ Father is Dave Snowden✦ Published in Harvard Business Review, 2007 ✦ A Leaders Framework for Decision Making✦ Early publishing starting in 2000 from work at IBMCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 5
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd Cynefin Framework by Dave Snowden 6
  • The Cynefin FrameworkCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd Cynefin Framework by Dave Snowden 6
  • The Cynefin Framework Complicated SimpleCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd Cynefin Framework by Dave Snowden 6
  • The Cynefin Framework Complicated Cause  Effect Simple Cause  EffectCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd Cynefin Framework by Dave Snowden 6
  • The Cynefin Framework Complex Complicated Cause ? Effect Cause  Effect Chaotic Simple Effect? Cause? Cause  EffectCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd Cynefin Framework by Dave Snowden 6
  • The Cynefin Framework Complex Complicated Disorder Chaotic SimpleCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd Cynefin Framework by Dave Snowden 6
  • The Cynefin Framework Complex Complicated Disorder Chaotic SimpleCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd Cynefin Framework by Dave Snowden 6
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd Cynefin Framework by Dave Snowden 7
  • Effective OrganizationsCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd Cynefin Framework by Dave Snowden 7
  • Effective Organizations Complex Complicated Chaotic SimpleCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd Cynefin Framework by Dave Snowden 7
  • Effective Organizations Complex Complicated Chaotic SimpleCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd Cynefin Framework by Dave Snowden 7
  • Effective Organizations Complex Complicated Chaotic SimpleCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd Cynefin Framework by Dave Snowden 7
  • Effective Organizations Complex Complicated Chaotic SimpleCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd Cynefin Framework by Dave Snowden 7
  • Effective Organizations Complex Complicated Chaotic SimpleCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd Cynefin Framework by Dave Snowden 7
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 8
  • Agile Manifesto✦ Individuals and interactions over processes and tools✦ Working software over comprehensive documentation✦ Customer collaboration over contract negotiation✦ Responding to change over following a planCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 8
  • Agile Manifesto✦ Individuals and interactions over processes and tools✓✦ Working software over comprehensive documentation ✓✦ Customer collaboration over contract negotiation ✓✦ Responding to change over following a plan ✓Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 8
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 9
  • XP Values✦ Feedback✦ Communication✦ Simplicity✦ Courage✦ RespectCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 9
  • XP Values✦ Feedback ✓✦ Communication ✓✦ ✓ Simplicity✦ Courage ✓✦ Respect ✓Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 9
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 10
  • Agile Best Practices✦ Stand ups ✦ Unit tests✦ Story narratives ✦ Acceptance tests✦ Retrospectives ✦ Refactoring✦ Estimates ✦ Patterns✦ Iterations ✦ Continuous integration✦ Mandatory pairingCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 10
  • Agile Best Practices Not Used✦ Stand ups ✦ Unit tests✦ Story narratives ✦ Acceptance tests✦ Retrospectives ✦ Refactoring✦ Estimates ✦ Patterns✦ Iterations ✦ Continuous integration✦ Mandatory pairingCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 10
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 11
  • Agile Impact: Trust between Customer and DeveloperCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 11
  • Trust Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 12
  • Trust waterfall Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 12
  • WHY? ✦ Larger systems ✦ Higher expectations ✦ Volatile commercial environmentsTrust ✦ etc... waterfall Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 12
  • Trust waterfall Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd Idea from Mark Durrand, uSwitch 13
  • agile/leanTrust waterfall Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd Idea from Mark Durrand, uSwitch 13
  • Lean KanbanTrust SCRUM Agile XP waterfall agile/lean Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd Idea from Mark Durrand, uSwitch 13
  • Trust Cultural Chasm waterfall agile/lean Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd Idea from Mark Durrand, uSwitch 13
  • ✦ Frequency of interaction ✦ Process impact ✦ Fewer roles (& titles!)Trust Cultural Chasm waterfall agile/lean Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd Idea from Mark Durrand, uSwitch 13
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 14
  • Role Impact management Agile Roles business developmentCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 14
  • Role Impact project manager iteration management manager Agile Roles business development customer programmer architect QA BA UI designer DBACopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 14
  • Role Impact project manager iteration management manager Agile Roles business development customer QA developer BACopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 14
  • Trust Cultural Chasm Fortune 50 story waterfall agile/lean Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd Idea from Mark Durrand, uSwitch 15
  • Cultural ChasmTrust Fortune 50 story waterfall agile/lean Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd Idea from Mark Durrand, uSwitch 15
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 16
  • Agile Roles✦ Customer✦ Project manager✦ Business analyst✦ Developer✦ Quality assurance / testerCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 16
  • Agile Roles✦ Customer ✓✦ Project manager✦ Business analyst✦ Developer ✓✦ Quality assurance / testerCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 16
  • Agile Roles✦ Customer ✓✦ X Project manager✦ Business analyst X✦ Developer ✓✦ Quality assurance / tester XCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 16
  • Agile Roles Reduced Again...✦ Customer ✓✦ X Project manager✦ Business analyst X✦ Developer ✓✦ Quality assurance / tester X✦ Manager of programmers XCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 16
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 17
  • Developer-Driven DevelopmentCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 17
  • Developer-Driven Development Open Source BusinessCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 17
  • Developer-Driven DevelopmentPROGRAMMER ANARCHY Open Source BusinessCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 17
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 18
  • Why “ANARCHY”Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 18
  • Why “ANARCHY”✦ EMPOWERMENT ✦ Somebody “gives” it ✦ Somebody can “take it away” ✦ Leads to “Can I ... ?”Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 18
  • Why “ANARCHY”✦ EMPOWERMENT ✦ ANARCHY ✦ Somebody “gives” it ✦ Nobody to ask ✦ Somebody can “take ✦ Can’t stop someone it away” else ✦ Leads to “Can I ... ?” ✦ Disagreements expectedCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 18
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 19
  • Matching Work and Devs Stories DevsCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 19
  • Matching Work and Devs Stories Devs Stand UpCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 19
  • Matching Work and Devs Projects Devs “Resource Rumble”Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 19
  • Matching Work and Devs Projects Devs Who? “Resource Rumble”Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 19
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 20
  • Agile Side Effect:Story TyrannyCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 20
  • Agile Side Effect:Story Tyranny✦ Development driven by stories✦ Stories small✦ Priority set by customer✦ Story-level estimates and metricsCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 20
  • Agile Side Effect:Story Tyranny✦ Development driven by stories✦ Stories small✦ Priority set by customer✦ Story-level estimates and metrics Problem: Developers become disconnected from business problem (Drones)Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 20
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 21
  • Business Decisions Shift... Trust waterfall agile/lean anarchyCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 21
  • Business Decisions Shift... Cust Dev Trust waterfall agile/lean anarchyCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 21
  • Business Decisions Shift... Cust Dev Trust Cust Dev waterfall agile/lean anarchyCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 21
  • Business Decisions Shift... Cust Dev Trust Cust Dev Cust Dev waterfall agile/lean anarchyCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 21
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 22
  • forwardtechnology.co.ukCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 22
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 23
  • Example: Energy RevolutionCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 23
  • Example: Energy Revolution✦ Prior system: ✦ .NET with SQLServerCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 23
  • Example: Energy Revolution✦ Prior system: ✦ .NET with SQLServer✦ New system: ✦ Ruby, Clojure, C++ ✦ MySQL, MongoDB ✦ HAML, SASSCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 23
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 24
  • Example: Energy RevolutionCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 24
  • Example: Energy Revolution✦ Ruby for energy calculation - big improvement!Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 24
  • Example: Energy Revolution✦ Ruby for energy calculation - big improvement!✦ Rewrote in ClojureCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 24
  • Example: Energy Revolution✦ Ruby for energy calculation - big improvement!✦ Rewrote in Clojure✦ Rewrote in Clojure (again)Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 24
  • Example: Energy Revolution✦ Ruby for energy calculation - big improvement!✦ Rewrote in Clojure✦ Rewrote in Clojure (again) Question: What manager would let them to do it?Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 24
  • Example: Energy Revolution✦ Ruby for energy calculation - big improvement!✦ Rewrote in Clojure✦ Rewrote in Clojure (again) Question: What manager would let them to do it? Hence: No manager!Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 24
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 25
  • Example: Click TrackingCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 25
  • Example: Click Tracking✦ Old system: ✦ Ruby-based, 32 servers with 40% utilizationCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 25
  • Example: Click Tracking✦ Old system: ✦ Ruby-based, 32 servers with 40% utilization✦ New system: ✦ Node.js, 22 servers with 10% utilization and lower latencyCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 25
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 26
  • Cultural EnablersCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 26
  • Cultural Enablers Fear is the mind killerCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 26
  • Cultural EnablersSound finances Like riskCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 26
  • Cultural EnablersSound finances Like riskClarity of Developer success focused Respected peersCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 26
  • Cultural Enablers Do or not do,Sound finances there is no try Like risk Experimentation drives innovation If you are not failing, you are not tryingClarity of Developer success focused Respected peersCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 26
  • Cultural Enablers Do or not do,Sound finances there is no try Like risk Experimentation drives innovation If you are not failing, you are not tryingClarity of Developer success focused The greatest barrier to success is Respected peers the fear of failureCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 26
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 27
  • Agile Best Practices Not Used✦ Stand ups ✦ Unit tests✦ Story narratives ✦ Acceptance tests✦ Retrospectives ✦ Refactoring✦ Estimates ✦ Patterns✦ Iterations ✦ Continuous integration✦ Mandatory pairingCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 27
  • Agile Best Practices Not Used Trust w✦ Stand ups collocation ✦ Unit tests✦ Story narratives ✦ Acceptance tests✦ Retrospectives ✦ Refactoring✦ Estimates ✦ Patterns✦ Iterations ✦ Continuous integration✦ Mandatory pairingCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 27
  • Agile Best Practices Not Used Trust w✦ Stand ups collocation ✦ Unit tests✦ Story narratives ✦ Acceptance tests✦ Retrospectives ✦ Refactoring✦ Estimates ✦ Patterns Results,✦ Iterations not blame ✦ Continuous integration✦ Mandatory pairingCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 27
  • Agile Best Practices Not Used Trust w✦ Stand ups collocation ✦ Unit tests✦ Story narratives ✦ Acceptance tests Small,✦ Retrospectives ✦ Refactoring short-lived✦ Estimates ✦ Patterns apps Results,✦ Iterations not blame ✦ Continuous integration✦ Mandatory pairingCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 27
  • Agile Best Practices Not Used Trust w✦ Stand ups collocation ✦ Unit tests✦ Story narratives ✦ Acceptance tests Small,✦ Retrospectives ✦ Refactoring short-lived✦ Estimates ✦ Patterns apps Results,✦ Iterations not blame ✦ Continuous integration✦ Mandatory pairing Continuous deploymentCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 27
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 28
  • Reality CheckCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 28
  • Reality Check✦ Different extent by team ✦ Talent, experience, apprehension ✦ Anarchy exists in how Anarchy is implemented✦ Even our best Anarchists “ask” on occasion✦ Commercial success driving freedomCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 28
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 29
  • AcknowledgmentsCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 29
  • Acknowledgments✦ Anarchists ✦ Andy Kent ✦ Paul Ingles ✦ Mike Jones ✦ ... and the rest of the Search TeamCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 29
  • Acknowledgments✦ Anarchists ✦ Andy Kent ✦ Paul Ingles ✦ Mike Jones ✦ ... and the rest of the Search Team✦ Enablers ✦ Carl Gaywood and Neil HutchinsonCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 29
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 30
  • PROGRAMMER ANARCHYCopyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 30
  • Copyright © 2011 by Forward Internet Group, Ltd 30