Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9
Digital Humanities Laboratory
Fr´d´ric Kaplan
e e
frederic.kaplan@epfl.ch
o

Semester 1 : Content of each course
• (1) 19.09 Introduction to the course / Live Tweeting and Collective note
taking
•...
o

Semester 1 : Content of each course
• (7) 6.11 Pattern recognition / OCR / Semantic disambiguation
• (8) 13.11 Historic...
o

Today's course
• Objective of the course : Answering two questions : Why do projects rely on
crowdsourcing ? Why do peo...
o

Crowdsourcing

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

5
o

From Wikipedia
• ”Crowdsourcing is the practice of
obtaining needed services, ideas, or
content by soliciting contribut...
o

From Wikipedia
• ’The term was coined in 2006 by Jeff
Howe in a Wired article, The Rise of
Crowdsourcing. http://www.wir...
o

Why do projects rely on crowdsourcing ? Why do people
participate in crowdsourced projects ?

Digital Humanities 101 - ...
o

Why do projects rely on crowdsourcing ?
• Because its free or cheap (cf. Amazon’s Mechanical Turk)
• Because it permits...
o

The wisdom of the crowds
• Surowiecki’s four criterias (2004)
• Diversity : Each participant has different
background an...
o

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

11
o

A case study : crowdsourced transcription

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

12
o

UCL Transcribe Betham
• 60 000 manuscripts of Jeremy Bentham
(1748-1832)
• 20 000 already transcribed using
traditoinal...
o

ReCaptcha : A free anti-bot service
• From http://www.google.com/
recaptcha/learnmore
• 200+ million CAPTCHAs are solve...
o

ReCaptcha : A free anti-bot service
• reCAPTCHA improves the process of
digitizing books by sending words that
cannot b...
o

ReCaptcha : A free anti-bot service
• Each new word that cannot be read
correctly by OCR is given to a user in
conjunct...
o

Can we use Mechanical Turk to do this ?
• Who knows where the name Mechanical Turk comes from ?
• Mechanical Turk permi...
o

Crowdflower : a meta-engine for crowdsourcing
• Crowdflower plays the role of meta-engine or interface to several
crowds...
o

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

19
o

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

20
o

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

21
o

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

22
o

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

23
o

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

24
o

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

25
o

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

26
o

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

27
o

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

28
o

Combining crowdsourcing and grammatical rules
• Raw crowdsourced words transcriptions are likely to contain many errors...
o

Survey : Do you want to use crowdsourcing in your next
semester’s project ? Should the DHLAB sponsor this ?
Answer on F...
o

What about crowdfunding your research project ?

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

31
o

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

32
o

Crowdfunding in general
• Kickstarter : 5.2 million people have pledged 882 million, funding 52 000
projects.
• Kiva : ...
o

Example of a scientific Kickstarter project
http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1616707907/virtual-prehistoric-worlds

D...
o

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

35
o

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

36
o

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

37
o

Crowdfunding sites
• Indiegogo : http://www.indiegogo.com/
• France : http://www.ulule.com/
• Switzerland : http://wema...
o

After the pause, we will talk about Wikipedia and
Gamification. In the meantime you can try Wikirace
http://wikirace.chr...
o

Why do people participate in crowdsourcing projects ?

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

40
o

OpenStreetMap

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

41
o

Haiti's OSM before and after the earthquake (800+ changes)

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

42
o

Much more precise than Google maps

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

43
o

Because the data is open, new layers can be added

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

44
o

OSM mappers seem intrinsically motivated for building
content together

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 |...
o

Is is the same for Wikipedian users ?

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

46
o

Wikipedia demonstration

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

47
o

Is Wikipedia a good resource ?
• Some academics argue that the use of Wikipedia is not appropriate for
scholarly settin...
o

Wikipedia is in perpetual beta, constantly getting better
• Wikipedia is be updated and improved at a much faster rythm...
o

Wikipedia creates a diplomatic zone
• Wikipedia manages to create a diplomatic zone, where conflicts between
different pe...
o

Wikipedia is felt as common good
• It is backed-up by many users all over the world
• Therefore, it is one of the rare ...
o

Why Wikipedia works ?

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

52
o

Hypothesis : Wikipedia is a game

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

53
o

Foursquare is game and a mapping service
• In recent years, we have seen several
examples of successful creation of
col...
o

Twitter is a game
• One could argue that services for
sharing/constructing collective
knowledge online are also games (...
o

Quora is a game

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

56
o

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

57
o

Quora's strategy
• Quora must attract qualified contributors to write high quality answers to
questions.
• Can you imagi...
o

To reach this goal, Quora chose a very clear strategy :
personalize the answers, anonymize the questions

Digital Human...
o

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

60
o

Quora's strategy
• Questions are not owned by the person who asks them.
• They are immediatly treated as a common goods...
o

Quora's strategy
• In addition, Quora introduces an explicit ranking system : the best rated
answers are shown first.
• ...
o

What kind of game is Wikipedia ?

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

63
o

Wikipedia is MMORPG (Massively Multiplayer Online Role
Playing Games)

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | ...
o

Wikipedia
• Onboarding : No need to be identified to start contributing. But this is
necessary to climb the tiers.
• Reg...
o

Wikipedia
• How can one climb the tiers ? What kind of privilege have the more powerful
users ? The new contributor doe...
o

Administrators
• Administrators are responsible for cleaning particular pages, checking
copyright issues, repair vandal...
o

Administrators
• How does one become an administrator ? He needs to be elected.
• The following criteria are recommende...
o

IP Checker
• An IP Checker has access to the check-user function that permits to make
explicit the connection between a...
o

Oversighter
• Oversighter can mask a username from all the public records
• mask a comment
• mask a version of a page
•...
o

Bots creators
• Among the 30 most active editors on Wikipedia, 2/3 are bots
• Bots perform repetitive tasks and can int...
o

Bureaucrats
• Bureaucrats manage the status of other users (administrators, bots,
bureaucrats).
• Only 8 persons have t...
o

Stewards are super bureaucrats
• Stewards are appointed by the international comity. They can manage the
status of all ...
o

Mediators
• They can intervene during the fights but cannot vote or recommend a
punitive action.

Digital Humanities 101...
o

Judge
• They can impose a punitive action
• The ArbCom (Arbitration Committee) of the English version of Wikipedia has
...
o

Wikipedia has also its foundational stories
• The Essjay’s controversy : Essjay was an eminent member of the Wikicratia...
o

World of Warcraft is so boring compared to Wikipedia

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

77
o

World of Warcraft is so boring compared to Wikipedia
• Ordinary clercks during the day, Wikipedian during the night.
• ...
o

Open Debate : is crowdsourcing and gamificiation
ethical ?

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013

79
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

DH101 2013/2014 course 9 - Crowdsourcing, crowdfunding, Wikipedia, Open Street Map, Mechanical Turk

1,975

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,975
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
19
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "DH101 2013/2014 course 9 - Crowdsourcing, crowdfunding, Wikipedia, Open Street Map, Mechanical Turk"

  1. 1. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 Digital Humanities Laboratory Fr´d´ric Kaplan e e frederic.kaplan@epfl.ch
  2. 2. o Semester 1 : Content of each course • (1) 19.09 Introduction to the course / Live Tweeting and Collective note taking • (2) 25.09 Introduction to Digital Humanities / Wordpress / First assignment • (3) 2.10 Introduction to the Venice Time Machine project / Zotero • 9.10 No course • (4) 16.10 Digitization techniques / Deadline first assignment • (5) 23.10 Datafication / Presentation of projects • (6) 30.10 Semantic modelling / RDF / Deadline peer-reviewing of first assignment Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 2
  3. 3. o Semester 1 : Content of each course • (7) 6.11 Pattern recognition / OCR / Semantic disambiguation • (8) 13.11 Historical Geographic Information Systems, Procedural modeling / City Engine / Deadline Project selection • (9) 20.11 Crowdsourcing / Gamefication / Wikipedia • (10) 27.11 Cultural heritage interfaces and visualisation / Museographic experiences • 4.12 Group work on the projects • 11.12 Oral exam / Presentation of projects / Deadline Project blog • 18.12 Oral exam / Presentation of projects Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 3
  4. 4. o Today's course • Objective of the course : Answering two questions : Why do projects rely on crowdsourcing ? Why do people participate in crowdsourced projects ? • Why do projects rely on crowdsourcing ? • Case study : Transcribing handwritten texts using mechanical turk • Case study : Crowdfunding a scientific project • Why do people participate in crowdsourced projects ? • Case study : Climbing the Wikipedia pyramid Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 4
  5. 5. o Crowdsourcing Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 5
  6. 6. o From Wikipedia • ”Crowdsourcing is the practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people, and especially from an online community, rather than from traditional employees or suppliers” Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 6
  7. 7. o From Wikipedia • ’The term was coined in 2006 by Jeff Howe in a Wired article, The Rise of Crowdsourcing. http://www.wired. com/wired/archive/14.06/crowds. html?pg=1&topic=crowds Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 7
  8. 8. o Why do projects rely on crowdsourcing ? Why do people participate in crowdsourced projects ? Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 8
  9. 9. o Why do projects rely on crowdsourcing ? • Because its free or cheap (cf. Amazon’s Mechanical Turk) • Because it permits to have a better engagement of users (or leaners in the case of peer-grading) • Because it permits to harness the wisdom of the crowds • cf. Claire Ross, Social media for digital humanities and community engagement, in Warwick, Terras, Nyhan, Digital Humanities in Practice, Facet Publishing, 2012. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 9
  10. 10. o The wisdom of the crowds • Surowiecki’s four criterias (2004) • Diversity : Each participant has different background and perspectives • Independence : Each participant makes their own decision • Decentralization : Descision are local, no central planner • Aggregation : A way to turn individual judgements into collective decisions. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 10
  11. 11. o Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 11
  12. 12. o A case study : crowdsourced transcription Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 12
  13. 13. o UCL Transcribe Betham • 60 000 manuscripts of Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) • 20 000 already transcribed using traditoinal approach, 40 000 to go • TEI Encoding. Use MediaWiki • 5 000 manuscripts transcribed (06-2013) • 33 000 volunteers but a very limited number of very productive and dedicated users • Crowdsifting instead of crowdsourcing Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 13
  14. 14. o ReCaptcha : A free anti-bot service • From http://www.google.com/ recaptcha/learnmore • 200+ million CAPTCHAs are solved by humans around the world every day. • 10 s / CAPTCHA • 150 000 hours of work each day Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 14
  15. 15. o ReCaptcha : A free anti-bot service • reCAPTCHA improves the process of digitizing books by sending words that cannot be read by computers to the Web in the form of CAPTCHAs for humans to decipher. • But if a computer can’t read such a CAPTCHA, how does the system know the correct answer to the puzzle ? Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 15
  16. 16. o ReCaptcha : A free anti-bot service • Each new word that cannot be read correctly by OCR is given to a user in conjunction with another word for which the answer is already known. • If they solve the one for which the answer is known, the system assumes their answer is correct for the new one. The system then gives the new image to a number of other people to determine, with higher confidence, whether the original answer was correct. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 16
  17. 17. o Can we use Mechanical Turk to do this ? • Who knows where the name Mechanical Turk comes from ? • Mechanical Turk permits to perform Human Intelligence Tasks (HITs) • A requester is presented with many different templates from which to choose in the design of a HIT which include a writing, survey, translation, categorization, and other templates. • 500 000 workers from over 190 countries in January 2011. • Payments are done with Amazon Payments. Requesters pay 10 % of the price of successfully completed HITs to Amazon • The average wage is about one dollar an hour (each task averaging a few cents). Some have criticized Mechanical Turk as a digital sweatshop. We will discuss this more at the end of this lecture. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 17
  18. 18. o Crowdflower : a meta-engine for crowdsourcing • Crowdflower plays the role of meta-engine or interface to several crowdsourcing services. • CrowdFlower has over 50 labor channel partners, among them Amazon Mechanical Turk • 1 billion tasks (small units of work) since it began operation, and presently does 5 man-years of work daily (Source : Wikipedia 19/11/2013) • So let’s try it. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 18
  19. 19. o Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 19
  20. 20. o Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 20
  21. 21. o Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 21
  22. 22. o Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 22
  23. 23. o Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 23
  24. 24. o Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 24
  25. 25. o Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 25
  26. 26. o Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 26
  27. 27. o Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 27
  28. 28. o Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 28
  29. 29. o Combining crowdsourcing and grammatical rules • Raw crowdsourced words transcriptions are likely to contain many errors • But we also have a good grammatical model of this venetian dialect (Thanks to the work of Lorenzo Tomasin) and a lot of venetian transcriptions. • Many errors could be automatically corrected using these bits of information. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 29
  30. 30. o Survey : Do you want to use crowdsourcing in your next semester’s project ? Should the DHLAB sponsor this ? Answer on Framapad Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 30
  31. 31. o What about crowdfunding your research project ? Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 31
  32. 32. o Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 32
  33. 33. o Crowdfunding in general • Kickstarter : 5.2 million people have pledged 882 million, funding 52 000 projects. • Kiva : 600 000+ lenders have channelled almost 275 million to entrepreneurs in the developing world. • Obama’s 2008 election campaign : 780 million, much of it from small online donations. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 33
  34. 34. o Example of a scientific Kickstarter project http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1616707907/virtual-prehistoric-worlds Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 34
  35. 35. o Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 35
  36. 36. o Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 36
  37. 37. o Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 37
  38. 38. o Crowdfunding sites • Indiegogo : http://www.indiegogo.com/ • France : http://www.ulule.com/ • Switzerland : http://wemakeit.ch/ Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 38
  39. 39. o After the pause, we will talk about Wikipedia and Gamification. In the meantime you can try Wikirace http://wikirace.christopherdebeer.com/ Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 39
  40. 40. o Why do people participate in crowdsourcing projects ? Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 40
  41. 41. o OpenStreetMap Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 41
  42. 42. o Haiti's OSM before and after the earthquake (800+ changes) Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 42
  43. 43. o Much more precise than Google maps Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 43
  44. 44. o Because the data is open, new layers can be added Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 44
  45. 45. o OSM mappers seem intrinsically motivated for building content together Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 45
  46. 46. o Is is the same for Wikipedian users ? Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 46
  47. 47. o Wikipedia demonstration Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 47
  48. 48. o Is Wikipedia a good resource ? • Some academics argue that the use of Wikipedia is not appropriate for scholarly settings, because it is collectively built by amateurs. • Achterman, D. (2005) Surviving Wikipedia : improving student search habits through information literacy and teacher collaboration, Knowdelge Quest, 33 (5), 38-40 • Black, E. (2007) Wikipedia and Academic Peer Review : Wikipedia as a recognized medium for scholarly publications ? Online Information Review, 32 (1), 73-88 Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 48
  49. 49. o Wikipedia is in perpetual beta, constantly getting better • Wikipedia is be updated and improved at a much faster rythm that other scholarly edited encyclopedias. • It improves all the time. • Several recent studies have shown that Wikipedia can equal or outperform other traditionally edited encyclopedias in terms of accuracy. • Giles, J. (2005), Internet Encyclopedia go Head to Head, Nature, 438, 900-1 Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 49
  50. 50. o Wikipedia creates a diplomatic zone • Wikipedia manages to create a diplomatic zone, where conflicts between different perspectives can be solved in search of a common neutral consensus. This is a definitive advantage compared to other static (online or printed) encyclopedias. • For diplomacy in general, see Bruno Latour, Enquetes sur les modes d’existence : Une anthropologie des modernes, La Decouverte, 2012. • Bryant, S. et al (2005) Becoming Wikpedian, In Group 05, 1-10, ACM Press Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 50
  51. 51. o Wikipedia is felt as common good • It is backed-up by many users all over the world • Therefore, it is one of the rare digital resources that is bound to last. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 51
  52. 52. o Why Wikipedia works ? Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 52
  53. 53. o Hypothesis : Wikipedia is a game Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 53
  54. 54. o Foursquare is game and a mapping service • In recent years, we have seen several examples of successful creation of collective knowledge bases using addictive games. • This is a particular case of Gamification Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 54
  55. 55. o Twitter is a game • One could argue that services for sharing/constructing collective knowledge online are also games (even if they are not presented as such). • The success of Twitter is linked with its smooth Onboarding process • We discussed this case on course 1. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 55
  56. 56. o Quora is a game Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 56
  57. 57. o Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 57
  58. 58. o Quora's strategy • Quora must attract qualified contributors to write high quality answers to questions. • Can you imagine some strategy to reach this goal ? Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 58
  59. 59. o To reach this goal, Quora chose a very clear strategy : personalize the answers, anonymize the questions Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 59
  60. 60. o Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 60
  61. 61. o Quora's strategy • Questions are not owned by the person who asks them. • They are immediatly treated as a common goods, that can be updated and modified by anyone. • On the contrary, the interface associates strongly the user and his answers. • The systematic juxtaposition between the id of the user (incl. pictures, name and short bio) and his answers introduces an equivalence between the value of an user and the value of his answers. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 61
  62. 62. o Quora's strategy • In addition, Quora introduces an explicit ranking system : the best rated answers are shown first. • Each question is thus a competition between Quora’s users. • The one who provides the best answer wins the game. • Like in Twitter, the user understands Quora’s implicit rules as he plays and learns what he must do to play well in this particular kind of games. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 62
  63. 63. o What kind of game is Wikipedia ? Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 63
  64. 64. o Wikipedia is MMORPG (Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games) Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 64
  65. 65. o Wikipedia • Onboarding : No need to be identified to start contributing. But this is necessary to climb the tiers. • Registering is like reaching level 1 • By registering, the user gets a few new powers. He can have his own webpage. He can vote. • These are first steps to motivate him to progressively discover and climb the levels of the big pyramid associated with each version of Wikipedia. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 65
  66. 66. o Wikipedia • How can one climb the tiers ? What kind of privilege have the more powerful users ? The new contributor does not know it yet. • If he persists he will discover that he can exercice different jobs in the Wikipedia world. • Administrators, Bureaucrats, Stewards, Mediators, Judge, Bot creator, Importator, Oversighter, IP Checkers. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 66
  67. 67. o Administrators • Administrators are responsible for cleaning particular pages, checking copyright issues, repair vandalism acts. • All this tasks can be done by a normal user, but an administrator has access to special powers • erase non relevant pages • protect some pages against change • block certain users • rename pages • mask the history of particular pages. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 67
  68. 68. o Administrators • How does one become an administrator ? He needs to be elected. • The following criteria are recommended : • a very good understanding of the wiki syntax, rules and global functioning of the local version of Wikipedia. • participation to maintenance works • around 3000 participations • at least one year of significant activity • The election is set on a given day and the candidate must obtain a clear majority (this notion is not absolutely well defined in the French version of Wikipedia) Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 68
  69. 69. o IP Checker • An IP Checker has access to the check-user function that permits to make explicit the connection between an user IP and his account. To become an IP Checker, one must be approved by the arbitration committee. • Only 5 persons have this privilege on the French version of Wikipedia. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 69
  70. 70. o Oversighter • Oversighter can mask a username from all the public records • mask a comment • mask a version of a page • suppress a page and mask it even to administrator • see oversighter’s special records Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 70
  71. 71. o Bots creators • Among the 30 most active editors on Wikipedia, 2/3 are bots • Bots perform repetitive tasks and can interact on Wikipedia pages like a real Wikipedia user (generate article, edit or destroy an article, translate part of an article, solve homonymy issues, correct vandalism acts) • Only a bureaucrat or a steward can allow someone to be a bot creator. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 71
  72. 72. o Bureaucrats • Bureaucrats manage the status of other users (administrators, bots, bureaucrats). • Only 8 persons have this privilege on the French version of Wikipedia. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 72
  73. 73. o Stewards are super bureaucrats • Stewards are appointed by the international comity. They can manage the status of all the others contributors. • There are only 3 stewards on the French version of Wikipedia. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 73
  74. 74. o Mediators • They can intervene during the fights but cannot vote or recommend a punitive action. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 74
  75. 75. o Judge • They can impose a punitive action • The ArbCom (Arbitration Committee) of the English version of Wikipedia has only 15 members. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 75
  76. 76. o Wikipedia has also its foundational stories • The Essjay’s controversy : Essjay was an eminent member of the Wikicratia, cumulating the functions of administrators, bureaucrats, judge and mediators. He was caught lying on his bio in this Wikipedia personal page and was banned. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 76
  77. 77. o World of Warcraft is so boring compared to Wikipedia Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 77
  78. 78. o World of Warcraft is so boring compared to Wikipedia • Ordinary clercks during the day, Wikipedian during the night. • On Wikipedia, with time and perseverance each player can have a double life, masked behind his pseudo. He can earn new powers as hardly obtained as one of a big magician in role playing heroic fantasy games. • When I wrote a first blog post on this issue, a French Wikipedia Bureaucrat pointed to me a relatively well hidden page describing Wikipedia as MMORPG. http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:MMORPG Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 78
  79. 79. o Open Debate : is crowdsourcing and gamificiation ethical ? Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 9 | 2013 79
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×