0
Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5
Digital Humanities Laboratory
Fr´d´ric Kaplan
e e
frederic.kaplan@epfl.ch
o

Peer reviewing of blog posts has started this week. Your
reviews are expected by the time of next week’s course.
You ca...
o

Semester 1 : Content of each course
• (1) 19.09 Introduction to the course / Live Tweeting and Collective note
taking
•...
o

Semester 1 : Content of each course
• (7) 6.11 Semantic modelling / RDF
• (8) 13.11 Historical Geographical Information...
o

Structure of today's course
• Presentation of the projects for semester 2
• Introduction to datafication and regulated r...
o

Presentation of projects

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

6
o

Context : The Venice Atlas. A book and an interactive site.

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

7
o

Each project could be a section of this atlas (population,
politics, timelines, etc.)

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/20...
o

What all the projects have in common
• Each project will start with a set of sources. We will suggest some possible
sou...
o

What all the projects have in common
• The project will be conducted by groups of 2-3 students
• We will present a list...
o

What you have do to
• Form groups and choose or invent a project (Deadline 13.11)
• Use Framapad for this, put your nam...
o

Timelines (T)

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

12
o

Dominio da Mar (T1)
Timeline of Dominio da Mar (cities,
fortresses, colonies)
The objective is to synthetize
chronogica...
o

Dominio da Terra Ferma (T2)
Timeline of Dominio da Terra Ferma. The
goal is to see that Venice was also
powerful on the...
o

Political structure (T3)
An evolution of the political and
administrative structure. The political and
administrative s...
o

Venetian cartography (T4)
History of Venetian Mapping from
Middle-Age to late Republic : from Fra
Mauro to Albrizzi Und...
o

3D and procedural modeling (MP)

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

17
o

A 3D model of the Venetians ships (MP1)
A 3D model of the Venetians ships
(Galleys, Coques, Bucintauro...). The goal
of...
o

Architectural grammars (MP2)
Automatic extraction of facades building
based on a picture. The objective of this
project...
o

The Lepanto battle (MP3)
A simulation of the Lepanto battle. The
Lepanto battle is still (with Trafalgar) one
of the gr...
o

Galley rowing (MP4)
How to row a Galley There were different
ways to row. The objective here is to
show in an interactiv...
o

Facades of Venice (MP5)
A complete model of all the facade of
Venice. The goal of this project is to
create a database ...
o

Data mining and pattern recognition (D)

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

23
o

Tourists pictures (D1)
A ”Google Street View” of Venice. Based
on a large number of photo taken by
tourists is it possi...
o

Ornaments in print (D2)
Matching techniques. Ornaments in print
offer a unique signature to identify the
origin of a pri...
o

Citations of the archive (D3)
Text mining. The goal of this project is to
identify which sections or documents of
the A...
o

Maritime Networks (S)

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

27
o

Piracy and corsairs (S1)
A representation of the piracy/corsairs
areas in the Mediterranean Sea. Pirates
and corsairs a...
o

High values cargoes' networks (S2)
A representation of the high values
cargoes’ networks (silk, pepper, spices,
sugar, ...
o

Pilgrimage (S3)
Pilgrimage from Venice to Jerusalem.
Testimonies are a great source and
important source of information...
o

Concurrent networks (S4)
A representation of the concurrent trades
at sea (Genovese, Pisano, Catalans,
Spanyards...) Ev...
o

Algorithm models for maritime routes (S5)
Algorithm models for maritime routes.
The objective is to model itineraries
a...
o

Route planner (S6)
A Mediterranean route planner Based on
the data available about the Venetian
ships, can we built a M...
o

Financial networks (F)

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

34
o

Financial networks (F1)
The objective of this project is to model
the the complexity of the market and the
incoming/lea...
o

Printing industry (P)

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

36
o

Venetian prints (P1)
Mapping the venetian prints in Europe
Quantitative outlook through mining of
online catalogues. Wh...
o

Mapping the printing industry inside Venice (P2)
Mapping the printing industry inside
Venice Take de’ Barbari’s map, ma...
o

Coevolution of the city with its environment (E)

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

39
o

Acque Alte (E1)
A representation of the Acque Alte. How
can we model the rising level and the
floods in Venice ?

Digita...
o

The Plague (E2)
Venice and the plague The plague’s
epidemics have been strong during the
Middle-Age and Venice as a big...
o

Life in Venice (L)

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

42
o

Demography (L1)
Representation of the demographic
evolution. Venice was one of the most
populated cities during the Mid...
o

Famous characters (L2)
Following a famous character in Venice.
What are the differences between the
Venice of Goldoni an...
o

Venetian cryptographies (L3)
Spies, code-crackers and ciphering Some
of the first code-crackers were working in
Venice, ...
o

Visual representations of power (L4)
Visual representation of power : public
ceremony and the enforcement of social
hie...
o

A Facebook of the Venetian elite (L5)
A Facebook of the Venetian elite Based
on pictorial and textual source, recreate ...
o

You can invent your own projects

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

48
o

In the last course we learn how to digitize documents.
Today we are going to learn how to code the content of a
documen...
o

The topic of today is the transformation of an image into
information : A datafication process.

Digital Humanities 101 ...
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A special form of encoding is done by the palaeographers
when they transcribe document and produce critical
editions.

...
o

They are many kinds of editions, with different focuses.
Some focus only on the textual content (the immaterial
part), ...
o

In this course, we will take a more general view on this
problem, by introducing the concept of regulated
representatio...
o

Most documents are regulated representations

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

54
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A regulated representation is a representation governed
by a set of production and usage rules.

Digital Humanities 101...
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Examples of regulated representations
• A list of names
• An accounting table
• A family tree
• A map of a region
• A C...
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Maps as regulated representations
• There are conventional presentation rules to follow when creating a map,
like indic...
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Information is encoded using a given method and
decoded using another method

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Cour...
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Using regulated representation is an act of
communication. Regulated representations impose a
structure to create a cha...
o

Regulated representations change over time.

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

60
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Regulated representation change over time
• They usually tend to become more regular.
• The general process of this reg...
o

1360

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62
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1520

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63
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1550

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64
o

1572

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65
o

1576

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66
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1765

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67
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1829

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68
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1859

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69
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1910

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70
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2006

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71
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2006

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

72
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How maps have become machines
• From a tool to machine : By becoming a machine, maps have
internalized their own usage ...
o

How maps have become machines
• The relation of maps to time changes during the mechanization process.
When the map get...
o

In the remaining part of this course, we are going to
consider only textual documents (we will talk about maps
and othe...
o

Regulated textual document are characterized by specific
layout or internal structuring.

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/...
o

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

77
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Doris Raines transcriptions of Venetian testaments

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

78
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Each family of documents is characterised by a common
structure. Each document is characterised by specific
textual cont...
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The printing press revolution is an important step in the
history of regulated textual representations

Digital Humanit...
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Principle of the printing press

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

81
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Letter punches

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Set of matrices typefoundry

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

83
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Set of matrices typefoundry

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84
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Hand Mould

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85
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Single Garamond type

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86
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Case of type

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87
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Composing stick

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

88
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Form ready for printing

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

89
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Printing press chronology (beginnings)
• Woodblock printing (China, VII c.e.)
• Cast metal movable type (Korea XIII c.e...
o

Biblia Pauperum, Wood Blocks, No movable types

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

91
o

1350

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92
o

1456

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o

1486

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o

1493

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1499

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1521

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1564

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1786

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Printing press chronology (end)
• Iron press printing (Stanhope press, 1800)
• Rotary printing press (1818, Napier)
• E...
o

How to encode the content of a document ?

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

101
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Textual document are multidimensional
• the linguistic dimension (text, grammatical rules)
• the semantic dimension (wh...
o

Coding the content of a document depends of the
purpose of a study

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 201...
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A short introduction to XML

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

104
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What is XML and what is it good for ?

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

105
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What is XML and what is it good for ?

Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013

106
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What is XML
• XML stands for eXtensibile Markup Language
• To write in XML you write text with tags : ¡atag¿ my text ¡/...
o

4 characteristics of XML
• XML is used to describe data, not to display them. XML does nothing. It
describes.
• XML tag...
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Genealogy of XML
• In the 50s, the first computers could not communicate with one another, if
they were from different br...
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HTML vs XML
• XML is a markup language like HTML.
• XML is not a replacement of HTML. The two languages have different g...
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Structure of an XML file

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XML element

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XML example

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With XML, you can create your own tags.

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The header specifies the XML version and the encoding

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115
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An XML file is like a tree

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Is this a problem ?

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117
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DTD (Document Type Description)
• A well-formed XML document follows
the general rules of XML syntax.
• A valid XML doc...
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When to use a DTD
• To use a DTD is not mandatory.
• A DTD permits to agree on common XML dialect.
• Some software perm...
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TEI (Text Encoding Initiative) is a family of special XML
dialects for describing the content of documents

Digital Hum...
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CSS and XSLT script
• The way an XML file is displayed can be
specified in a CSS stylesheet.
• A document can also be tra...
o

From XML

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122
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To XML

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XML is a pivotal format

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Debate : Is XML the right way for representing the content
of document. What are its strengths and weaknesses ?

Digita...
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In two weeks we will learn about a complementary
technique for encoding information : Semantic graphs.

Digital Humanit...
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DH101 2013/2014 course 5 - Project on Venice / Datafication / Regulated representations / XML

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Transcript of "DH101 2013/2014 course 5 - Project on Venice / Datafication / Regulated representations / XML"

  1. 1. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 Digital Humanities Laboratory Fr´d´ric Kaplan e e frederic.kaplan@epfl.ch
  2. 2. o Peer reviewing of blog posts has started this week. Your reviews are expected by the time of next week’s course. You can change your grades till the last moment. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 2
  3. 3. o Semester 1 : Content of each course • (1) 19.09 Introduction to the course / Live Tweeting and Collective note taking • (2) 25.09 Introduction to Digital Humanities / Wordpress / First assignment • (3) 2.10 Introduction to the Venice Time Machine project / Zotero • 9.10 No course • (4) 16.10 Digitization techniques / Deadline first assignment • (5) 23.10 Datafication / Presentation of projects • (6) 30.10 Pattern recognition / OCR / Deadline peer-reviewing of first assignment Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 3
  4. 4. o Semester 1 : Content of each course • (7) 6.11 Semantic modelling / RDF • (8) 13.11 Historical Geographical Information Systems, Procedural modelling / City Engine / Deadline Project selection • (9) 20.11 Crowdsourcing / Wikipedia / OpenStreetMap • (10) 27.11 Cultural heritage interfaces and visualisation / Museographic experiences • 4.12 Group work on the projects • 11.12 Oral exam / Presentation of projects / Deadline Project blog • 18.12 Oral exam / Presentation of projects Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 4
  5. 5. o Structure of today's course • Presentation of the projects for semester 2 • Introduction to datafication and regulated representations (maps + textual documents) • A short introduction to a possible content encoding tool : XML Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 5
  6. 6. o Presentation of projects Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 6
  7. 7. o Context : The Venice Atlas. A book and an interactive site. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 7
  8. 8. o Each project could be a section of this atlas (population, politics, timelines, etc.) Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 8
  9. 9. o What all the projects have in common • Each project will start with a set of sources. We will suggest some possible sources on dh101.ch, but you can add others. • These sources should be digitised (course 4) • The content of these sources will be transformed in a data model (course 5 + 7 + 8), possibly with automatic processes (course 6) • This data model will be stored in a database (course 7 + 8), possibly permitting other contributors to extend or improve the data (course 9) • This data model will be the basis of both a static (a set of images) and interactive visual representation (an HTML5, UNITY or or other site) (course 8 + course 10) Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 9
  10. 10. o What all the projects have in common • The project will be conducted by groups of 2-3 students • We will present a list of possible projects (but you can also invent your own provided that it respects the common features and objectives described on the previous slide) Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 10
  11. 11. o What you have do to • Form groups and choose or invent a project (Deadline 13.11) • Use Framapad for this, put your name under the project you are interested in. • Create an independent blog (NOT dh101.ch) for your project including (Deadline 11.12, 30 % of your final grade). • The definition of the project objectives and deliverables (100 words) • A methodology section (How you will approach the digitization, modelisation and presentation of your data) (750 words) • A project plan with milestones • Present the project orally in group on 11.12 or 18.12 (7 minutes presentations + 3 minutes questions, 20 % of your final grade) Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 11
  12. 12. o Timelines (T) Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 12
  13. 13. o Dominio da Mar (T1) Timeline of Dominio da Mar (cities, fortresses, colonies) The objective is to synthetize chronogically the Venetians settlements overseas. You will have to separate the direct administration and the places indirectly supervised by Venice. Territories will appear and disappear over the centuries. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 13
  14. 14. o Dominio da Terra Ferma (T2) Timeline of Dominio da Terra Ferma. The goal is to see that Venice was also powerful on the ground and locked the key sites for exchanges and money : rivers, cities, roads. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 14
  15. 15. o Political structure (T3) An evolution of the political and administrative structure. The political and administrative structure of Venice is special. It’s a complex game of control and retro-control. The objective here is to visualize and to understand over the years, how this system has been built and what are the events at the origin of their creation. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 15
  16. 16. o Venetian cartography (T4) History of Venetian Mapping from Middle-Age to late Republic : from Fra Mauro to Albrizzi Understand the complex issues involved with mapping and geographical representations in different times. Following the work of prominent Venetian cartographers via prominent examples available online, visually highlight the evolution of such craft. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 16
  17. 17. o 3D and procedural modeling (MP) Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 17
  18. 18. o A 3D model of the Venetians ships (MP1) A 3D model of the Venetians ships (Galleys, Coques, Bucintauro...). The goal of this project is to reconstruct in 3D the model of some kinds of ships (including the inside of ships !), based on the documentation gathered by the DHLAB. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 18
  19. 19. o Architectural grammars (MP2) Automatic extraction of facades building based on a picture. The objective of this project is to build a system to extract the architectural grammar of a building based on a single picture and to use the resulting models to recreate unknown building using procedural approaches. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 19
  20. 20. o The Lepanto battle (MP3) A simulation of the Lepanto battle. The Lepanto battle is still (with Trafalgar) one of the greatest naval battles of the history. It’s well documented and painted. The objective of this project is to enter the core of the battle and to go beyond the narration or the simple 2D visualizations. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 20
  21. 21. o Galley rowing (MP4) How to row a Galley There were different ways to row. The objective here is to show in an interactive and didactic manner the technics for moving those giants of the seas. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 21
  22. 22. o Facades of Venice (MP5) A complete model of all the facade of Venice. The goal of this project is to create a database of all the facades of all the buildings of Venice. The starting point will be some existing 3D models like one of Google Earth from which could be extracted low quality pictures. The challenge will be to improve these pictures to create higher resolutions models. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 22
  23. 23. o Data mining and pattern recognition (D) Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 23
  24. 24. o Tourists pictures (D1) A ”Google Street View” of Venice. Based on a large number of photo taken by tourists is it possible to build a kind of ”Google street view” of Venice ? What else can we extract from these pictures ? Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 24
  25. 25. o Ornaments in print (D2) Matching techniques. Ornaments in print offer a unique signature to identify the origin of a printed documents. The goal of the project is to extract from a database of document ornaments presented on each page and to design a classifier permitting to attribute a given set of ornaments to a given venetian printer. The tool could be used to map the diffusion of venetian prints Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 25
  26. 26. o Citations of the archive (D3) Text mining. The goal of this project is to identify which sections or documents of the Archivio di Stato are most often used by scholars. The project could use text mining techniques on articles or scanned books to create representations of the parts of the archive that are the most used Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 26
  27. 27. o Maritime Networks (S) Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 27
  28. 28. o Piracy and corsairs (S1) A representation of the piracy/corsairs areas in the Mediterranean Sea. Pirates and corsairs are where the high values cargoes are transiting. The project can model one type or another or follow some famous characters. The objective is to localize the dangerous areas and the conflicts with the Venetians maritime routes. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 28
  29. 29. o High values cargoes' networks (S2) A representation of the high values cargoes’ networks (silk, pepper, spices, sugar, wood, metal, cotton, slaves...) The objective is to model the network for trading pepper, cotton, salt, slaves ... from their countries of origin. This project can be easily divided into several subprojects focusing on one good. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 29
  30. 30. o Pilgrimage (S3) Pilgrimage from Venice to Jerusalem. Testimonies are a great source and important source of information. The idea here is to extract the information from a pilgrim about the trip on board of a Venetian galley and to model the trip. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 30
  31. 31. o Concurrent networks (S4) A representation of the concurrent trades at sea (Genovese, Pisano, Catalans, Spanyards...) Everyone has an archenemy. Venice had some for quite some time and the major one was Genoa. The objective here is to localize the main ports and stopovers and to model their shipping lanes. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 31
  32. 32. o Algorithm models for maritime routes (S5) Algorithm models for maritime routes. The objective is to model itineraries automatically when the stopovers are known and to add collateral data such as winds, currents, speeds known for the ships used, etc. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 32
  33. 33. o Route planner (S6) A Mediterranean route planner Based on the data available about the Venetian ships, can we built a Mediterranean route planner ? If I am in Corfu in june 1342 and want to get to Constantinople, when can I take a boat ? Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 33
  34. 34. o Financial networks (F) Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 34
  35. 35. o Financial networks (F1) The objective of this project is to model the the complexity of the market and the incoming/leaving flows of money in the Venetian empire. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 35
  36. 36. o Printing industry (P) Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 36
  37. 37. o Venetian prints (P1) Mapping the venetian prints in Europe Quantitative outlook through mining of online catalogues. What was printed and when ? Where is it now ? Query online catalogs for Venetian printed old books (i.e. before 1797), build a database out of that. Make the database accessible via a geomap, and add a time slider. What can you conclude about Venetian printing industry on the long run ? Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 37
  38. 38. o Mapping the printing industry inside Venice (P2) Mapping the printing industry inside Venice Take de’ Barbari’s map, make it interactive with information about the position of the different printing shop, academies and other places of culture. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 38
  39. 39. o Coevolution of the city with its environment (E) Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 39
  40. 40. o Acque Alte (E1) A representation of the Acque Alte. How can we model the rising level and the floods in Venice ? Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 40
  41. 41. o The Plague (E2) Venice and the plague The plague’s epidemics have been strong during the Middle-Age and Venice as a big city has been hit badly. The idea is to visualize the propagation of the disease into town as well as the major changes the Venetian administration in order to handle the epidemics (quarantine, doctors, lazaretto...). Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 41
  42. 42. o Life in Venice (L) Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 42
  43. 43. o Demography (L1) Representation of the demographic evolution. Venice was one of the most populated cities during the Middle-Age. A few information is available. How did Venice grow ? Where are the major incidents ? Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 43
  44. 44. o Famous characters (L2) Following a famous character in Venice. What are the differences between the Venice of Goldoni and the Venice of Byron ? What were the building they could have visited, where they were meeting friends, hanging out. Can we follow them into town ? Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 44
  45. 45. o Venetian cryptographies (L3) Spies, code-crackers and ciphering Some of the first code-crackers were working in Venice, as Giovanni Soro at the beginning of the 16th century, known as the father of modern cryptography. What did ciphers look like at the time in Venice ? How and when were they used ? Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 45
  46. 46. o Visual representations of power (L4) Visual representation of power : public ceremony and the enforcement of social hierarchy Get a scholarly understanding of the socio-political implications of public ceremonies via literature. Select meaningful paintings (or other sources), and build a visual explanation of (some of) these events. The project could do comparisons or highlights of relations/differences. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 46
  47. 47. o A Facebook of the Venetian elite (L5) A Facebook of the Venetian elite Based on pictorial and textual source, recreate a database of the Venetian elite, with images of all the most important characters. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 47
  48. 48. o You can invent your own projects Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 48
  49. 49. o In the last course we learn how to digitize documents. Today we are going to learn how to code the content of a document in a structured format. Next week we will see how we can automatise such kind of encoding through pattern recognition. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 49
  50. 50. o The topic of today is the transformation of an image into information : A datafication process. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 50
  51. 51. o A special form of encoding is done by the palaeographers when they transcribe document and produce critical editions. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 51
  52. 52. o They are many kinds of editions, with different focuses. Some focus only on the textual content (the immaterial part), others describe also aspects of the document itself (the material part). It all depends on the goal and expected usages of the transcription. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 52
  53. 53. o In this course, we will take a more general view on this problem, by introducing the concept of regulated representation. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 53
  54. 54. o Most documents are regulated representations Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 54
  55. 55. o A regulated representation is a representation governed by a set of production and usage rules. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 55
  56. 56. o Examples of regulated representations • A list of names • An accounting table • A family tree • A map of a region • A Census Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 56
  57. 57. o Maps as regulated representations • There are conventional presentation rules to follow when creating a map, like indicating the scale or the direction of the North and conventional methods to follow in order to create the map contents. • In terms of usage, one must learn how to read a map. This map-reading skill also involves many related skills for handling the map, orientating oneself in front of it, etc. These skills are either taught or learnt by imitation. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 57
  58. 58. o Information is encoded using a given method and decoded using another method Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 58
  59. 59. o Using regulated representation is an act of communication. Regulated representations impose a structure to create a channel. On this channel some information can be transmitted. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 59
  60. 60. o Regulated representations change over time. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 60
  61. 61. o Regulated representation change over time • They usually tend to become more regular. • The general process of this regulating tendency is the transformation of conventions into a mechanisms • The regulation usually proceeds in two consecutive steps : • mechanizing the representation production rules • mechanizing its conventional usages. • Ultimately, through this process, regulated representations tend to become machines Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 61
  62. 62. o 1360 Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 62
  63. 63. o 1520 Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 63
  64. 64. o 1550 Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 64
  65. 65. o 1572 Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 65
  66. 66. o 1576 Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 66
  67. 67. o 1765 Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 67
  68. 68. o 1829 Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 68
  69. 69. o 1859 Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 69
  70. 70. o 1910 Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 70
  71. 71. o 2006 Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 71
  72. 72. o 2006 Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 72
  73. 73. o How maps have become machines • From a tool to machine : By becoming a machine, maps have internalized their own usage rules. As machines, they offer much more possibilities than traditional maps. However, these various new modes of usage are explicitly programmed. • As maps became machines, they are progressively merged into a global mechanic system in which a multitude of maps became aggregated into a single one. As regulated representations get more regular, they tend to aggregate into unified systems. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 73
  74. 74. o How maps have become machines • The relation of maps to time changes during the mechanization process. When the map gets fully mechanized, the image of a map becomes just a transitory state that can be automatically updated at any moment to reflect more accurately the state of the earth. • Mechanization changes where the value lies. What is of value in the new associated economy is not the map contents but the traces of usage left by the map readers. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 74
  75. 75. o In the remaining part of this course, we are going to consider only textual documents (we will talk about maps and other kinds of objects in another course) Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 75
  76. 76. o Regulated textual document are characterized by specific layout or internal structuring. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 76
  77. 77. o Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 77
  78. 78. o Doris Raines transcriptions of Venetian testaments Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 78
  79. 79. o Each family of documents is characterised by a common structure. Each document is characterised by specific textual content. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 79
  80. 80. o The printing press revolution is an important step in the history of regulated textual representations Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 80
  81. 81. o Principle of the printing press Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 81
  82. 82. o Letter punches Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 82
  83. 83. o Set of matrices typefoundry Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 83
  84. 84. o Set of matrices typefoundry Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 84
  85. 85. o Hand Mould Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 85
  86. 86. o Single Garamond type Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 86
  87. 87. o Case of type Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 87
  88. 88. o Composing stick Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 88
  89. 89. o Form ready for printing Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 89
  90. 90. o Printing press chronology (beginnings) • Woodblock printing (China, VII c.e.) • Cast metal movable type (Korea XIII c.e.) • Paper starts to be used in Europe (rag paper), from Asia. First paper mills (XIV) • Block printing in Europe, esp. cheap devotion publications (beginning XV) / Block book Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 90
  91. 91. o Biblia Pauperum, Wood Blocks, No movable types Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 91
  92. 92. o 1350 Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 92
  93. 93. o 1456 Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 93
  94. 94. o 1486 Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 94
  95. 95. o 1493 Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 95
  96. 96. o 1499 Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 96
  97. 97. o 1521 Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 97
  98. 98. o 1564 Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 98
  99. 99. o 1786 Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 99
  100. 100. o Printing press chronology (end) • Iron press printing (Stanhope press, 1800) • Rotary printing press (1818, Napier) • Electrotyping (1838) • Type-composing machine (1841) • Industrial paper made from wood pulp (1870) • Linotype machine (1886) • First Xerox inkjet printer (1955) • First 3d printer (1984) Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 100
  101. 101. o How to encode the content of a document ? Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 101
  102. 102. o Textual document are multidimensional • the linguistic dimension (text, grammatical rules) • the semantic dimension (what the word means) • the literary dimension (style, rhetorical features) • the graphemic dimension (the kind of letter forms used to represent sounds) • the iconic dimension (the ornaments in the document) • the codicological dimension (the study of the manuscript itself) • All these dimensions can be studied separately (cf. Elena Pierazzo on Digital Scholarly Editing http://www.elenapierazzo.org/) Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 102
  103. 103. o Coding the content of a document depends of the purpose of a study Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 103
  104. 104. o A short introduction to XML Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 104
  105. 105. o What is XML and what is it good for ? Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 105
  106. 106. o What is XML and what is it good for ? Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 106
  107. 107. o What is XML • XML stands for eXtensibile Markup Language • To write in XML you write text with tags : ¡atag¿ my text ¡/atag ¿ • This can be done in any text editor. • XML is a W3C recommandation Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 107
  108. 108. o 4 characteristics of XML • XML is used to describe data, not to display them. XML does nothing. It describes. • XML tags are not predefined. You can define your own tags. This gives you a lot of freedom to describe the structure you want to describe. • When you are satisfied with your structure, you can fix our XML language by writing a DTD (Document Type Description). Thus, XML permits both fluidity and then rigor. • XML is designed to be self-descriptive and easily readable. It is used to write pivotal descriptions in production chains. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 108
  109. 109. o Genealogy of XML • In the 50s, the first computers could not communicate with one another, if they were from different brands. • In the 60s, IBM creates GML (Generalized Markup Language) to enable data exchanges and make the data structure explicit. This is a great success. It becomes a standard : SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language). The US fed gov. adopts it. • In the 90s, Tim Berners-Lee at CERN creates the HTML language using a subset of SGML. HTML get specialized in displaying data but does not impose a standard way for describing data. A group of researchers imagines another language to do this. The first version of XML is ready in 1998. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 109
  110. 110. o HTML vs XML • XML is a markup language like HTML. • XML is not a replacement of HTML. The two languages have different goals. • XML is for the transport and the description of structured data. • XML does nothing. It just describes. • XML is like a database in plain text. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 110
  111. 111. o Structure of an XML file Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 111
  112. 112. o XML element Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 112
  113. 113. o XML example Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 113
  114. 114. o With XML, you can create your own tags. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 114
  115. 115. o The header specifies the XML version and the encoding Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 115
  116. 116. o An XML file is like a tree Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 116
  117. 117. o Is this a problem ? Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 117
  118. 118. o DTD (Document Type Description) • A well-formed XML document follows the general rules of XML syntax. • A valid XML document follows the specific rules written in a DTD (Document Type Description) Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 118
  119. 119. o When to use a DTD • To use a DTD is not mandatory. • A DTD permits to agree on common XML dialect. • Some software permit to check whether an XML file is valid compared to a given DTD. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 119
  120. 120. o TEI (Text Encoding Initiative) is a family of special XML dialects for describing the content of documents Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 120
  121. 121. o CSS and XSLT script • The way an XML file is displayed can be specified in a CSS stylesheet. • A document can also be transformed using an XSLT script. This is now the recommended method Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 121
  122. 122. o From XML Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 122
  123. 123. o To XML Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 123
  124. 124. o XML is a pivotal format Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 124
  125. 125. o Debate : Is XML the right way for representing the content of document. What are its strengths and weaknesses ? Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 125
  126. 126. o In two weeks we will learn about a complementary technique for encoding information : Semantic graphs. Digital Humanities 101 - 2013/2014 - Course 5 | 2013 126
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