3d scanning for digital heritage

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3d scanning for digital heritage

  1. 1. 1 Using 3D data for Cultural Heritage and Digital Humanities Roberto Scopigno Visual Computing Lab. CNR-ISTI Pisa, Italy R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 1 Overview o  Prologue: Enabling technologies o  Which uses of digital 3D models in Cultural Heritage applications? (Beyond visualization) n  To study works of art n  To document on-site archaeology research n  To support restoration o  What could/would we expect from future research?
  2. 2. 2 Prologue: enabling technologies R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 2 3D Scanning Geometry Processing Rendering (Semantic) Repositories Rendering !! Computer graphics people love to produce images, videos or computer animations… !! Some issues in the case of 3D scanned models: "! How to support the interactive visualization of huge meshes Usually, single object inspection at high resolution "! Huge data access on web/internet ? R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 3
  3. 3. 3 Beyond visualization: 3D models for physical reproduction R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 4 R. Scopigno, 3D & CH Using the data - Beyond Rendering o  Support physical reproduction from digital 3D models (avoiding to cast endangered artifacts) n  With no harm for the original (much safer than “calco”) n  In any reproduction scale (1:1, reduced, magnified) n  Using many different materials (plastic, gypsum, stone, marble …) n  Cost are becoming affordable 5
  4. 4. 4 R. Scopigno, 3D & CH Digital 3D for reproduction o  Calco (mold) n  Can reproduce only in 1:1 scale n  Can be used only for a small number of copies n  Copies are only in gypsum or resina n  It may degrade the original (removal of patinas or small detachable parts) n  It is very precise (false belief!) o  Digital 3D model n  Can reproduce in any scale n  Can be used forever n  Copies are in many materials (e.g. marble, stone) n  It is a not-contact, safe technology n  It is less precise (false belief!) 6 R. Scopigno, 3D & CH A recent reproduction experience o  Goal: highly accurate reproduction in marble of a Roman head of Mecenate (by German Ministry of Research) o  Work was supervised by Prof. Bernard Andreae o  Original plan: mold + reproduction in resin with marble powder o  But: no more possible to cast (recent Italian law!) ==> 3D scan + semi-automatic reproduction o  Prof. B. Andreae was enthusiastic of the final result! 7
  5. 5. 5 Beyond visualization: 3D models for studying artworks R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 8 Tools for scholars: CENOBIUM •  Project started in 2006 •  Goal: provide an instrument for CH scholars to study medieval sculpture (capitols in Romanic cloisters) •  Partners: CNR-ISTI & Kunsthistorische Institute - Max Plank •  Plan: •  Digitize (2D and 3D) carved capitols in main EU cloisters (so far: Monreale, Aosta, Cefalù, Ongoing: Spain – Silos) •  Design a web-based system for consultation and visualization, provide access to all multimedia data (text, images, 3D models) •  Design it as an easy extendable repository •  Access it at: http://cenobium.isti.cnr.it/ 9R. Scopigno, 3D & CH
  6. 6. 6 R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 10 Monreale cloister 10 3D models: -  Scanned 20 capitals (Minolta VI910) -  120-200 scan per capital -  3D Models: 4-6 M triangles -  With color images mapped on the 3D model Demo 3D… Photos: -  all capitals -  8 shots (16M pixel) R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 11
  7. 7. 7 R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 12 CENOBIUM - Video "! Cenobium.vwm R. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CH 12121212 CENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - VideoCENOBIUM - Video """"""" Cenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwmCenobium.vwm R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 13 CENOBIUM evolution Recent Work: Improving compression of 3D models "! A new compression algorithm for the multi-resolution representation (Nexus) "! Better compression rate, faster decompression on GPU "! Implemented but still unpublished Future work: Eliminating the need of a plugin for 3D data viz "! Avoid installation at user side "! We are designing a solution integrated with the new web browsers (endorsing WebGL) "! Based on SpiderGL ( http://www.spidergl.org/ ) "! Already working for low/medium-resolution models "! Future work: extend it to support also multi-resolution models (Nexus)
  8. 8. 8 R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 14 Assessing an attribution hypothesis A composite bronze artwork (Archaeological Museum, Florence, Italy) n  Rider: Roman bronzette n  Horse: o  Renaissance period, very high quality o  Attributed to Benvenuto Cellini’s workshop o  Major evidence cited in Eugene Plon’s “Vita e opere di Cellini”(1883) book: “… it exist a letter where Duke Cosimo 1st dei Medici asks to Cellini to provide a horse for a newly discovered rider bronzette…” R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 15 A second artwork Leonardo da Vinci’s Silverpoint #12358 from the Royal Library in Windsor Castle, UK (1480, 20 y before Cellini’s birth) o  A new hypothesis by Marc Fondersmith: o  It could be an optically traced drawing of the small bronze horse in Florence è invalidating the known attribution
  9. 9. 9 R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 16 The attribution hypothesis ... that is ... “Leonardo used a camera obscura (or some other optical device) to create the Windsor metalpoint” “The drawing was traced in two stages: first, he traced the body of the horse, then he rotated the bronze and drew the head from above” R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 17 Using 3D graphics to assess similarities o  We worked on this on 2007, after contacts with Mark Fondersmith o  The Archeological Museum gave the permission to scan o  We proceed with 3D scanning and further analysis on the digital model n  Scan w. Konica Minolta VI910 n  Photographic sampling
  10. 10. 10 R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 18 Finding a camera for a bronze-drawing matching How to perform a shape comparison between the 3D model and the drawing? Try to project-back the drawing on the 3D model, as if it was an image of the latter We used TexAlign, an ISTI-CNR software created to align set of photos onto a 3D model Snapshot from TexAlign: 1) Select a few image-to- geometry correspondences R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 19 Finding a camera for a bronze-drawing matching Snapshot from TexAlign: 2) Calibration by an error minimization algorithm 3) Calculation of the camera viewpoint (camera intrinsic & extrinsic param.)
  11. 11. 11 R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 20 Results TexAlign converges, returning correct camera specs! Camera positions: are they compatible with the use of a camera obscura? Straight position Rotated position R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 21 Results Alignment results: is there a real correspondence between the silohuettes? Straight position
  12. 12. 12 R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 22 Results - Video "! Horse_Alignment.wmv R. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CH 22222222 Results - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - VideoResults - Video """"""" Horse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmvHorse_Alignment.wmv Study of chisel marks !! Many artworks still present detail on marks / residual traces of the carving instruments "! Study of the sculpting technique of an artist "! Could be used for attribution purposes? !! Study done manually by scholars (visual inspection and measuring) !! Some attempts in the past to adopt digital 3D models – digital measures and visualization tools (non-photorealistic rendering) R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 23 Image by Levoy et al, 2000 Image by Rusinkiewicz et al, 2006
  13. 13. 13 Study of chisel marks – our approach !! Decouple high-frequency detail from basic shape !! Move from 3D space to 2D domain –user driven & interactive mapping, controlled distortion !! Use standard 2D tools to characterize, measure and compare the residual traces in 2D space R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 24 !! Paper presented at IEEE Viz 2011 Study of chisel marks - Video !! videoVIZ2011_final.mov R. 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Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CH 25252525
  14. 14. 14 Beyond visualization: 3D models for documenting on-site archaeology research R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 26 R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 2727 Documenting archeology excavations o  Issues: n  Working on-site requires easily deployable technologies o  Often remote locations, no electricity, not easy to reach o  Budgets are small è prefer cheap technology n  Time is important: o  Should be able to document the progressive evolution in time of the excavation with a small overhead cost (manpower for acquisition and processing) o  Should be possible to easily compare and visualize the different status (comparative visualization) o  A possible enabling technology: 3D from streams of images
  15. 15. 15 R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 2828 Documenting archeology excavations (2) !! Arc3D (or similar technologies) have a great potential: "! Just a digital camera (no added costs), photo acquisition is very fast and easy "! Still not very fast to produce a 3D model from photos (e.g. by MeshLab) due to the large number of photos/ range maps to process "! Produce immediately 3D models with color data, sufficient accuracy for monitoring and documenting purposes "! Some extensions planned on MeshLab to support improved management of layered models (showing changes over time)… R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 2929 Documenting archeology excavations (3) !! An example: R. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CH
  16. 16. 16 R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 3030 Documenting archeology excavations (4) !! Please note that we produce 3D model(s) and large set of images (w. time stamps) !! Might we use a different way to present those data? !! Replace interactive 3D (shape+color) visualization with a navigation approach where the two media (3D and images) are presented in a coordinated manner !! Our PhotoCloud tool… R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 31 Video: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.avi R. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. Scopigno, 3D & CHR. 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Scopigno, 3D & CH 31313131 Video: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.aviVideo: PhotoCloud-Cavalieri20110614.avi
  17. 17. 17 Beyond visualization: 3D models for restoring artworks R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 32 R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 3333 Supporting CH restoration Digital 3D models can be used to aid CH restorers in several ways: n  Document the status of the artwork before, during and after restoration o  Examples on Michelangelo’s David, Minerva of Arezzo, Ammannati’s Nettuno, … n  Support the restoration of fragmented artifacts o  Examples: Madonna of Pietranico n  Support the design, presentation and assessment of the virtual restoration of polychromes decorations o  Examples: Madonna of Pietranico, Luni,
  18. 18. 18 R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 3434 Madonna of Pietranico o  A Renaissance terracotta statue o  Severely damaged by the recent Abruzzo earthquake n  19 large pieces + many others of smaller size o  Restoration plan: n  Recompose the puzzle (find junctions between pieces) n  Design a structure to hold the pieces together n  Reassemble the statue n  Restore the surfaces o  Investigate the original polychrome decoration R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 3535 Madonna – Digital 3D model construction o  Scanned with a Konica Minolta VI910 laser scanner n  All 19 large pieces n  580 single range maps n  6.5 GB of raw data n  Processed with MeshLab o  Photographic campaign n  Acquisition of color detail and mapping on the 3D models o  Final results n  All fragments in accurate digital 3D encoding (shape + color)
  19. 19. 19 R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 3636 Madonna – Digital reassembly o  Few fragments (19, not thousands) n  Not really important to search for matching surfaces (as in works by Pottman et al., Brown et al.) n  Fragments present eroded fracture surfaces (not clear sharp matching surfaces) n  Position of adjoining fragments showed us by the restorers n  Matching position gathered in digital form by a single range map shot over the adjoining fragments pair n  This data was used to buildup a global digital reassembly… R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 3737 Madonna – Digital reassembly (2) o  Some degrees of freedom in global reassembly n  Statue composed by three elements: throne, legs and bust/ head n  Already subject to other historical restorations (changed the overall layout of the three elements) n  Eroded surfaces of contact, missing portions o  E.g. 80% of the neck was missing è  Pressing need to study different recombination options and to evaluate them visually (quite impossible to do on the real artwork due to weight and fragility)
  20. 20. 20 R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 3838 Madonna – Digital reassembly (3) o  The results after some iterations with the restorers R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 3939 Reassembly – Future work o  We are designing an interactive system to support the reassembly of fragmented / incomplete artworks n  Semi-automatic: include the expert in the loop! n  Support the definition of user-defined constraints that link the fragments: o  Adiacency, distance, surface matching, decoration matching, angle, … n  Those define a graph of constraints over the set of fragments n  Find an optimal displacement of the pieces by computing an optimal solution that satisfies all defined constraints
  21. 21. 21 R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 4040 Madonna – Real reassembly o  The fragments cannot be simply glued together to recompose the real artwork n  Not sufficient contact surfaces to produce a stable connection (e.g. head-bust) by glueing n  Should be possible to decompose the reassembly (for travelling purposes)  Need of a structure to hold the pieces n  Initial planning: a metallic structure (sort of internal tree) n  Innovative solution proposed: o  Model the internal void space with CG tools o  Reproduce via rapid prototyping o  Use this filling element to put in the correct position all the fragments R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 4141 Madonna – Real reassembly (2)
  22. 22. 22 Madonna – Real reassembly (3) 42R. Scopigno, 3D & CH R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 4343 Madonna – Polychrome decoration !! The artwork surface was decorated (painted) !! Historical restorations affected severely the conservation of the polychrome decoration !! Initial plan: "! Cleaning of the surfaces, removing previous restoration additions "! Study of the remains of the original decoration "! Digital restoration of the original decoration on the 3D model (using the mesh painting features of MeshLab) "! Light physical restoration (cannot be a major retouching or global repainting!)
  23. 23. 23 R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 4444 Madonna – Polychrome decoration (2) o  Problems encountered: n  Cleaning of the surfaces revealed a very scarce preservation of the original decoration, due to earthquake damages and previous restorations n  The polychrome decoration was very complex: o  Base layout of plaster to make the surface smoother (later removed by previous restorations) o  Use of layers of silver and gold leaf to increase lightness of the overlaid multiple paint layers o  Complex “dithering” of different tints/colors to imitate complex materials (tissue in the vest, etc.) R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 4545 Madonna – Polychrome decoration (3) o  What we learned: n  Not enough information to produce a scientifically demonstrated reconstruction of the polychrome decoration (CH experts do not like to “interpolate” knowledge as CG people usually do, they are terribly scared) n  The lack of the preparatory plaster layout made very complex to paint color over the rough surface of the terracotta o  Extension needed to allow to change the surface (deposition of a layer of preparatory material) è painting material deposition? n  The complexity of the polychrome layout was not easy to reproduce with the basic color painting and rendering features of MeshLab o  Extensions needed to allow to manage layers of colors /materials and to use those layered representation at rendering time
  24. 24. 24 R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 4646 Madonna – Polychrome decoration (4) !! Results R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 47 Conclusions What could we expect from future research? !! 3D scanning technology is now enough consolidated, we can produce high quality digital models of objects of interest !! The next wave is the design of interesting applications fulfilling the needs of CH scholars and practitioners !! There are still issues in visualization/rendering (web-based, high quality, etc.) BUT we should go beyond pure visualization !! Deeper integration of 3D models and of the related knowledge – Repositories and MM presentation systems which should allow a deeper integration of the different media and metadata !! Many applications open also interesting issues in terms of geometry processing kernels – Space for further research on GP finalized to / originated by clear CH needs
  25. 25. 25 R. Scopigno, 3D & CH 48 Questions? Presentation based on: o  R. Scopigno et al, “3D models for CH: beyond plain visualization”, IEEE Computer, July 2011 o  Contact: Visual Computing Lab of CNR-ISTI http://vcg.isti.cnr.it http://www.isti.cnr.it r.scopigno@isti.cnr.it

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