0
Table of Contents <ul><li>Section 1   The World of Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2   Themes in Biology </li></ul><ul><...
Objectives <ul><li>Relate   the relevance of biology to a person’s daily life. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe   the importance...
Biology and You <ul><li>Biology and Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biology   is the study of life and can be used to both s...
Chapter  1 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Biology Section 1  The World of Biology
Characteristics of Life <ul><li>Living things share the same 7 characteristics: organization and cells, response to stimul...
Chapter  1 The Seven Properties of Life Section 1  The World of Biology
Characteristics of Life,  continued <ul><li>Organization and Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization  is the high degree ...
Characteristics of Life,  continued <ul><li>Organization and Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicellular   organisms are mad...
Section 1  The World of Biology Chapter  1 Characteristics of Life,  continued <ul><li>Response to Stimuli </li></ul><ul><...
Section 1  The World of Biology Chapter  1 Characteristics of Life,  continued <ul><li>Homeostasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A...
Section 1  The World of Biology Chapter  1 Characteristics of Life,  continued <ul><li>Metabolism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Me...
Section 1  The World of Biology Chapter  1 Characteristics of Life,  continued <ul><li>Growth and Development </li></ul><u...
Section 1  The World of Biology Chapter  1 Characteristics of Life,  continued <ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Section 1  The World of Biology Chapter  1 Characteristics of Life,  continued <ul><li>Change Through Time </li></ul><ul><...
Chapter  1 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Evolution Section 1  The World of Biology
Section 2  Themes in Biology Chapter  1 Objectives <ul><li>Identify   three important themes that help explain the living ...
Section 2  Themes in Biology Chapter  1 Diversity and Unity of Life <ul><li>Unity in the Diversity of Life </li></ul><ul><...
Section 2  Themes in Biology Chapter  1 Diversity and Unity of Life,  continued <ul><li>Unity in the Diversity of Life </l...
Chapter  1 Phylogenetic Diagram of Living Organisms Section 2  Themes in Biology
Section 2  Themes in Biology Chapter  1 Diversity and Unity of Life,  continued <ul><li>Three Domains of Life </li></ul><u...
Interdependence of Organisms <ul><li>Organisms live in interdependent communities and interact with both organisms and the...
Evolution of Life <ul><li>Evolution ,  or descent with modification, is the process in which the inherited characteristics...
Section 2  Themes in Biology Chapter  1 Evolution of Life,  continued <ul><li>Natural Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natu...
Chapter  1 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Natural Selection Section 2  Themes in Biology
Section 3  The Study of Biology Chapter  1 Objectives <ul><li>Outline   the main steps in the scientific method. </li></ul...
Science as a Process Section 3  The Study of Biology Chapter  1 <ul><li>Steps of the Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Scientific Processes Section 3  The Study of Biology Chapter  1
Chapter  1 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Scientific Method Section 3  The Study of Biology
Observing and Asking Questions <ul><li>The process of science begins with an observation.  </li></ul><ul><li>An  observati...
Forming a Hypothesis <ul><li>A  hypothesis  is a proposed explanation for the way a particular aspect of the natural world...
Forming a Hypothesis,  continued <ul><li>Predicting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To test a hypothesis, scientists make a  predict...
Designing an Experiment <ul><li>Performing the Experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A  controlled experiment  compares an expe...
Chapter  1 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Controlled Experiment and Variable Section 3  The Study...
Section 3  The Study of Biology Chapter  1 Designing an Experiment,  continued <ul><li>Performing the Experiment </li></ul...
Section 3  The Study of Biology Chapter  1 Designing an Experiment,  continued <ul><li>Performing the Experiment </li></ul...
Chapter  1 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Independent and Dependent Variables Section 3  The Stud...
Section 3  The Study of Biology Chapter  1 Designing an Experiment,  continued <ul><li>Testing the Experiment </li></ul><u...
Section 3  The Study of Biology Chapter  1 Collecting and Analyzing Data <ul><li>Analyzing and Comparing Data </li></ul><u...
Section 3  The Study of Biology Chapter  1 Drawing Conclusions <ul><li>Making Inferences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An  inferen...
Section 3  The Study of Biology Chapter  1 Drawing Conclusions,  continued <ul><li>Applying Results and Building Models </...
Section 3  The Study of Biology Chapter  1 Constructing a Theory <ul><li>A  theory  is a set of related hypotheses confirm...
Section 3  The Study of Biology Chapter  1 Communicating Ideas <ul><li>Publishing a Paper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists...
Section 3  The Study of Biology Chapter  1 Honesty and Bias <ul><li>Communication between scientists about their methods a...
Section 3  The Study of Biology Chapter  1 Honesty and Bias <ul><li>Conflict of Interest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The threat ...
Section 4  Tools and Techniques Chapter  1 Objectives <ul><li>List   the function of each of the major parts of a compound...
Microscopes as Tools <ul><li>Light Microscopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A  compound light microscope  is a microscope that sh...
Microscopes as Tools <ul><li>Light Microscopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The  eyepiece  magnifies the image. </li></ul></ul><u...
Microscopes as Tools,  continued <ul><li>Magnification and Resolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnification  is the increase...
Object Size and Magnifying  Power of Microscopes Section 4  Tools and Techniques Chapter  1
Section 4  Tools and Techniques Chapter  1 Microscopes as Tools,  continued <ul><li>Electron Microscopes </li></ul><ul><ul...
Section 4  Tools and Techniques Chapter  1 Microscopes as Tools,  continued <ul><li>Electron Microscopes </li></ul><ul><ul...
Section 4  Tools and Techniques Chapter  1 Units of Measurement <ul><li>Base and Other Units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scienti...
Section 4  Tools and Techniques Chapter  1 Units of Measurement <ul><li>Base and Other Units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The met...
Section 4  Tools and Techniques Chapter  1 Safety <ul><li>Good Laboratory Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lab safety involv...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Introduction To Biology Notes

15,331

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
2 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
15,331
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
253
Comments
2
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Introduction To Biology Notes"

  1. 1. Table of Contents <ul><li>Section 1 The World of Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2 Themes in Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Section 3 The Study of Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Section 4 Tools and Techniques </li></ul>The Science of Life Chapter 1
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Relate the relevance of biology to a person’s daily life. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the importance of biology in human society. </li></ul><ul><li>List the characteristics of living things. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the hierarchy of organization within complex multicellular organisms . </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between homeostasis and metabolism and between growth, development, and reproduction. </li></ul>Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1
  3. 3. Biology and You <ul><li>Biology and Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biology is the study of life and can be used to both solve societal problems and explain aspects of our daily lives. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1
  4. 4. Chapter 1 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Biology Section 1 The World of Biology
  5. 5. Characteristics of Life <ul><li>Living things share the same 7 characteristics: organization and cells, response to stimuli, homeostasis, metabolism, growth and development, reproduction, and evolution. </li></ul>Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1
  6. 6. Chapter 1 The Seven Properties of Life Section 1 The World of Biology
  7. 7. Characteristics of Life, continued <ul><li>Organization and Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization is the high degree of order within an organism’s internal and external parts and in its interactions with the living world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A cell is the smallest unit of an organism that can perform all life’s processes. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1
  8. 8. Characteristics of Life, continued <ul><li>Organization and Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicellular organisms are made up of many cells and show a hierarchy of organization going from the organism to the atom. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1
  9. 9. Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life, continued <ul><li>Response to Stimuli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Another characteristic of life is that an organism can respond to a stimulus —a physical or chemical change in the internal or external environment. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life, continued <ul><li>Homeostasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All living things have mechanisms that allow them to maintain stable internal conditions. Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions even though environmental conditions are constantly changing. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life, continued <ul><li>Metabolism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolism is the sum of all the chemical reactions that take in and transform energy and materials from the environment. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life, continued <ul><li>Growth and Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The growth of living things results from the division and enlargement of cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development is the process by which an organism becomes a mature adult. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life, continued <ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living organisms pass on hereditary information from parents to offspring, also called reproduction . </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life, continued <ul><li>Change Through Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Populations of living organisms evolve or change through time. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Chapter 1 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Evolution Section 1 The World of Biology
  16. 16. Section 2 Themes in Biology Chapter 1 Objectives <ul><li>Identify three important themes that help explain the living world. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how life can be diverse, yet unified. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how living organisms are interdependent. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize why evolution is an important theme in biology. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Section 2 Themes in Biology Chapter 1 Diversity and Unity of Life <ul><li>Unity in the Diversity of Life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life is so diverse ,or full of variety. Yet, life is also characterized by unity , or features that all living things have in common. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Section 2 Themes in Biology Chapter 1 Diversity and Unity of Life, continued <ul><li>Unity in the Diversity of Life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tree of life shows that all living things have descended with modification from a single common ancestor. Yet, there are many different lineages , or branches, representing different species. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Chapter 1 Phylogenetic Diagram of Living Organisms Section 2 Themes in Biology
  20. 20. Section 2 Themes in Biology Chapter 1 Diversity and Unity of Life, continued <ul><li>Three Domains of Life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The three domains of life are Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The six kingdoms include Archaea, Bacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Interdependence of Organisms <ul><li>Organisms live in interdependent communities and interact with both organisms and the environment. </li></ul>Section 2 Themes in Biology Chapter 1
  22. 22. Evolution of Life <ul><li>Evolution , or descent with modification, is the process in which the inherited characteristics within populations change over generations. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution helps to explain how species came to exist, have changed over time, and adapt to their environment. </li></ul>Section 2 Themes in Biology Chapter 1
  23. 23. Section 2 Themes in Biology Chapter 1 Evolution of Life, continued <ul><li>Natural Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural selection is a process by which organisms that have certain favorable traits are better able to survive and reproduce successfully than organisms that lack these traits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural selection can lead to the evolution of populations. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Chapter 1 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Natural Selection Section 2 Themes in Biology
  25. 25. Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Objectives <ul><li>Outline the main steps in the scientific method. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize how observations are used to form hypotheses. </li></ul><ul><li>List the elements of a controlled experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how scientists use data to draw conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare a scientific hypothesis and a scientific theory. </li></ul><ul><li>State how communication in science helps prevent dishonesty and bias. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Science as a Process Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 <ul><li>Steps of the Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The scientific method involves making observations, asking questions, forming hypotheses, making predictions, designing experiments, analyzing data, and drawing conclusions. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Scientific Processes Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1
  28. 28. Chapter 1 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Scientific Method Section 3 The Study of Biology
  29. 29. Observing and Asking Questions <ul><li>The process of science begins with an observation. </li></ul><ul><li>An observation is the act of perceiving a natural occurrence that causes someone to pose a question. </li></ul>Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1
  30. 30. Forming a Hypothesis <ul><li>A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for the way a particular aspect of the natural world functions. </li></ul>Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1
  31. 31. Forming a Hypothesis, continued <ul><li>Predicting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To test a hypothesis, scientists make a prediction that logically follows from the hypothesis. </li></ul></ul>Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1
  32. 32. Designing an Experiment <ul><li>Performing the Experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A controlled experiment compares an experimental group and a control group and only has one variable. </li></ul></ul>Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1
  33. 33. Chapter 1 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Controlled Experiment and Variable Section 3 The Study of Biology
  34. 34. Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Designing an Experiment, continued <ul><li>Performing the Experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The control group provides a normal standard against which the biologist can compare results of the experimental group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The experimental group is identical to the control group except for one factor . </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Designing an Experiment, continued <ul><li>Performing the Experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The experimenter manipulates the independent variable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The experimenter measures the dependent variable because it is affected by the independent variable. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Chapter 1 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Independent and Dependent Variables Section 3 The Study of Biology
  37. 37. Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Designing an Experiment, continued <ul><li>Testing the Experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiments should be conducted without bias and they should be repeated. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Collecting and Analyzing Data <ul><li>Analyzing and Comparing Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists analyze data to draw conclusions about the experiment performed. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Drawing Conclusions <ul><li>Making Inferences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An inference is a conclusion made on the basis of facts and previous knowledge rather than on direct observations. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Drawing Conclusions, continued <ul><li>Applying Results and Building Models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists often apply their findings about the natural world to solve practical problems. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Constructing a Theory <ul><li>A theory is a set of related hypotheses confirmed to be true many times, and it can explain a great amount of data. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Communicating Ideas <ul><li>Publishing a Paper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists submit research papers to scientific journals for publication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In peer review , the editors of a journal will send submitted papers out to experts in the field who anonymously read and critique the paper. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Honesty and Bias <ul><li>Communication between scientists about their methods and results helps prevent dishonesty and bias in science. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Honesty and Bias <ul><li>Conflict of Interest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The threat of a potential scandal based on misleading data or conclusions is a powerful force in science that helps keep scientists honest and fair. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1 Objectives <ul><li>List the function of each of the major parts of a compound microscope. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare two kinds of electron microscopes. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the importance of having the SI system of measurement. </li></ul><ul><li>State some examples of good laboratory practice. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Microscopes as Tools <ul><li>Light Microscopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A compound light microscope is a microscope that shines light through a specimen and has two lenses to magnify an image. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four major parts of a compound light microscope are the ocular lens, objective lens, stage, and light source. </li></ul></ul>Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1
  47. 47. Microscopes as Tools <ul><li>Light Microscopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The eyepiece magnifies the image. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The objective lens enlarges the specimen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The stage is a platform that supports slides with specimens. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The light source is a light bulb that provides light for viewing images. </li></ul></ul>Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1
  48. 48. Microscopes as Tools, continued <ul><li>Magnification and Resolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnification is the increase of an object’s apparent size. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolution is the power to show details clearly in an image. </li></ul></ul>Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1
  49. 49. Object Size and Magnifying Power of Microscopes Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1
  50. 50. Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1 Microscopes as Tools, continued <ul><li>Electron Microscopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In an electron microscope , a beam of electrons produces an enlarged image of the specimen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electron microscopes provide greater magnification and resolution than light microscopes. </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1 Microscopes as Tools, continued <ul><li>Electron Microscopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scanning electron microscopes pass a beam of electrons over the specimen’s surface for better viewing the external surface of a specimen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission electron microscopes transmit a beam of electrons through a thinly sliced specimen for better viewing the internal structures of a specimen. </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1 Units of Measurement <ul><li>Base and Other Units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists use a single, standard system of measurement, called the metric system. The official name of the metric system is Système International d’Unités or SI . </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1 Units of Measurement <ul><li>Base and Other Units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The metric system has seven base units. </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1 Safety <ul><li>Good Laboratory Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lab safety involves safe and common-sense habits such as never working alone in a lab or without proper supervision by the teacher. </li></ul></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×