Introduction To Biology Notes
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Introduction To Biology Notes Introduction To Biology Notes Presentation Transcript

  • Table of Contents
    • Section 1 The World of Biology
    • Section 2 Themes in Biology
    • Section 3 The Study of Biology
    • Section 4 Tools and Techniques
    The Science of Life Chapter 1
  • Objectives
    • Relate the relevance of biology to a person’s daily life.
    • Describe the importance of biology in human society.
    • List the characteristics of living things.
    • Summarize the hierarchy of organization within complex multicellular organisms .
    • Distinguish between homeostasis and metabolism and between growth, development, and reproduction.
    Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1
  • Biology and You
    • Biology and Society
      • Biology is the study of life and can be used to both solve societal problems and explain aspects of our daily lives.
    Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1
  • Chapter 1 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Biology Section 1 The World of Biology
  • Characteristics of Life
    • Living things share the same 7 characteristics: organization and cells, response to stimuli, homeostasis, metabolism, growth and development, reproduction, and evolution.
    Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1
  • Chapter 1 The Seven Properties of Life Section 1 The World of Biology
  • Characteristics of Life, continued
    • Organization and Cells
      • Organization is the high degree of order within an organism’s internal and external parts and in its interactions with the living world.
      • A cell is the smallest unit of an organism that can perform all life’s processes.
    Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1
  • Characteristics of Life, continued
    • Organization and Cells
      • Multicellular organisms are made up of many cells and show a hierarchy of organization going from the organism to the atom.
    Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1
  • Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life, continued
    • Response to Stimuli
      • Another characteristic of life is that an organism can respond to a stimulus —a physical or chemical change in the internal or external environment.
  • Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life, continued
    • Homeostasis
      • All living things have mechanisms that allow them to maintain stable internal conditions. Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions even though environmental conditions are constantly changing.
  • Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life, continued
    • Metabolism
      • Metabolism is the sum of all the chemical reactions that take in and transform energy and materials from the environment.
  • Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life, continued
    • Growth and Development
      • The growth of living things results from the division and enlargement of cells.
      • Development is the process by which an organism becomes a mature adult.
  • Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life, continued
    • Reproduction
      • Living organisms pass on hereditary information from parents to offspring, also called reproduction .
  • Section 1 The World of Biology Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life, continued
    • Change Through Time
      • Populations of living organisms evolve or change through time.
  • Chapter 1 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Evolution Section 1 The World of Biology
  • Section 2 Themes in Biology Chapter 1 Objectives
    • Identify three important themes that help explain the living world.
    • Explain how life can be diverse, yet unified.
    • Describe how living organisms are interdependent.
    • Summarize why evolution is an important theme in biology.
  • Section 2 Themes in Biology Chapter 1 Diversity and Unity of Life
    • Unity in the Diversity of Life
      • Life is so diverse ,or full of variety. Yet, life is also characterized by unity , or features that all living things have in common.
  • Section 2 Themes in Biology Chapter 1 Diversity and Unity of Life, continued
    • Unity in the Diversity of Life
      • The tree of life shows that all living things have descended with modification from a single common ancestor. Yet, there are many different lineages , or branches, representing different species.
  • Chapter 1 Phylogenetic Diagram of Living Organisms Section 2 Themes in Biology
  • Section 2 Themes in Biology Chapter 1 Diversity and Unity of Life, continued
    • Three Domains of Life
      • The three domains of life are Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
      • The six kingdoms include Archaea, Bacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.
  • Interdependence of Organisms
    • Organisms live in interdependent communities and interact with both organisms and the environment.
    Section 2 Themes in Biology Chapter 1
  • Evolution of Life
    • Evolution , or descent with modification, is the process in which the inherited characteristics within populations change over generations.
    • Evolution helps to explain how species came to exist, have changed over time, and adapt to their environment.
    Section 2 Themes in Biology Chapter 1
  • Section 2 Themes in Biology Chapter 1 Evolution of Life, continued
    • Natural Selection
      • Natural selection is a process by which organisms that have certain favorable traits are better able to survive and reproduce successfully than organisms that lack these traits.
      • Natural selection can lead to the evolution of populations.
  • Chapter 1 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Natural Selection Section 2 Themes in Biology
  • Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Objectives
    • Outline the main steps in the scientific method.
    • Summarize how observations are used to form hypotheses.
    • List the elements of a controlled experiment.
    • Describe how scientists use data to draw conclusions.
    • Compare a scientific hypothesis and a scientific theory.
    • State how communication in science helps prevent dishonesty and bias.
  • Science as a Process Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1
    • Steps of the Scientific Method
      • The scientific method involves making observations, asking questions, forming hypotheses, making predictions, designing experiments, analyzing data, and drawing conclusions.
  • Scientific Processes Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1
  • Chapter 1 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Scientific Method Section 3 The Study of Biology
  • Observing and Asking Questions
    • The process of science begins with an observation.
    • An observation is the act of perceiving a natural occurrence that causes someone to pose a question.
    Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1
  • Forming a Hypothesis
    • A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for the way a particular aspect of the natural world functions.
    Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1
  • Forming a Hypothesis, continued
    • Predicting
      • To test a hypothesis, scientists make a prediction that logically follows from the hypothesis.
    Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1
  • Designing an Experiment
    • Performing the Experiment
      • A controlled experiment compares an experimental group and a control group and only has one variable.
    Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1
  • Chapter 1 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Controlled Experiment and Variable Section 3 The Study of Biology
  • Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Designing an Experiment, continued
    • Performing the Experiment
      • The control group provides a normal standard against which the biologist can compare results of the experimental group.
      • The experimental group is identical to the control group except for one factor .
  • Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Designing an Experiment, continued
    • Performing the Experiment
      • The experimenter manipulates the independent variable.
      • The experimenter measures the dependent variable because it is affected by the independent variable.
  • Chapter 1 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Independent and Dependent Variables Section 3 The Study of Biology
  • Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Designing an Experiment, continued
    • Testing the Experiment
      • Experiments should be conducted without bias and they should be repeated.
  • Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Collecting and Analyzing Data
    • Analyzing and Comparing Data
      • Scientists analyze data to draw conclusions about the experiment performed.
  • Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Drawing Conclusions
    • Making Inferences
      • An inference is a conclusion made on the basis of facts and previous knowledge rather than on direct observations.
  • Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Drawing Conclusions, continued
    • Applying Results and Building Models
      • Scientists often apply their findings about the natural world to solve practical problems.
  • Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Constructing a Theory
    • A theory is a set of related hypotheses confirmed to be true many times, and it can explain a great amount of data.
  • Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Communicating Ideas
    • Publishing a Paper
      • Scientists submit research papers to scientific journals for publication.
      • In peer review , the editors of a journal will send submitted papers out to experts in the field who anonymously read and critique the paper.
  • Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Honesty and Bias
    • Communication between scientists about their methods and results helps prevent dishonesty and bias in science.
  • Section 3 The Study of Biology Chapter 1 Honesty and Bias
    • Conflict of Interest
      • The threat of a potential scandal based on misleading data or conclusions is a powerful force in science that helps keep scientists honest and fair.
  • Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1 Objectives
    • List the function of each of the major parts of a compound microscope.
    • Compare two kinds of electron microscopes.
    • Describe the importance of having the SI system of measurement.
    • State some examples of good laboratory practice.
  • Microscopes as Tools
    • Light Microscopes
      • A compound light microscope is a microscope that shines light through a specimen and has two lenses to magnify an image.
      • Four major parts of a compound light microscope are the ocular lens, objective lens, stage, and light source.
    Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1
  • Microscopes as Tools
    • Light Microscopes
      • The eyepiece magnifies the image.
      • The objective lens enlarges the specimen.
      • The stage is a platform that supports slides with specimens.
      • The light source is a light bulb that provides light for viewing images.
    Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1
  • Microscopes as Tools, continued
    • Magnification and Resolution
      • Magnification is the increase of an object’s apparent size.
      • Resolution is the power to show details clearly in an image.
    Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1
  • Object Size and Magnifying Power of Microscopes Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1
  • Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1 Microscopes as Tools, continued
    • Electron Microscopes
      • In an electron microscope , a beam of electrons produces an enlarged image of the specimen.
      • Electron microscopes provide greater magnification and resolution than light microscopes.
  • Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1 Microscopes as Tools, continued
    • Electron Microscopes
      • Scanning electron microscopes pass a beam of electrons over the specimen’s surface for better viewing the external surface of a specimen.
      • Transmission electron microscopes transmit a beam of electrons through a thinly sliced specimen for better viewing the internal structures of a specimen.
  • Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1 Units of Measurement
    • Base and Other Units
      • Scientists use a single, standard system of measurement, called the metric system. The official name of the metric system is Système International d’Unités or SI .
  • Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1 Units of Measurement
    • Base and Other Units
      • The metric system has seven base units.
  • Section 4 Tools and Techniques Chapter 1 Safety
    • Good Laboratory Practice
      • Lab safety involves safe and common-sense habits such as never working alone in a lab or without proper supervision by the teacher.