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Energy And Enzymes Notes New

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    Energy And Enzymes Notes New Energy And Enzymes Notes New Presentation Transcript

    • Chemical Reactions
      • A chemical reaction breaks down some substances and builds other substances
      • 2H 2 + O 2 ------> 2H 2 O
      • Chemical reactions can occur when reactants collide with enough energy to react
      • The amount of energy needed for a particular reaction to occur is called activation energy
        • Some reactions must absorb energy to start, often this is in the form of heat
        • Some reactions give off energy in the form of heat or light
      • Biochemical reactions allow organisms to:
        • Grow -- Develop
        • Reproduce -- Adapt
      Reactants Products
    • Chemical Reaction
      • Certain conditions can affect the rate at which a chemical reaction will occur
        • Temperature – gaining or losing heat energy
        • pH – most organisms need to be kept in a small range of acidity for reactions to properly occur
          • Buffers within an organism regulate pH so homeostasis is maintained
          • A small change in pH can disrupt cell processes
        • Catalysts – a substance that changes the rate of reaction or allows the reaction to occur at a lower temperature
          • Catalysts are not consumed or altered in a reaction, can be used over and over
          • Enzymes are catalysts in living organisms
    • Energy and Enzymes
      • Enzymes are made up of proteins
      • Enzymes are a type of catalyst : a material that lowers the activation energy required for a reaction to occur
      • Enzymes speed up chemical reactions that otherwise would occur too slowly at the body’s temperature
        • Reactions are able to occur at lower temperatures
    • Enzyme Functions
      • Functions in the body:
        • Help with digestion of food
        • Help with energy storage and release
          • Burning glucose
        • Help with molecule synthesis
          • Building proteins and fats
    • Enzyme Names
      • Enzymes will often end in the suffix – ase
      • The beginning of the name often tells you the substrate of the enzyme
      • Substrate : what an enzyme acts upon
        • Examples:
          • Amylase breaks down amylose (a component of starch )
          • Lactase breaks down lactose (a sugar in dairy products)
            • Lactose intolerant people lack the enzyme lactase
    • Enzyme Action
      • Enzymes act on a specific substrate
        • Fit like a lock and key
      • Substrate fits at the active site
        • Enzyme-substrate complex
      • The product is released from the enzyme
      • Enzyme is back to its original shape and ready to act again
    • Factors that Effect Enzyme Activity
      • Temperature
        • Each type of enzyme has a temperature range at which they like to work. Enzyme activity increases as the environment reaches that ideal temperature and slows outside of that range.
      • pH
        • As with temperature, there is a specific pH range at which an enzyme will work
      • At extreme an temperature or pH, an enzyme can denature (change shape and become ineffective )
    • Factors that Effect Enzyme Activity
      • Enzyme Concentration
        • If the amount of substrate stays the same , the rate of reaction will increase if the enzyme concentration increases
        • Reaction rate will level off if it runs out of substrate
      • Substrate Concentration
        • If the amount of enzyme stays the same, the rate of reaction will increase if the substrate concentration increases
        • Reaction rate will level off when all of the enzymes are working
      Constant enzyme concentration
    • ATP
      • ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate
      • ATP is the molecule that supplies energy that can be used quickly and easily by cells
      • ATP could be used for many things:
        • Contracting muscles
        • Transmitting signals
        • Move flagella
        • Moving materials in the cell
    • ATP Structure
      • ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is made up of three parts:
        • A nitrogen base (adenine)
        • A sugar (ribose)
        • Three phosphate groups that are held together with high energy bonds
    • ATP  ADP
      • ATP releases energy by losing a phosphate group and becoming ADP
      • adenosine tri phosphate becomes adenosine di phosphate
      • When it transfers a phosphate , it transfers energy
      • This energy drives the cell’s metabolism .
      • ADP can later bind with another phosphate and start all over again.
    • ATP  ADP
      • To supply cells with energy, the high energy ATP bond is broken . ADP is formed and energy is released.
      • ATP  ADP + Phosphate + Energy
      • Energy is used (and stored ) by reattaching a phosphate group to ADP forming ATP to be used later.
      • ADP + Phosphate + Energy  ATP
      • Less energy is used to make ATP than is released when it is broken