Community Ecology

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Community Ecology

  1. 1. Table of Contents <ul><li>Section 1 Species Interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2 Patterns in Communities </li></ul>Community Ecology
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Identify two types of predator adaptations and two types of prey adaptations. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify possible causes and results of interspecific competition. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism, and give one example of each. </li></ul>Section 1 Species Interactions
  3. 3. Predation <ul><li>Predation is an interaction in which one organism (the predator) captures and eats all or part of another individual organism (the prey). </li></ul>Section 1 Species Interactions
  4. 4. Predation Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 1 Species Interactions
  5. 5. Predation, continued <ul><li>Predator Adaptations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predators have adaptations to efficiently capture prey, whereas prey species have adaptations to avoid capture. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 Species Interactions
  6. 6. Predation, continued <ul><li>Adaptations in Animal Prey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mimicry is an adaptation in which a species gains an advantage by resembling another species or object. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 Species Interactions
  7. 7. Predation, continued <ul><li>Adaptations in Plant Prey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many plants produce secondary compounds as a chemical defense. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 Species Interactions
  8. 8. Competition Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 1 Species Interactions
  9. 9. Competition <ul><li>Competitive Exclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition may cause competitive exclusion, the elimination of one species in a community. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 Species Interactions
  10. 10. Effect of Competition on Two Species of Barnacles Section 1 Species Interactions
  11. 11. Niche Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 1 Species Interactions
  12. 12. Competition, continued <ul><li>Character Displacement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition may drive the evolution of niche differences among competitors. This evolution of differences in a characteristic due to competition is called character displacement. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 Species Interactions
  13. 13. Competition, continued <ul><li>Resource Partitioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differential resource use to avoid competition is called resource partitioning. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 Species Interactions
  14. 14. Warbler Foraging Zones Section 1 Species Interactions
  15. 15. Symbiosis <ul><li>Parasitism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In parasitism , one species (the parasite) feeds on, but does not always kill, another species (the host). </li></ul></ul>Section 1 Species Interactions
  16. 16. Symbiosis Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 1 Species Interactions
  17. 17. Symbiosis, continued <ul><li>Mutualism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In mutualism , both interacting species benefit. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 Species Interactions
  18. 18. Symbiosis, continued <ul><li>Commensalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In commensalism , one species benefits, and the other is not affected. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 Species Interactions
  19. 19. Objectives <ul><li>Describe the factors that affect species richness in a community. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how disturbances affect community stability. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between types of succession, and explain why succession may not be predictable. </li></ul>Section 2 Patterns in Communities
  20. 20. Species Richness <ul><li>Species richness is the number of species in a community. </li></ul><ul><li>Species evenness is the relative abundance of each species. </li></ul>Section 2 Patterns in Communities
  21. 21. Species Richness, continued <ul><li>Latitude and Species Richness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In general, species richness is greatest near the equator, and larger areas support more species. </li></ul></ul>Section 2 Patterns in Communities
  22. 22. Species Richness, continued <ul><li>Species Interactions and Species Richness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Species interactions such as predation can promote species richness. </li></ul></ul>Section 2 Patterns in Communities
  23. 23. Species Richness, continued <ul><li>Community Stability and Species Richness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disturbances can alter a community by eliminating or removing organisms or altering resource availability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Species richness may improve a community’s stability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas of low species richness may be less stable in the event of an ecological disturbance. </li></ul></ul>Section 2 Patterns in Communities
  24. 24. Successional Changes in Communities <ul><li>Ecological succession is a change in the species composition of a community over time. </li></ul>Section 2 Patterns in Communities
  25. 25. Pioneer Species Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 2 Patterns in Communities
  26. 26. Successional Changes in Communities, continued <ul><li>Primary Succession </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary succession is the assembly of a community on newly created habitat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary succession occurs in areas that have been recently exposed to the elements and lack soil. </li></ul></ul>Section 2 Patterns in Communities
  27. 27. Successional Changes in Communities, continued <ul><li>Secondary Succession </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary succession is the change in an existing community following a disturbance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary succession occurs in areas where the original ecosystem has been cleared by a disturbance. </li></ul></ul>Section 2 Patterns in Communities
  28. 28. The Complexity of Succession <ul><li>The traditional description of succession is that the community proceeds through a predictable series of stages until it reaches a stable end point, called the climax community. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary succession typically proceeds from lichens and mosses to a climax community. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary succession typically proceeds from weeds to a climax community. </li></ul>Section 2 Patterns in Communities
  29. 29. Ecological Succession at Glacier Bay Section 2 Patterns in Communities

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