Chemistry

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Chemistry

  1. 1. Table of Contents <ul><li>Section 1 Composition of Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2 Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Section 3 Water and Solutions </li></ul>Chemistry of Life
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Define the term matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the relationship between elements and atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw and label a model of the structure of an atom. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how compounds affect an atom’s stability. </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast covalent and ionic bonds . </li></ul>Section 1 Composition of Matter
  3. 3. Matter <ul><li>Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass is the quantity of matter an object has. </li></ul>Section 1 Composition of Matter
  4. 4. Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Matter Section 1 Composition of Matter
  5. 5. Elements and Atoms <ul><li>Elements are made of a single kind of atom and cannot be broken down by chemical means into simpler substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms are composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons. </li></ul>Section 1 Composition of Matter
  6. 6. Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Element Section 1 Composition of Matter
  7. 7. Elements and Atoms, continued <ul><li>The Nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of the atom. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 Composition of Matter
  8. 8. Elements and Atoms, continued <ul><li>Electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons move about the nucleus in orbitals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An orbital is a three-dimensional region around a nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron. </li></ul></ul>Section 1 Composition of Matter
  9. 9. Elements and Atoms, continued <ul><li>Isotopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons are called isotopes . </li></ul></ul>Section 1 Composition of Matter
  10. 10. Section 1 Composition of Matter Compounds <ul><li>Compounds consist of atoms of two or more elements that are joined by chemical bonds in a fixed proportion. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Compounds Section 1 Composition of Matter
  12. 12. Section 1 Composition of Matter Compounds, continued <ul><li>Covalent Bonds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A covalent bond is formed when two atoms share electrons. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Covalent Bonding Section 1 Composition of Matter
  14. 14. Section 1 Composition of Matter Compounds, continued <ul><li>Ionic Bonds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An ionic bond is formed when one atom gives up an electron to another. The positive ion is then attracted to a negative ion to form the ionic bond . </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Ionic Bonding Section 1 Composition of Matter
  16. 16. Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Ionic Bonding Section 1 Composition of Matter
  17. 17. Section 2 Energy Objectives <ul><li>Describe the physical properties of each state of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the role of reactants and products in chemical reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the relationship between enzymes and activation energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how oxidation and reduction reactions are linked. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Section 2 Energy Energy and Matter <ul><li>States of Matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Addition of energy to a substance can cause its state to change from a solid to a liquid and from a liquid to a gas. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Energy Section 2 Energy
  20. 20. Section 2 Energy Energy and Chemical Reactions <ul><li>Reactants are substances that enter chemical reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Products are substances produced by chemical reactions. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Energy and Chemical Reactions Section 2 Energy
  22. 22. Section 2 Energy Energy and Chemical Reactions, continued <ul><li>Activation Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes lower the amount of activation energy necessary for a reaction to begin in living systems. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Activation Energy and Chemical Reactions Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Section 2 Energy
  24. 24. Section 2 Energy Energy and Chemical Reactions, continued <ul><li>Oxidation Reduction Reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A chemical reaction in which electrons are exchanged between atoms is called an oxidation-reduction reaction . </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Section 3 Water and Solutions Objectives <ul><li>Describe the structure of a water molecule. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how water’s polar nature affects its ability to dissolve substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the relationship between hydrogen bonding and the different properties of water. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the roles of solutes and solvents in solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between acids and bases. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Section 3 Water and Solutions Polarity <ul><li>Water is considered to be a polar molecule due to an uneven distribution of charge. </li></ul><ul><li>The electrons in a water molecule are shared unevenly between hydrogen and oxygen. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Section 3 Water and Solutions Polarity, continued <ul><li>Solubility of Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The polarity of water makes it effective at dissolving other polar substances such as sugars, ionic compounds, and some proteins. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Section 3 Water and Solutions Hydrogen Bonding <ul><li>A hydrogen bond is the force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positive charge and another atom or molecule with a partial or full negative charge. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Section 3 Water and Solutions Hydrogen Bonding, continued <ul><li>Cohesion and Adhesion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cohesion is an attractive force that holds molecules of a single substance together, such as water molecules. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adhesion is the attractive force between two particles of different substances, such as water molecules and glass molecules. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Comparing Cohesion and Adhesion Section 3 Water and Solutions
  31. 31. Section 3 Water and Solutions Hydrogen Bonding, continued <ul><li>Temperature Moderation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water has the ability to absorb a relatively large amount of energy as heat and the ability to cool surfaces through evaporation . </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Section 3 Water and Solutions Hydrogen Bonding, continued <ul><li>Density of Ice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid water is less dense than liquid water due to the shape of the water molecule and hydrogen bonding. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Section 3 Water and Solutions Solutions <ul><li>A solution consists of a solute dissolved in a solvent . </li></ul>
  34. 34. Section 3 Water and Solutions Acids and Bases <ul><li>Ionization of Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water ionizes into hydronium ions (H 3 O + ) and hydroxide ions (OH – ). </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Section 3 Water and Solutions Acids and Bases, continued <ul><li>Acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acidic solutions contain more hydronium ions than hydroxide ions. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Section 3 Water and Solutions Acids and Bases, continued <ul><li>Bases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic solutions contain more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept Bases Section 3 Water and Solutions
  38. 38. Section 3 Water and Solutions Acids and Bases, continued <ul><li>pH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists have developed a scale for comparing the relative concentrations of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions in a solution. This scale is called the pH scale , and it ranges from 0 to 14. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. The pH Scale Section 3 Water and Solutions
  40. 40. Section 3 Water and Solutions Acids and Bases, continued <ul><li>Buffers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffers are chemicals that neutralize the effects of adding small amounts of either an acid or a base to a solution. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept pH Section 3 Water and Solutions

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