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The internet of things comic book Document Transcript

  • 1. net the ing spir ter In In Things! Foreword by Gérald Santucci 15 illustrative IoT application scenarios over 25 IoT concepts 4 IoT expert interviews by Stig AndersenEditor: Mirko Presser, the Alexandra InstituteIllustrator: Michael Skotting, Raaskot Visuel KommunikationGraphic Designer: Tine Raun, the Alexandra Institute
  • 2. Contributors: We call it ”the Comic Book” Srdjan Krco (Ericsson EYU) Tobias Kowatsch (University of St. Gallen) Stefan Fischer (University of Luebeck) But in reality, we never aimed at making a comic book! Wolfgang Maas (Saarland University) Sebastian Lange (VDE/VDI-IT) Francois Carrez (University of Surrey) Bernard Hunt (University of Surrey) Richard Egan (Thales UK, Research and Technology) About a year ago, I started working We need to engage the general We invite you to use the material in Jan Höller on a – then new – European project public, public authorities and busi- this book to communicate and think (Ericsson AB) called the Internet of Things Initia- ness stakeholders that will be the about the Internet of Things. Alessandro Bassi tive (IoT-i) on a topic that was sup- contributors and end users of the (Alessandro Bassi Consulting) posed to find strategically important Internet of Things. Stephan Haller IoT applications. (SAP AG) We need a new medium to com- Mirko Presser Gunter Woysch We managed to gather about 150 municate the idea of the Internet of The Alexandra Institute (Alcatel-Lucent Deutschland AG) application scenarios, short texts Things, its challenges, its problems Autumn 2011 describing an IoT application in a and its benefits; encouraging people situation. Quite diverse material and to think about this new disruptive mainly from other European projects technology. Production – past and present. Team: There are few things better than After categorisation, combining and telling a story with pictures. • Jan Horsager elimination we ended up with just (the Alexandra Institute) fewer than 60 application scenarios This “comic book” is aimed at • Tine Raun that we presented to the public in everybody. Everybody can (the Alexandra Institute) a survey to find out what scenarios look at the stories that are • Michael Skotting would be strategically important. being told and form an (Raaskot Visuel Kommunikation) opinion. Use them as a • Mirko Presser About 300 persons, mainly from basis for deep discus- (the Alexandra Institute) the ICT community, from over 30 sions or just as inspira- • Stig Andersen different countries, took the survey. tion; agree or disagree (Thingvalla Kommunikation) and anything in between • Bente Kjølby Larsen Now this is not bad – but it is stay- – but talk about it. (the Alexandra Institute) ing within the ICT community. We need to branch out. Throughout this comic you will find Quick Response Codes or QR Codes pointing Printed by PrinfoAarhus you to additional content such as videos, webpages or pdf-files via the internet. Comic Book powered by the Alexandra Institute and partially funded by the FP7 ICT ‘Internet of Things Initiative’ Coordination Action,2 contract number 257565 Use a QR Reader for your smartphone to find the content More about The Internet of Things Initiative on the official webpage 1
  • 3. Foreword Gér ald by Gérald Santucci Sa ntu cc i When objects can sense the environment and communicate, they become powerful tools for understanding complexity and respond- ing to it effectively. Though such smart objects can interact with humans, they are likely to be interacting even more with each other automatically, without human intervention, updating them- selves their daily schedules. This evolution marks indeed a humans. At that time, imperceptibly, men as responsible and mature, eration, smart communities, and technological disruption, which is the world will no longer be the same. able to act rationally, and capable of governance, but also for getting an perfectly illustrated in this IoT Comic defining themselves through moral idea whether the Internet of Things Book, but it also heralds the onset Then, will the prophecy of Trajan autonomy and freedom of choice, will actually bring raw data to the in- of a new paradigm for the relation- Koruga, the poet in The Twenty- we establish high level guidance for dividual and the society and whether ship between human beings and Fifth Hour of C. Virgil Gheorghiu be how systems should be built and it will empower the individual and objects. fulfilled? “A society which contains what an Internet of Things could, the society to generate new data. [billions] of mechanical slaves and or should not, do for us.” (Sarah In 2000, there were 6 billion a mere [seven billion] humans (…) Spiekermann, 2011). Whether we will be able to escape humans living on Earth and 500 will reveal the characteristics of its the enslavement of reification – the million devices connected to the proletarian majority (…). We must realise that the object is essential tendency of capitalism to Internet. During 2008, while the at the same time a communication place the human condition under EU Presidency was organising its We are learning the laws and the channel and a stock of information, the reign of commodities – and to “Internet of Things – Internet of the jargon of our slaves, so that we can which reflects social relationships in a propose a re-enchantment of the Future” Conference in Nice, France, give them orders. And so, gradually society at a certain moment. Human world grounded in the real, intimate the number of devices connected to and imperceptibly, we are renounc- beings communicate through the and powerful connection between the Internet exceeded for the first ing our human qualities and our own objects that they trade. The nature humans, objects, and nature. time the number of people on Earth. laws.” of the objects and the terms of their “By letting comics illustrate the exchange are the symbol of the way a narratives of the many facets of Today in 2011, the world population Or will an enlightened version of the society watches and represents itself. the Internet of Things – in particular Gérald Santucci reaches 7 billion and the number Internet of Things emerge in which Therefore, the future of the objects society, technology, industry, etc. of connected devices 13 billion. By the desirable power relationship be- in the Internet of Things is not only – this book gives a large space to Head of Unit, 2015, there will be over three times tween human beings and machines important for understanding how imagination and creativity, and also ‘Networked Enterprise and RFID’ the amount of connected devices as will be reflected in system design? we should address policies such as to excitement and trepidation. It’s people on the planet and five years spectrum, standardisation, privacy, witty, charming, funny, and so in- European Commission later, there will be 50 billion con- “If we take today’s Idea of Man in security, numbering, open data, structive and interesting! Opt in and – Directorate-General Information nected devices for only 7.6 billion the Western world, which views education, recycling, global coop- have a nice journey into the future!” Society and Media2 3
  • 4. Smart Urban Management The implementation of smart urban waste management will allow a more efficient waste collection and optimis - ing the way in which it is performed today. Optimisation Incentives The Internet of Things will optimise The Internet of Things will enable Credits can then be used to gain fi- processes happening in the real a world where we can have more nancial rewards such as tax returns world. incentives, and not just financial or simply in comparing each other Smart urban waste management will provide useful information to incentives. to your friends and fellow citizens in the public by encouraging and promoting an easier and more Logistics, utilities or event operation social real-world games. environmentally friendly way of collecting waste. are complex tasks that are gov- Financial incentives have been This can be achived by identifying and erned by many parameters that are employed for decades with a moder- Experimentation with other than emptying bins and containers when today estimated or simply unknown. ate degree of success – in some financial incentives is an important they are close to their fill level but areas they work; in others they have area that knowledge from the not overflowing at private The IoT enables detailed data limited impact. It is all about instant Internet of Things will enable. But households, enterprises gathering of information on a much feedback. finding out what triggers human and public areas. higher granularity and much better behavioural changes, is altogether precision than ever before. Computer games are great exam- another area of research. ples where there is always a task to In the “Smart Urban Waste Manage- be performed that is just challeng- ment” application scenario garbage ing enough to engage in but easy collection can be optimised e.g. enough to achieve (maybe after a in terms of route optimisation few tries, but nevertheless). based on fill levels. Empty bins are bypassed, full bins are emptied, and In the “Smart Urban Waste Manage- broken bins can be repaired quickly. ment” application scenario citizens Optimisation saves time and get instant feedback in the form of reduces costs – an important factor ‘green credits’ (a virtual currency) for today’s economically challenged for their behaviour – overuse of a cities. resource (in this case the bin space is the resource) is ‘punished’ by Optimisation is, however, a chal- removing credits; and efficient use is lenge in such scenarios. The de- rewarded with ‘green credits’. velopment of algorithms to find the right patterns out of masses of data and feed the results into reliable business processes will need much experimentation until the right level of confidence is achieved. In addition, incentives can be brought for- ward to encourage citizens to produce less waste and recycle more.4 Videos on funny ways of waste management from Volkswagen 5
  • 5. Smart Urban Urban planning Traditional urban planning happens with government-generated data sets. These are relatively stable and are sourced with well established methods. What if this is supplemented with much more detailed data? Data coming from a plethora of sources, Interactive Street Sensing gathers data about the city – the city’s pulse. public and private. Sensors on every lamppost in the city measure data about noise, traffic, environment, crowds, temperature – literally anything. Data is transmitted • Crowd-sourced data from and processed and information is presented as ... citizens – for example pictures of things they want to have fixed, – dynamic infographics, showing interesting detail about the city as like a pothole in the road. a living organism, e.g. how it is used by people, flow of traffic and impact on the environment ... • Environment data from sensors placed all over the city – sensors might be owned by private or public organisations and need to be combined to form a com- plete picture. There is no doubt that city planners can benefit from using large data sets that are stable and proven. But there is only a small step to envisaging dynamic data being fed into the urban planning process. Those dynamic data could, in particular, be used for real-time as- sessments of the long-term effects of the planning. –for example, a map illustrating real-time and historic data of pollution can be viewed.6 Video on urban diversity from Crossing over Communities 7
  • 6. Sustainable Urban The public has access to visualisations of the current level of pollution Making policy The Internet of Things will make policy. Citizens can see actions that the city planners have taken or are plan- With the increase in ever more ning to implement. Citizens can also actively participate in the conversa- detailed knowledge about our world, tion by posting messages to the city authorities. and in particular our environment, policy decisions can be made based on real data. And more importantly, their impact can be monitored almost in real time. For example a new emission charg- ing zone is implemented: Does it have the desired impact on lowering congestion and the environment? How do commuters now get to the centre? Are there additional prob- lems such as for instance the over- crowding of certain public transport routes that were not foreseen? Citizens’ comments are collected, discussed The interpretation of data for at planning meetings and considered in new decision-making is a key challenge policies. that the Internet of Things is facing. Later at a conference in the town hall ... The development of algorithms that can sift through massive and According to broad public opinion, diverse data to find the patterns it’s vital to reduce the traffic generated that explain our world without bias emissions in the inner urban area! is a complex problem. Only then can the Internet of Things help us plan, operate and influence our world for the better.8 Video on the semantic web from STI International 9
  • 7. We need a killer business model Alessandro Bassi interviewed by Stig Andersen Much technological development goes hand-in-hand with larger trends in society and is fuelled by other driving forces than the wet dreams of the geek world; and being a techie does not mean that you do not care about what lies around and beyond technology The response of Alessandro Bassi, from the developments within the ”We are pretty much at the begin- ”Proper governance, in particular Alessandro Bassi Consulting, to Internet of Things. Together with the ning, both in terms of number of with respect to privacy and security, the question ”Does the Internet of energy sector, these are also the interconnected objects and ways to also needs to be developed. You Things need a killer app?” is a case sectors where practical implemen- interconnect them. To a large extent, don’t want everyone to know which in point: tations of the Internet of Things are we are still using wireless or RFID objects you have in your home. most easily available. technologies to develop solutions ”I don’t think we need a killer app, for specific tasks. The Internet of There is a risk of intrusion by vision of the Internet of Things. Alessandro Bassi has worked with but we need a killer business model. Alessandro Bassi does in fact see Things will encompass these tech- governments and companies, and ”Work on the Internet of Things is the Internet of Things since 2004 Just look at the impact that Apple’s some impatience among consumers nologies, but we need to go much if you look at some of the current carried out in a lot of different fields, when he joined Hitachi Europe as a App Store has had on the app for Internet of Things solutions that further. This also goes for everything attempts at controlling the Internet, so there is a need for a place where researcher for advanced networking business.” would make their daily lives easier. related to the supply of energy to this is pretty scary. So privacy and the tech people, the policy people, topics. When asked what excites individual sensors or other devices. security need to be addressed from end users and science staffers him about it, he does not mince According to Alessandro Bassi, one ”We are in a similar situation as We cannot just stick a battery into the point of view of both technology can meet and exchange ideas and words: ”The Internet of Things will model could be based on the idea with the Internet in 1992. The all objects, so we need to find a and governance.” experiences. But we need to find be a much bigger revolution than the of borrowing and lending objects Internet of Things is in its infancy, way to harvest ambient energy.” a good ”story line” – it shouldn’t Internet and the mobile telephony instead of buying them. Obviously, but people are getting much more Alessandro Bassi is confident be yet another board, yet another put together!” with the whole process made much excited much faster. Why not just In fact, he says, we need to get that the potential of the Internet of standardisation body or yet another easier than it is today. walk out of the supermarket with away from the idea of adding Things will eventually be realised. conference.” the food in the trolley without having something to objects to enable But short-term, he also sees the risk ”Take the example of a drill, which to take it out in order to pay?” interconnectivity. of actual implementations not being Alessandro Bassi is confident that you will see in many households. able to match the hype. the IoT-i Forum will be a community A drill can be pretty expensive, so But what is the Internet of Things ”We need real integration of where everything from protocols to given the fact that you may in total - really? The answer is obviously in- components, for instance by the ”Technical development takes a architecture and governance can be use it for about 10 minutes in its fluenced by the fact that Alessandro use of non-silicone transistors like long time, and I think that some of discussed openly. lifetime makes for quite a high price Bassi has worked for years within transistors made of plastic. This the current hype about the Internet per minute. Renting one in your the area of advanced networking would mean that we did not need of Things may wear off. I don’t think ”The IoT-i Forum is a community in local DIY store is quite a hassle, so technology. to stick a chip on everything, but that anything major will happen the sense that individuals can con- imagine putting a stupid chip into the transistor and thus the ability to within a timeframe of about five tribute with their input and insights, the drill and being able to track it ”I tend to see the Internet of Things communicate would be embedded years in the field, which may cool and exchange of ideas can take and borrow it through some kind of as the interconnectivity of objects. It in the object itself. This is a very down the general interest.” place without any company policies community service instead.” is the capability to uniquely identify important aspect.” or other external factors blurring the and communicate with objects by Alessandro Bassi considers the IoT-i picture.” i Alessandro Bass He points to logistics and health as electromagnetic means.” And he Again, technology is only part of forum to be an important instrument sectors that will certainly benefit continues: the story. in the process of developing the10 11
  • 8. Ageing Population Recently the doctors have diagnosed that John’s Alzheimer’s disease is taking a turn for the worse. Quality of life Privacy Internet of Things applications can Internet of Things applications must Designing Internet of Things ap- improve quality of life, in particular, address privacy concerns to be suc- plications must therefore cover at for the elderly. cessfully adopted by society. least two topics regarding privacy concerns: In the domain of healthcare, Internet Current IT-related discussions in of Things applications are able to mass media often reveal de facto First, service providers must clearly support not only the well-being of in- concerns about privacy features communicate purpose, frequency dividuals but they can also indicate of web applications such as social and details on why, how often and prevailing sanitary problems. networking sites. Accordingly, what kind of personal information is upcoming Internet of Things ap- being tracked. As a result, his children have decided to upgrade the monitoring For example, body sensor networks plications must clearly address the solution with sensor applications that enable the monitoring of his can be used as direct feedback dur- potential invasion of privacy, too. Second, latest and up-to-date whereabouts and mental condition at home and in the neighbour- ing athletic exercises but they may encryption technologies must be hood. John’s doctor and his children can now monitor him remotely also reveal that a person suffered a Particularly with regard to their employed to ensure safe data com- and receive a message in case of a problem. dangerous fall. The latter case is in ubiquitous character and embedded munication between end user and particular relevant to elderly people sensors in every-day environments service provider. that face those situations due to as exemplified by the ageing sce- for instance their mental conditions nario on the left, these applications The development of international or frailty; they would be not able to differ significantly from traditional laws and provisions by public bod- contact their family, a nursing ser- office or home office situations. ies is thus strongly recommended. vice or the medical doctor without assisting technologies in case of an As a result, various data such as emergency. geographical location and time of service access can be tracked I’m fine, thank you! In those situations, the Internet of unobtrusively, without people being Hey John, how are Things application would contact a aware of it. One potential implica- you doing today? responsible person with time and tion would be the fraudulent genera- location information of the person tion of user profiles that could be concerned such that further action misused or sold to third parties. can be taken as soon as possible. Even though this kind of data is often required for business models From the end-user perspective, and services to work properly, such a service allows elderly people transparent privacy policies and to live more autonomously and secure data transfer mechanisms self-determined, important factors are inevitable for the successful that positively influence the quality adoption of Internet of Things ap- of life. plications. So John retains his private and social life which is very important for coping with his condition and hap- piness.12 Video in German on ambient assisted living from Fraunhofer ISES 13
  • 9. Well, I am not getting any younger and healthier, but I want to keep my independence as long as possible... The continuous care concept enables patients - but these many time-consuming with chronic diseases or elderly people with consultations at the doctor’s just for health impairments to stay in their own home routine checkups are annoying. despite their health constraint, to reduce cumber- some visits to the doctor and to avoid premature relocation to a nursing home. Saving time The Internet of Things will save you Telemedicine is a fast moving area, time and improve your quality of life. and applications and devices are Primary healthcare systems around offered commercially for the private user, but only a very limited number Choice the world are stretched to a breaking are linked to the healthcare system. and acceptance point. For telemedicine to join the health- Consumers want to choose their The next day during a visit at her son’s who is Back in her own town ... A good indicator of this is the ‘wait- care system, a high degree of matu- products, and choice makes the su ering from a heart condition, she discovers a Sure, this personal monitoring ing time’ for treatment. Many of rity is necessary from both parties: world a better (acceptable) place. possible solution ... device for your home will help with the visits are routine and part of a the ICT and the Health communities. I very seldom even notice this the checkups and reduce the visits well-defined set of recommendations The “Continuous Care” applica- device anymore. Perhaps something to the doctor’s as we can monitor to provide the best care for patients. The ICT community needs to develop tion scenario illustrates the patient similar would work for you as well? you remotely. However, this is unsustainable. robust and open products that are choosing a telemedicine device. certified by the regulators, and the This is an important action for the The ageing population and an ever- Health community needs to move acceptance of new technology in a increasing demand for healthcare into the digital space, enabling very personal and intimate part of services are the cause. Telemedicine electronic patient records and open people’s lives. is a public-private partnership-driven (enough) platforms for devices to concept that can turn this around. plug into. It is an iterative process of end user engagement in experimental living Telemedicine allows patients to labs that get us to the point where be monitored remotely for routine good products are created. checkups, using a wearable or portable device at home and on the Understanding what the user wants move. Routine visits become less is a key issue for the Internet of frequent while treatment can still be Things not to become a ‘Big Brother’ adjusted with the information from or a ‘Damocles Sword’. the telemedicine systems, giving patients more flexibility to enjoy their life. She feels relieved and can now spend more time with her friends doing activities she enjoys.14 Video on telemedicine from Center for Distance Health 15
  • 10. Response Sensors in the car detect a serious collision and send a signal ... Events “Early in life I had noticed that no event is ever correctly reported in a newspaper.” – George Orwell – to the emergency services. Several other calls, apart from the Event detection and interpretation collided cars, confirm the accident. The onboard sensors of the is a key element for the Internet of Two cars crashed at the two cars ... Things. intersection downtown. In the “Emergency Response” I’ll alert the application scenario the event of a emergency services! car crash has to be determined ac- curately and from multiple possibly conflicting sources. The cars both report a crash to the How many people are injured and emergency services and possibly how severe? Are there dangerous the number of passengers and the chemicals involved? force of impact, bystanders report the crash calling on their mobile Detecting events accurately is - immediately detected the accident and the phones – location and time are key an important challenge of the event was fused with geo-location information factors in determining if the events Internet of Things and something and transmitted to the local emergency author- are linked and can be combined into that seems limitless in terms of ity to guide them to the accident site. one emergency call. complexity. Ultimately, the event should be described in the most timely and ac- curate manner as possible to allow for the best suitable response.16 Video in Danish on Life Warning System from The Alexandra Institute 17
  • 11. Intelligent Ted is leaving for work in the morning; he is using the intelligent commuter application on his mobile phone to find the best route to work. The application receives live traffic and public transport updates and computes the best route for Ted. Today, It looks like there is a traffic jam on his route. Navigation 6th sense GPS-based navigation has become Ever wondered, while stuck in a Internet of Things will play a crucial a norm in everyday life of tourists traffic jam on a motorway, would role in enabling such decision- Damn traffic! and commuters alike – it helps us you already be at home having your making by collecting information to find that museum and restaurant dinner if you had left the motorway relevant to the current context of at places we are not familiar with at the previous exit? No need to each user – traffic conditions on the or plan our daily commute, taking wonder anymore, Internet of Things roads leading to selected direction into account the current traffic can give you all the information (querying road sensors, sensors conditions. needed to make decisions – before attached to traffic signs and built that motorway exit! into the cars), bus and railway IoT will provide additional feeds into schedules taking into account the navigation systems and make Real life is continuously evolving, the location of the user and the the information mix even richer by new events happening, schedules intended destination, number of free There is a traffic jam ahead, combining weather conditions en changing, procedures being dis- parking spaces at the railway sta- if you take the next exit and route, feedback from commuters rupted. To make the right decisions tion, road works, public events and park at the park and ride, you already on the road, measurements in such an environment, one needs all other activities that can disrupt will save 10 minutes and still from road sensors, etc. to collect and process information or be beneficial for the user to reach I’ll try the motorway, I can get to work on time. about numerous events taking place his or her destination as efficiently always take the earlier exit if Such rich information mix will make in the real world and to do it in real as possible. things are getting worse planning of a trip even more efficient time. Using live traffic and public and the trip itself more pleasant. transport data, the intelligent commuter application has As Ted is parking his car the guided Ted to the light rail train is arriving and he hurries saving him valuable time. As to the train. an additional benefit, Ted’s “green” profile has increased, giving him a few green cred - its that he can use in his tax return.18 Video on the next generation transportation from Intel 19
  • 12. Mobile Greg is taking the bus to work and checks out Hm, guess the bus must be the next bus to arrive on his mobile. on its way Greg’s standing here NFC Near Field Communications (NFC) insights can be formed if we know Bus 2A ... is an important technology of the where transactions take place: Internet of Things. storing this and accessing it like a virtual database with structured NFC is closely linked to the mobile queries will provide business intel- phone and is a specialised technol- ligence and enable a new set of ogy in the radio frequency identifica- useful applications. tion (RFID) technology family. It enables many mobile phone appli- cations such as for instance secure payment transactions. He will be charged based on the number of zones he crosses. Location-based services The Internet of Things and location- based services empower a whole new view of the world. RFID tags provide an identification of an object in their most primitive form. But if this is combined with location information, it is a powerful means of tracking objects, people and animals. What if we can do reverse look-ups – where has a person been? Where are my competitors’ products most- ly sold? Where is the packaging of my products being disposed of? Many useful but also sensitive Once he gets o the bus a message displays the cost of the trip. And payment is performed automatically via his mobile phone.20 Video on near field communication from Tapit NFC and Proxama 21
  • 13. ”Ultimately, it is about making people’s lives better” Harish Viswanathan interviewed by Stig Andersen “To me, the vision of the Internet of Things is to enable commu- nication and to exchange useful information between and with everyday objects in order to improve the quality of life for people. Ultimately, it’s about making people’s lives better,” – says Harish Viswanathan, CTO you can almost talk about an extra relating to energy consumption, tion. I see a lot of potential in that And returning to his initial point Advisor on M2M and Devices, level of perception,” he says. security, etc. need to bridge different and believe that sooner or later, about communication and exchange Alcatel-Lucent. Healthcare technology allowing us sectors.” it will materialise,” says Harish of useful information, he points to to stay longer in our own homes Viswanathan. the issue of semantics. Harish Viswanathan has a back- and intelligent parking solutions One of the major bumps on the road “We have a challenge of analysing ground in wireless network solu- enabling us to much more easily towards cross-sector implementa- Alcatel-Lucent is offering solutions all the data available. What we need tions, and three years ago he joined find a parking space are just two tions of Internet of Things solutions for the Internet of Things today – is a data model that enables billions the Chief Technology Office within examples of how Internet of Things is the lack of standards, or rather, like a Machine-to-Machine service of deployed devices to generate Alcatel-Lucent’s research arm Bell solutions can improve our lives. So lacking interoperability between dif- platform with management func- information that could be connected Labs, working on machine-to-ma- for Harish Viswanathan, achieving ferent standards. tionality, applications and services. in a useful manner. There is ongoing chine and sensor network strategy. the vision of the Internet of Things But research and development is research in the semantics involved Ha rish A move he has not regretted. is really about enabling individual “Today, many manufacturers continuing. Harish Viswanathan here, and I believe that the results Viswa nathan “It was really an emerging field at applications in our day-to-day lives reinvent the wheel and start build- points to areas where work is still will have an important impact on the time, and it has been growing that pursue that very goal. ing solutions from scratch with to be done – areas that he is also the deployment of Internet of Things exponentially ever since – in the a slightly different protocol. This personally involved in through his solutions,” he says. company and in the industry. I’m Although many Internet of Things results in incompatible solutions work at Alcatel-Lucent. happy that I got an early start within applications are sector-specific and much higher development costs Harish Viswanathan sees the this very exciting area,” he says. today, e.g. within healthcare, than if standard components and “The wireless connectivity itself Internet of Things Initiative as a To realise the vision of the Internet transport and utility services, Harish protocols had been used,” says needs to be improved. The wireless very good opportunity for people of Things, a whole range of chal- Viswanathan points to a number of Harish Viswanathan. networks we have today are not from different areas and industries lenges are to be met. According fields where solutions per definition designed for machine-to-machine to meet in order to understand the to Harish Viswanathan, one is to need to be cross-sector. He believes that the different sec- communication that really only requirements of all the different make communication with everyday tors will eventually come together in requires very small amounts of data stakeholders. objects more intuitive. “Smart cities is a good example a machine-to-machine communica- to be processed. Further research of cross-sector Internet of Things tion infrastructure similar to that of needs to be done on how to opti- “One of the strong points of the “Today, we can do a lot in terms of solutions. Here a number of sectors a mobile network. This will mean mise networks to handle a large Internet of Things Initiative is that human-to-human communication at deploying machine-to-machine com- that multiple applications can number of small data transactions. it is international. Also, a lot of the the push of a button. But the Inter- munication have to come together interact through a service platform As part of that, the issue of scalabil- other forums are industry forums net of Things aims at enriching life to create a smart city including effi- infrastructure deployed by service ity also has to be addressed.” focusing on partnerships within by creating more intelligent connec- cient and smart traffic management, providers. Device management, low-power individual businesses, whereas the tions between devices and people. security, parking, etc. All with the consumption and security and Internet of Things Initiative also has In a sense, we are extending the objective of making people’s lives “There is talk about creating a privacy issues are other important a research focus, which to a much human intelligence by intelligently easier. Also smartphone applica- partnership project like 3GPP for focus areas, according to Harish higher degree provides a long-term processing data to the point where tions to control your home devices machine-to-machine communica- Viswanathan. perspective,” he concludes.22 23
  • 14. Intelligent Application While she takes a product, the device alerts Anna that it’s not suitable for her daughter Lea because of her allergies. Pointing the RFID reader on the mobile phone at the products ... Augmented reality Irritation versus responsible use The Internet of Things will enable Knowledge generated by the Inter- There is a balance between gather- augmented reality. net of Things is power. “With great ing data and offering clear benefits This product contains power comes great responsibility.” towards the consumer. traces of nuts With increased detail of information Benjamin ‘Ben’ Parker. – Anna gets additional information about the from sensors and tags, new forms What falls under privacy issues products such as origin and expiry date. of visualising this as knowledge You can call it a privacy issue. and rejection of a technology, and will be important. Overlaying this But actually it is just a percep- what is a new and beneficial service information on a camera view, i.e. tion. Staying with the example of towards end users is a fine line of augmented reality, will be just one supermarkets, loyalty cards collect success. of the many ways of making sense information about their users. While passing nearby products, Anna gets personalised advertisements from of large streams of information from the store system considering her profile as well as her recent behaviour. sensors on the spot. And many users seem to be happy Hey Anna. You liked this to pass this information on. But product earlier. Perhaps this In the “intelligent shopping” applica- loyalty cards only collect data about one might be attractive too! tion scenario, Anne is using aug- what is purchased, not what is mented reality to scan through the looked at, picked up and put back supermarket to find products that on the shelf. she needs and obtain more detail about these products. At a glance, The Internet of Things will offer a she can see where that missing much higher level of granularity of ingredient is, if the product contains data about shoppers’ behaviour anything that her family is allergic than previously possible. This to, or where the product comes information can then be used for the C heckout and payment happens auto- from. It helps her navigate the good of the shoppers, for instance matically, to avoid the lengthy queues at shelves and make more informed to encourage a more healthy diet, the checkout. choices about her shopping. or in targeted advertising to plainly sell more. Visualisation of information from the Internet of Things will be an impor- While she places the products in the shopping tant part to sift through the masses trolley, the bill is updated in real time. of information.24 Video on SAP Future Retail Center 25
  • 15. Smart Management Tom is working in a supermarket. He is in charge of the management of a the beverages department. Optimised product management RFID The Internet of Things will allow for Radio Frequency Identifica- RFID tags do not need energy extreme streamlining of all process- tion (RFID) is probably the most supply – the energy of the incoming es related to product management important basic technology for the signal is sufficient to produce the in logistics, such as to be found in Internet of Things. outgoing one, at least for a distance supermarkets. of typically a few centimetres, which All products are fitted with RFID tags and sensors, allowing Based on so-called RFIDs, all is usually sufficient. him to monitor information about ... By employing different technologies kinds of things – in this example such as RFIDs, sensor networks products in a supermarket – can be In combination with a reader and a and intelligent accounting software, first uniquely identified, and second product information system (a piece a supermarket manager will be their location can be precisely of software), RFIDs show their ex- able to keep track of his inventories determined. treme power: it becomes very easy without having to count manually to count huge amounts of products – everything will be automated. In RFIDs can take different forms. The by just moving the reader in front addition, the software will be able to best known is probably the one you of them. produce statistics on which prod- can see in this comic book: here, it ucts are favoured by the customers is a kind of electronic label or tag When a customer takes a product – for instance by just counting how which can be attached to basically from the shelf and puts it into his much of a product has been sold, any item or group of items. But cart, the shelf reader will take note – the products, type and variety, state but also by monitoring customers’ there are also RFIDs which have the of this be reducing the amount of or packaging, storage conditions, behaviour in front of the shelves. It size and form of a grain of rice and that product in the repository. The expiration date, remaining stock, is then much easier for the manager can be implanted under the skin of reader in the cart can automatically changes in the products’ location to decide where to place which an animal or a human. register the product so that pay- and ... – consumers’ profiles such as time spent in the area products on the shelf in order to ment at the cashier can be done in or in front of a product or products they are interested optimise the offer – and certainly The most common form of RFIDs zero time. in (e.g. picked up but not bought). the sales. (and the one relevant here) is In this way, I can conclude the flow of the goods in the passive: whenever they receive a It should not go unmentioned that department, the efficiency of my marketing strategy in With such up-to-date information certain signal from an RFID reader, many people have some fears the department, and I learn about the behaviour and available, a manager can react they send back a signal to this concerning their privacy – they think satisfaction of the consumers according to the supply. much more quickly to important reader. This signal is unique for this that with RFIDs, everything they do events or changes in current tag, so the reader can uniquely iden- can be taken note of and accounted situations, such as low inventory tify the tag – and thus the product to them. or changing customer needs and attached. wishes – and all this without any manual work, just through auto- matic monitoring. In real time, he observes the way the products impact the consumers’ behaviour.26 Video on Internet of Things from IBM 27
  • 16. Beyond fragmentation and sector-specific deployments Jan Höller interviewed by Stig Andersen ”Today, we make a separation between the real or physical world and the Internet. As I see it, the two should be blended. Whatever real-world interest I have, I should be able to get access to online.” for having humans in the loop. This This could be the route I should connected, and vending machines M2M device side with the use of the could employ some of the develop- follow to get to work, my summer automatically report when new standard technologies, e.g. IP mov- ments from the semantic web, and, cottage or other points of interest supplies are needed. Each minute of ing into very small devices. This is a who knows, we might even see that I would actually like to be able the day, huge amounts of data are necessity for costs to come down, a revival of some kind of artificial to add to my online ”phonebook” or being exchanged between machines and the technology is now mature intelligence. social network”, says Jan Höller, for various purposes within various for this to happen.” Master Researcher for Connected sectors. However, the foundation for Things at Ericsson Research. On the subject of making use of the Internet of Things is still the However, according to Jan Höller, generated data beyond the original devices and smart objects. To see Above the personal level, the there is a big challenge in moving purpose of the deployment: the possible aggressive growth of Internet of Things will also have an beyond application-specific devices ”There are already useful deploy- applications and innovation for IoT important impact on enterprises and and establishing an information ments within the transport, automo- requires confronting some near-term on society in general. model that will create re-use of the tive, building, health and utility challenges for this very foundation.” data generated by the devices for sectors, but everything is still very ”For enterprises, it is very much new applications in different ap- sector-specific. We need to create Jan Höller summarises: in a cost-efficient way. So we a question of having access to plication domains. Finding the right a kind of information fabric that will ”There is still work to be done in need to put more effort into the all their assets and seamlessly horizontal points in the solutions make information generated from a commodifying the tiny devices with design of tools to automate deploy- integrate them into their business is key. car or a building understandable not which we instrument the world - the ment and configuration of devices.” processes, and for society, it is typi- only within their own very specific sensors and the actuators. cally about furthering sustainability, Approaches differ on how to pursue application or domain but across He is looking forward to the con- dealing with environmental issues, this kind of horizontalisation, ”Some applications and domains.” For this, we have to eliminate the tinued work within the Internet of monitoring water quality, developing sectors are obviously more mature fragmentation in used technologies Things Initiative. new healthcare solutions etc.,” he than others, but most industries Jan Höller believes that semantic and protocols and promote the use says. have now realised that so far, annotations and linked data models, of standard IP and web technologies ”I would be very happy if we would devices and applications have been or other semantic technologies will as well as e.g. operating systems. see representatives from different Jan Höller is not waiting for a tailor-made for specific purposes have a role to play. We also have to make sure that industries come together and talk r ölle specific event or technological and using proprietary or industry- the devices can be used across about what are the common chal- Jan H breakthrough to boost the Internet specific technologies. However, as ”It is really about how to turn vast applications and that the service lenges in terms of technology, busi- of Things implementations. We are we see convergence on consumer amounts of specific data into knowl- the individual device is providing is ness processes and models, etc. talk about problems in different already in the middle of it. electronics devices and mobile edge to share, to be able to reason properly exposed. There are a lot of forums out there, domains and discuss solutions that devices around the use of operating about the knowledge in an intelligent but they tend to focus on specific can span different sectors. We have There is already a lot of machine- systems, APIs, SDKs and the use and automated fashion and to come And not least, we need to find a way industries. So it is my hope that the a challenge in front of us, but it is to-machine communication going of web protocols, we already see to conclusions and decisions. This to actually carry out the necessary Internet of Things Initiative will be definitely worthwhile to try to meet on out there; parking meters are the same evolution on the IoT and should be done without the need and massive deployment of devices a venue where we can meet and this challenge,” he concludes.28 29
  • 17. Mobile Application for Tom is on a business trip and will be away from his home for a few days ... Extended memory Remote control Knowledge The Internet of Things is your ex- But it is not just extended memory Much like in other application sce- tended memory. – we can also remote control things. narios, data streams are not easy to understand if they are complex. The Internet of Things will tell us On/Off are just some basic func- Additional processing of data is – or at least help us – find out if tions of remote controlling things. required to form knowledge that can everything is OK. In the “Mobile Ap- Actuation, as it is called in the IoT be used in decision-making. plication for Smart Meters” scenario community, will be an important Did I forget to turn Tom cannot get a niggling thought part of domesticating things in our Visualisation of data is a great way o the heating? out of his head – did he switch off private life and optimising business of forming knowledge – just like in the heating or didn’t he? and industrial processes in our this scenario. Tom is presented with Consumers are able to use their smart phones to connect and remotely read their elec- professional life. a graphical view of his energy con- tricity consumption and shut down the heating in their house, as well as other appliances. How many times have you walked sumption and hints on how to im- back to the front door, the car or It is best to make decisions based prove the performance and become the office to check if you locked it? on knowledge – but only if we more efficient. So he can make Ugh – I see I left the – so, now everything is How many times have you thought understand it. decisions on for example the return oven switched on as well! switched o safely. about having forgotten something to of investment on a new fridge. switch off? The Internet of Things will enable an extended knowledge base that we can query. The Energy Service Providers will use the smart en- Ok, seems like a new ergy meters to remotely read the power consumption fridge would do magic to in order to send the invoice to the consumers and my energy bill. give advice on how to reduce energy consumption.30 Pdf on energy consumption in the home from The Alexandra Institute 31
  • 18. Home The Home Central Control (HCC) provides the complete control of your house. It controls access, energy, heating according to your profile, environmental conditions and price. Behaviour The Internet of Things will show us Sensors and tags in objects will who we are! record when they are being used and for how long – linking this with Well, maybe it will not look into our who is just another step. “soul”, but it will tell us what we did for how long, where and when. We The Internet of Things enables a constantly interact with things – a trace of how we interact with our lot with our mobile phone – and we surroundings, information that leave footprints already today with can lead to knowledge on how our actions. to improve our day, find ways of saving costs and energy, or simply The HCC triggers the heating How much of this will be recorded remembering and sharing what we system by combining data and processed is an open question, do and did. from outdoor and indoor tem- but Facebook and foursquare for perature, weather forecast example already provide hints on from the Internet, and user how much some people are willing preferences. It adjusts the to share. house energy consumption to the real needs of the fam- The HCC recognises which appliances So why not record everyday actions ily, and most importantly it (washing machine, dishwasher, water around the house to figure out helps you save money. heater, heating system, etc.) are turned on where our time and money goes – at a given time and synchronises them to what is a good and what is a bad ensure the best energy efficiency taking day. into account pricing structure of the utility companies.32 Video on the smart home from Microsoft 33
  • 19. Smart Renewable There are a number of problems with wind farms: Smart grid Planning control, variable power production, maintenance Climate change, carbon footprint The Internet of Things will en- Smart meters and other similar etc. Machine-to-Machine networks can help with the reduction, global warming and able very accurate planning and IoT equipment will monitor energy information flow needed for distributed control. renewable energy – all have entered selection of sites for green energy consumption across the grid and in- the realms of everyday speech and production installations based on teract to exchange information with life. the potential and ability of each site other smart grid components. to generate energy. There is general agreement on the By combining this real-time data need for change, and one of the key Continuous observation of a large with historical data and input from steps to be addressed is the mod- number of parameters like weather the weather sensors, the system A set of spatially distributed wireless sensor ernisation of the, mostly century old, conditions, wind velocity and direc- will make it possible to predict sud- nodes will be deployed in the wind farm, and electrical power system and crea- tion, amount of rain, number of den surges in energy consumption sensor nodes will take measurements of the tion of a “smart grid”. The smart sunny days, the height, frequency and react adequately to optimise flow and wind velocity. grid concept refers to the integration and duration of waves etc. will be energy generation across the grid, of the power grid with communica- enabled by an abundance of IoT in particular by numerous small tion and information technologies devices dispersed around the globe. energy generation installations. aimed at increasing performance and reliability. The measurements collected will be The information collected and pro- processed and analysed together cessed can be used to plan mainte- The main elements of the grid are with historical data to produce nance work at most beneficial time. the centralised generation system, recommendations for optimal the transmission grid, the distribu- placement of energy generation Sensor observations will be periodically reported to a centralised tion grid and distributed energy equipment. unit, where the performance of the wind farm can be monitored and resources. The distributed energy optimised ... resource (DER) is localised source This will enable increased predict- of energy production and storage in ability and reliability, improve – maintenance can be scheduled the distribution grid, such as solar lost production factor figures and based on real time data and his and wind farms, fuels cells, micro- provide more accurate production toric data can be used for future turbines, heat recovery systems, estimates for a given site, thus development and planning. storage (batteries, ultra capacitors), driving down the cost per kWh diesel generators etc. produced. The Internet of Things is one of the IoT will also make it possible crucial elements of the smart grid to monitor and predict energy that will enable autonomous com- consumption patterns in real time, munication and interaction between thus making optimisation of energy numerous components of a grid, consumption in line with the energy thus enabling efficient coordination demands. of the DERs in line with the current energy requirements.34 Videos on smart grid from Con Edison and World Economic Forum 35
  • 20. Stepha nH alle r The entity of interest is a cow Stephan Haller interviewed by Stig Andersen Stephan Haller, Development Architect - Internet of Things, SAP Research Zürich, would rather talk about ”entities of interest” than ”things” in relation to the Internet of Things. Sometimes people think about the To Stephan Haller and his research Another important issue is how to Internet of Things are primarily devices when talking about the colleagues at SAP, the Internet of locate the resources relevant to the directed at tracking and monitor- ”things” in the Internet of Things. Things is basically the concept of in- task at hand. ing, e.g. goods in the supply chain. However, I would like to focus on tegrating the physical and the digital Energy, health and to some extent the entity that we are directing our world using Internet technology. ”In terms of resources, we weed to manufacturing are also sectors interest to for some purpose or And the connectivity enabling this be able to find them, for example that can benefit from the technol- other. This can be a pallet, a truck, integration is what needs to be part temperature sensors that are ogy. However, relatively few of the any consumer item, or also animate of the Future Internet. adapted to a certain environment implementations can be said to be things like a person or a cow. Using and that have a certain accuracy. proper instances of the Internet of a cow as an example is sometimes ”The Internet of Things poses dif- So we probably need an infrastruc- Things, rather, they can be regarded useful to make the distinction to ferent challenges at several layers ture service for that - a kind of as Intranet of Things. devices, since most people would of a Future Internet. Also the Future advanced search engine for sensors agree that we do not connect Internet will be largely IP-based, in or resources.” ”Truly Internet-based implementa- directly to the cow!” particular IPv6. It has been shown tions are probably still rather rare. that also Internet of Things devices Stephan Haller also sees a need for Most of the monitoring that takes Stephan Haller is a veteran within can be efficiently integrated based a common platform for connecting place is running on company- the field of the Internet of Things. on IPv6, so with regard to the con- sensors inspired by the global social internal systems, meaning that it His interest dates back to 1998 nectivity layer, we are in fact getting networks. is not Internet-related. In addition, when he was working in the SAP there.” monitoring is actually just half the Labs in Tokyo. A local distributor ”We would need somebody to picture. The actuation, that is the demonstrated RFID technology to When it comes to the service layer, provide a service in the form of a triggering of events, is also a very him and his colleagues, and they Stephan Haller sees more interest- platform on which to develop ap- important part of the concept of the immediately realised its potential in ing and also challenging issues plications that make use of the rel- Internet of Things.” supply chain management applica- ahead. evant sensors. It would be a kind of tions. social network of sensors, but there Regarding the IoT-i Forum, Stephan push research in the right ”The heterogeneity of devices is are some important issues here: Haller’s ambitions are high. direction. It should also be a place ”What interested me then, as certainly a challenge. What we want What should the business model for ”If we just have another forum like to exchange information about what it does now, is bringing closer though is interoperability, but one such a service be, and can such a many others, the value is limited. works and what does not work in together the physical world and the thing is the technical interoper- platform be reliable enough for the The ambition of the IoT-i Forum order to promote best practices virtual world of IT. I am a software ability, another is the semantic inter- services that you would want to should really be to unify the forces within this area.” engineer by training, but it is stimu- operability needed for the devices develop?” of the globe behind the idea of the lating and motivating to work at the to ”understand” each other, and for Internet of Things. It should be a edge of the software world where it data from different resources to be According to Stephan Haller, the place to exchange information and touches real life.” comparable and linked together.” current implementations of the to gather requirements in order to36 37
  • 21. Smart During a football game a smoke detector in the stadium triggers an alarm and the data is soon confirmed by another sensor in the same area. Improving safety Heterogeneous data sources The Internet of Things will improve The Internet of Things will be made Semantics makes the generation safety in our society if it is well up of billions of heterogeneous of knowledge from these heteroge- integrated with processes and pro- devices such as sensors, actuators neous data sources possible. The cedures in a regulated environment. and tags that are all networked semantic annotation of data coming together. They will be deployed by from sensors allows different data to As soon as the incident location is known, an evacu- In the “Smart Events” application many different organisations and in- be fused, reasoned and interpreted ation of the area is prepared. To do so, the stadium’s scenario a group of sensors confirm dividuals, maintenance is not always by machines to form knowledge that Meanwhile – at the central command unit ... central command needs to ... an event – a fire – and provide this guaranteed; some will be reliable and can be easily understood and read Clear gate A4 data to the command unit. The com- trusted data sources, others will be by humans in fast immediately! mand unit can action a pre-planned rogue. The data that they provide processes. emergency evacuation of the event. will range from streaming video in During the evacuation each step HD quality to sending one bit every Check! can be monitored by the sensors so often. Gate A4 cleared! giving instant feedback about the plan’s effectiveness at the com- In the “Smart Events” application mand unit. scenario a number of smoke detec- ... immediately redirect the transportation routes tors and cameras confirm a fire at a throughout the area to both avoid the incident area At the ground level the sensor infor- particular location – simple enough. and to free up capacity to absorb the sudden surge in mation can be used to maintain a load on the network (pedestrian, road, underground, coordinated effort across emergency However, during the evacuation pro- rail), if evacuation is carried out. staff and to 3rd parties such as the cedure numerous sensors facilitate transport system operators in the the feedback to the command unit case of this scenario. In addition au- and provide the knowledge and cer- The central command unit invokes the appropriate tomation of some processes within tainty that it is safe and timely to go emergency plan to enforce these changes ... the plan can be used to improve to the next stage of the evacuation response time and limit human error. plan. Have the transport routes been set up? Is there an element of panic However, integrated scenarios such in the crowd? Have the gates been as evacuation are highly regulated opened correctly? and traditional environments – in- novation from the IoT can only be achieved with a certain maturity and robustness of the technology. Confidence is key. ... and requests data feeds from the relevant sensor net- works to be made available to monitor the e ects of the plan in real time, in order to assist with decisions around timing and method, should evacuation be required. Video in Danish from The Alexandra Institute about38 @aGlance securing the ‘Smuk Fest’ music event 39
  • 22. Smart Frank is a fruit grower (mixed farming) who cultivates apples, pears, peaches, strawberries, melons, and oranges (greenhouse cultivation and natural fields). Depending on the season, he employs seasonal workers. Reusable sensor networks Internet of Things infrastructures Overall, Internet of Things applica- can improve farming but their data tions have not only the potential can also be sold to third parties. to improve decision-making in a specific sector but they can also be His farm is equipped with Managing a farm as depicted on keystones for a service business sensors that monitor ... the left requires various activities ecosystem from which various that can be supported by Internet of stakeholders benefit. – the conditions of the crops (each Things applications. area of the farm is separately moni- tored): duration and level of sunlight, For example, Frank must always Ethics versus But in contrast to these anticipated temperature, humidity, level of rain- fall, wind speed ... have a detailed picture of weather, safety benefits, sensor networks may also crop and soil conditions. This be used for controlling and compar- monitoring requires effort and is Internet of Things applications are ing the workers on the field. time-consuming, in particular for often a mixed blessing when it a large farm or even in situations comes to benefits and risks. Calculated performance scores where Frank owns fields that are could be used as basis for dismiss- geographically dispersed. In the farming scenario, the sensor ing workers accordingly even networks can be used to track the though these scores might not A sensor network allows Frank to location and even the activities of reflect the actual working behaviour get current data about temperature the workers on the field. This can and performance. or ground humidity from all of his help Frank to make better decisions fields. Based upon this data, he is regarding the planning and progress The design, deployment and use of able to make better decisions in the of his workforce. such Internet of Things applications planning of upcoming activities. must therefore always address Additionally, this monitoring can ethical principles too. And it must Moreover, data gathered by these be helpful in situations where a be the first and foremost interest of sensor networks can also be sold worker has a serious accident and all stakeholders to discuss these to organisations such as weather needs immediate assistance. In this issues in advance of a roll-out be- agencies, the crop industry or other regard, sensor networks address cause otherwise, user acceptance research communities. Accordingly, safety needs in working environ- suffers and expected benefits would investments into sensor networks ments. not be present. – the state of the plants: must not only rely on Frank alone size, humidity in the but they might be part-funded by ground, ripeness of the the entire surrounding business fruits (size, colour, sugar ecosystem. level) ... – and the workers: position in the area (in the farm or outside), equipment in use as well as physical condition.40 Video on climate smart agriculture from The World Bank 41
  • 23. ABOUT IERC 智慧的地球 IoT European Research Cluster BUY 1 Internet + Internet of Things = Wisdom of the Earth Get 1 FREE The aim of the European Research Cluster on the Internet of Things is to address the large potential for IoT-based capabilities in Europe and to coordinate the convergence of ongoing activities. NEW ! European Dimension IoT has the potential to enhance Europe’s com- petitiveness and is an important driver for the development of an information based economy and society. Global Dimension IERC will facilitate the knowledge sharing at the global level and will encourage and exchange best = practice and new business models that are emerg- ing in different parts of the world. internet-of-things-research.eu 物联网 E!FRE Internet of Things International Forum L’internet des objets sans frontières: The + Internet of Things without borders is the motto of the Internet of Things International Forum. 互联网 No borders for research, collaboration and our joint vision: a united Internet of Things – Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao, 2009 fostering business, societal development, knowledge, innovation and growth. Come join us: iot-forum.eu 50% F!42 OF 43
  • 24. We bridge Project contributions academia and About The IoT initiative The IoT initiative (IoT-i), an EU 7th Framework Programme project initiated in September 2010, brings together key actors from all relevant but currently frag- mented IoT communities in Europe. The purpose of the project is to work jointly industry towards a common vision for the Internet of Things. It represents the first serious attempt in building a unified IoT community in Europe, going across boundaries through research-based innovation of disparate technology sectors, in order to create a joint European strategic vision for the Internet of Things and aligning this vision with the current develop- ments on the Future Internet. The Alexandra Institute is a non-profit company that works with application- iot-i.eu oriented IT research. About The Open Minds project Our focus is pervasive computing, and we activate the business potential of The Open Minds project is a collaboration among the Association for Automatic our members and customers through research-based userdriven innovation. Identification and Mobility, the Technical University of Denmark, the Technology College Aalborg and the Alexandra Institute. The project aims at developing new The Alexandra Institute is a member of GTS - Advanced Technology Group technological applications based on industry needs within the food, construction – a network of independent Danish research and technology organisations. and entertainment sectors. Results of the project have helped shape the ideas presented in this book. alexandra.dk/uk/Projects/Pages/Open-Minds.aspx > visit us at WWW.alexandra.dk About OUTSMART OUTSMART is a usage area project of the Future Internet Private Public Partner- ship: Provisioning of urban/regional smart services and business models enabled Illustrations by the Future Internet. The goal of OUTSMART is to contribute to the Future Internet by aiming at the development of five innovation ecosystems in Aarhus DK, Berlin DE, Santander ES, Birmingham UK and Trento IT. These ecosystems by Mikael Skotting, facilitate the creation of a large variety of pilot services and technologies that contribute to optimised supply and access to services and resources in urban areas. This will contribute to more sustainable utility provision and, through increased efficiency, lower strain on resources and on the environment. fi-ppp-outsmart.eu Raaskot Visual About SmartSantander SmartSantander proposes a unique in the world city-scale experimental research facility in support of typical applications and services for a smart city. This unique experimental facility will be sufficiently large, open and flexible to enable horizontal and vertical federation with other experimental facilities and stimu- Raaskot creates creative visual concepts, lates the development of new applications by users of various types, including animations and illustrations for printed and experimental advanced research on IoT technologies and realistic assessment of interactive media. users’ acceptability tests. smartsantander.eu www.raaskot.dk About the national project The national project on the subject of the Internet of Things is operated by the Alexandra Institute. Competences on infrastructure, algorithms, platforms and security issues related to the Internet of Things are strengthened through this work, and these competences have been fed into this Comic Book. en.fi.dk/councils-commissions/the-danish-council-for-technology-and-innovation44 45
  • 25. L’internet des objets sans frontières! Get absorbed into the Internet of Things! Part of the work leading to this book has been funded by the 7th framework programme of the European Commission. The contributions came from the Internet of Things Initia- tive (IoT-i) coordination action, contract number: 257565. Thanks and acknowledgements go to the European Commission, the IoT-i project and participants. The comic book also used and re-mixed scenarios from the following 6th and 7th framework projects: • FP7 ICT SmartSantander • FP7 ICT SENSEI • FP7 ICT EXALTED • FP7 ICT FLORENCE • FP7 ICT PROSENSE • FP7 ICT LOLA • FP6 IST e-SENSE • FP6 IST MIMOSA You can download an electronic version of the comic book here:46 www.alexandra.dk/uk/services/Publications/Documents/IoT_Comic_Book.pdf