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  • 2. INDHOLD Why service design? 01 / 07 international Benchmarks 02 / 19 case: aarhus citizen services 03 / 27 case: the good kindergarten 04 / 45 methods 05 / 61 approach 06 / 8103 05 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61
  • 4. HALL 00 / E bEStD GN tHE GOVERNmENt NG denmarkD
  • 5. the service sector accounts for more than 75%of employment in the western world, and thisfigure is increasing. Our economies are dependenton services like never before.As citizens and consumers, we are increasinglydemanding unique and efficient services, regard-less of whether these are provided by the publicor private sectors.However, companies’ innovation processes are stillgeared towards material products. today, innova-tion and services are two distinct areas.
  • 6. wHY SERVICE DESIGN? 01/03 05 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61
  • 8. IN tHE 01 /OR CAN ONLY f COmpANIES DEVELOp pOUL-ERIk pEDERSENNOVAtIVE chairman, the danish chamBer oF commerce t mOtIVAtECE DESIGN ONE Of tHE ANt wAYS Of IS.”
  • 9. a service is a complex system of elements and networks that the user meets and interacts with overa period of time. these elements include everything from players (e.g. insurance agents, customeradvisers or legislators) and tangible items (e.g. work tools) to institutions (e.g. banks or authorities)and the systems that underpin them (e.g. it systems or temp contracts). these networks can bevirtual (e.g. websites) or tangible (e.g printed matter) or consist of face-to-face interaction.
  • 10. Why service design? 01 / SERVICE DESIGN CAN bE USED tODEVELOp NEw SERVICE SOLUtIONS tHAt CREAtE ADDED VALUE fOR tHE USERS AND COmpEtItIVE ADVANtAGE fOR tHE pROVIDERSdesign is a discipline which, in a historic per- own a service in the same way that you own aspective, is all about adding a functional and/or product. unlike physical products, a service isaesthetic value to products. today, design is in- created and consumed in the instant it is used. acreasingly about creating experiences, through service requires the participation of the individualthe provision of services, for instance. users’ who is receiving it. in that respect, a serviceexpectations and demands for unique and quali- represents a relationship or a set of relation-tative services in the private and public sectors ships. thus, a service consists of a number ofincreasingly mean that there is a competitive different elements and networks that the userparameter as well. at the same time, there is comes across and interacts with over a periodan increasing need for services that don’t just of time. these networks function as a means offulfil basic needs but also create added value communication between the user and the pro-– for example, by stimulating a feeling of peace vider of a service. together, this whole system ofof mind, loyalty, profit, empathy, social cohesion relationships between the user and the provider,etc. the complexity and diversity of the new places and objects, processes andchallenges facing companies also means that networks, represents a ’service ecology’.new methods and competences are requiredto solve these problems. service design both an air flight is an example of a complex servicereflects and accommodates this development. ecology. the flight itself represents the core service, whilst the ticket sale, supply of informa-what is a service? We come across services tion, organization, personnel etc are all pointsevery day in a multitude of situations: When of contact that the consumer has to the actualwe go to the launderette, to the cinema, to the product. even though it is essential that thedoctor or when we use online banking or eat at customer gets from a to B on time, it is oftena restaurant. a service is an intangible product the meeting with the various points of contactthat takes place over a period of time. you can’t that creates a good or bad experience.03 05 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61
  • 11. pARADIGm SHIft pOSt-INDUStRIAL SOCIEtYproducts versus services industry agricultureobjectFunctionmonoconsumersstaticownershipstandardcentraltangiblerelationsexperiencehybridco-creatorsdynamicaccesspersonalde-centralisedintangible service
  • 12. Why service design? 01 / pEOpLE HAVE bEEN DESIGNING SERVICESfOR SEVERAL DECADES. tHE DIffERENCE NOw IS tHAt EXpECtAtIONS AND DEmANDS HAVE RISEN DRAmAtICALLY – AND CONSEQUENtLY wE AREEXpERIENCING tHAt mANY SERVICES AREEItHER OUtDAtED, pOOR OR SImpLY NON-EXIStENt. tHIS SItUAtION REQUIRES NEw SOLUtIONS AND A NEw AppROACH today, most high income countries – denmark in- at the same time, increased global competition has cluded – are described as post-industrial. this means meant that many industries are experiencing a fierce that our economy is no longer based on the produc- battle for customers. the products are almost identi- tion and sale of material objects, but on knowledge cal, so added value and positions have to be created and services. the economies of post-industrial through services that extend beyond the core product. countries are called service economies because the this development is evident in the airline industry, vast majority of the countries’ turnover and revenue for example, where air-mile schemes, the option of comes from the service sector. it is also the sector choosing your seat online, electronic check-in and a in which most people work. For instance, in banks, host of other services make it cheaper and easier to insurance companies, the tourist industry, entertain- travel – in turn creating greater customer loyalty. ment industry, and within the fields of education, health and research. paradigm shift the transformation from an agricul- tural and industrial to a post-industrial society has one of the characteristics of a post-industrial society meant that there has been a number of cultural and is that our basic and material needs are no longer a sociological paradigm shifts. one of the central shifts goal in themselves. most of us have is that, to some extent, we have moved away from products such as furniture, televisions, kitchen demarcated, stable communities with well-defined equipment, computers and so on. in other words, roles and functions to more fluid communities and our basic and material needs have been fulfilled a need for continually creating and recreating our and therefore our demand for, and expectations of role/s and identity/ies. as part of this development, immaterial services are greater than ever before we are increasingly seeing ourselves as creative co- – regardless of whether these are provided by the creators of the experiences, relations and objects that public or the private sector. constitute our everyday life. in other words, we are active ’prosumers’ rather than passive consumers. this happens when, for instance, in a furniture shop, we design the motif on our new chair ourselves. 03 05 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61
  • 13. ‘fRONt StAGE’ ‘bACk StAGE’ the good service experience can be created in several ways. either by focusing on the actual interaction between the user and the service design the contact points Where redesign the underlying service provider and (re)designing the points of contact through which the consumers meet a service provision processes user experiences a service. or, by changing the underlying processes that lead to the production of a service. Finally, by creating completely new forms of service that reflect new social trends and opportunities, for example, within the field of a service on theBasis oF social trends
  • 14. Why service design? 01 / SERVICE DESIGN IS A SYStEmAtIC AND CREAtIVE AppROACH tO INNOVAtION. VALUE IS CREAtED bY tAkING INtERACtION bEtwEEN tHE USER AND tHE SERVICE pROVIDER, AND IDENtIfICAtION Of pRObLEmS AS A StARtING pOINt AND tRANSfORmING tHESE INtOOppORtUNItIES AND NEw SOLUtIONS it is easier for a service to accommodate this problems and opportunities that are not visible shift. a service is more dynamic and flexible before the process materialise along the way. than a physical product, which is final in its form. it is an approach that leads to radical new and services are more flexible since they change innovative solutions or improvements to existing whilst they are being delivered. services. it is important to design services that appeal to both users and providers and that relate therefore, service design is all about transform- to the everyday life of both parties. ing the relevant social trends into completely new solutions. during the service design process, a number of different methods are used as tools to help How is a service designed? a service can be choose the ultimate design direction. these in- broken down into basic elements. it consists of clude techniques to assess the original idea for a ’front stage’ (the user) and a ’back stage’ (the the service against the final service design and provider) - and a number of material and im- subsequently, prepare a business case. one of material elements and points of contact between the parameters for selecting a solution is the the user and the provider. short and long-term income and costs involved. a service lives on after it has been designed. good the service provider’s ideas on how a service or a service design should comply with a plethora of product should be used do not always correspond factors to ensure that the solution is sustain- with those of the user, therefore, the service de- able and profitable, Besides the financial bot- sign process is based on mapping-out the various tom line, it typically also involves creating social relations and points of contact in order to identify and environmental value and ensuring increased those areas in the service process that do not customer loyalty. meet the user’s expectations, dreams, needs and everyday life. this methodic approach means that 03 05 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61
  • 15. it is by identifying the difference between the user’s expectations of a service prior to them comingface to face with it and their actual experience of the service that its overall quality can be determined.a high level of quality is another manifestation of a good service experience. any difference betweenexpectations and experience can give an indication of whether there is any potential in creating agood service experience by focusing on the expectations of a service before it is actually provided. EXpECtAtION fORVENtNING fORVENtNING fORVENtNING SERVICE- mEEtING SERVICEmØDE SERVICEmØDE SERVICEmØDE QUALItY EXpERIENCED OpLEVEt kVALItEt OpLEVEt kVALItEt OpLEVEt kVALItEt & EffEkt & EffEkt & EffEkt AND EffECt OpLEVELSE OpLEVELSE OpLEVELSE EXpERIENCE
  • 16. Why service design? 01 / Up tO NOw, fEw bUSINESSES HAVE REGARDED tHE SERVICE INDUStRY AS AN AREA Of INNOVAtION. HOwEVER, ASCOmpANIES wAkEN Up tO tHE mASSIVEpOtENtIAL It OffERS, OVER tHE COmING YEARS DEmAND fOR SERVICE DESIGN COmpEtENCES wILL bE HUGE who designs a service? service design is car- the need for design competences despite ried out by a team consisting of several differ- the obvious advantages and need, there is still ent competences: anthropologists, ethnologists, only a handful of companies – private and public concept designers, interaction designers, product sector – that have a conscious, strategic and in- designers, economists and so on. the composi- novative approach to services. however, several tion of these competences is dependent on the companies have gradually begun to waken up nature and scope of the task in hand. it is not to how the use of service design competences unusual for several companies to collaborate on can meet these needs. therefore, service design performing a service design task. is a growing discipline all over the world, and developments in the field are being seen in the however, the most important people in the de- uk and usa in particular. velopment of service design solutions are the users, so consequently they are always involved as more or less active co-creators throughout the whole design development process. not least, it is crucial that users are involved in order to qualify problems and solutions before the final service solution is launched. Furthermore, sev- eral other interested parties are involved, for example, customers, interest organisations and experts in the field, as an integral part of the process. all of this is done to ensure optimal accuracy of fire. 03 05 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61
  • 17. In 2007, Apple changed its name from Apple Com-puter Inc, to Apple Inc. this was in recognition ofthe fact the company’s development potential nolonger lies in isolated products, but in product-service systems.
  • 18. INtER- NAtIONAL CASES 02/ keep the change, national Bank oF america 20 itunes store, apple inc. 21 cluB china, klm 22 greenWheels, holland 23 Future currents, British design council 24 amBient experience radiology suite / kitten scanner, philips 2503 05 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61
  • 19. casekEEp tHE CHANGENAtIONAL bANk Of AmERICA2006Service design can result in new and in-novative products, new business areas andgreater customer loyalty.young american mothers have traditionally foundit difficult to save money, but with the help of aninnovative service concept, it has become a biteasier. keep the change is the name of a newtype of bank card that rounds an amount up tothe nearest dollar every time a purchase is made.the difference between the two amounts is sub-sequently transferred automatically to the user’ssavings account. keep the change was developedby the design company ideo for national Bank ofamerica. the concept was created on the basis ofa lengthy period of field work, where the designteam observed and mapped out the habits andneeds of young mothers in order to identify newareas of opportunity. the card quickly became agreat success, and at the beginning of 2007, 2.5million customers had signed up for the scheme,including 700,000 new customers.
  • 20. international cases 02 / case ItUNES StORE AppLE INC. 2003 In 2007, Apple changed its name from Ap- ple Computer Inc, to Apple Inc. this was in recognition of the fact the company’s devel- opment potential no longer lies in isolated products, but in product-service systems. perhaps apple’s most successful service concept is the itunes store. Whereas in recent decades the established music industry has focused on limiting file sharing, apple have taken the opposite approach and been able to see the opportunities afforded by digital network media and paved the way for a new business model that meets the needs of users. on a global scale, today, itunes store accounts for more than 80% of online music sales.03 05 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61
  • 21. caseCLUb CHINAkLm2006the web 2.0 phenomenon was popularisedlong ago. Nevertheless, many companiesstill haven‘t woken up to the potential inassociating social networking services withtheir core 2006, the dutch airline, klm, introduced the network concept, club china, geared towards the Foto: capital Fotosincreasing number of business people who travel to china on business. via a website, memberscan register their calendar and travel information, for instance, and consequently make contactwith other like-minded travelers who will find themselves in the same place at the same time. theobjective of club china is to establish contact between member who wish to share their knowledgeand experiences. today, the club has more than 3,000 members and klm has since developed twosimilar concepts club africa and golf club.
  • 22. international cases 02 / case GREENwHEELS HOLLAND 1995 In a world in which consideration for the environment plays a central role in what consumers choose and reject, sustainability and operating a business should not be regarded as a conflict of interests but rather as an opportunity. greenwheels is a dutch car-sharing service which has been a huge success since it was launched in the middle of the nineties. subscribers can book cars by telephone or via the internet, where an interactive map shows where the nearest car is to be found. the booking process takes, on aver- age, under a minute. greenwheels has several dedicated parking spaces in central location in towns and cities, which has clear advantages in cities like amsterdam where it is expensive to park – if you can find a parking space at all. as an extra incentive, greenwheels gives subscribers a discount if, at the same time, they have an annual travel card for the national transport system, ns. in 2004, greenwheels expanded to germany.03 05 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61
  • 23. casefUtURE CURRENtSbRItISH DESIGN COUNCIL2006we are surrounded by systems and productsthat don’t function optimally, but that wehave gotten used to nevertheless. Servicedesign can be used to examine and challengeour patterns of behaviour – not necessarilyto create products or services, but tocreate new ways of using them.a third of co2 emissions in the uk come from ordinaryhomes. therefore, the British design council has initiateda project, the objective of which is to help householdsreduce their energy consumption and, consequently,their co2 emissions. the result was ten different con-cepts that will attempt to solve the problem by makingtheir energy consumption more transparent and of the concepts consists of an energy statementthat, among other things, illustrates your consumptionin comparison with other households.
  • 24. international cases 02 / case AmbIENt EXpERIENCE RADIOLOGY SUItE/ kIttEN SCANNER pHILIpS 2005 Experience design is often associated with positive situations like cultural and tourism experiences. However, it is also about minimising the impact of negative experiences, for instance, if we become ill. a trip to the hospital is rarely a pleasant experience. especially not for children who quickly become afraid when they are away from their usual surroundings. ap- proximately a third of children who undergo a ct scan become anxious and have to have the scan redone, which reduces certainty and can result in six to eight hours extra work for hospital staff. to help tackle this problem, philips have developed the kitten scanner concept, which gives children an opportunity to play with a miniature ct scanner and a stuffed toy before they are scanned themselves. the objective is to demystify the process, thereby putting the child’s mind at ease.03 05 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61
  • 25. It is about more than simply minimizing queues andconveying the right information. modern citizenservices are based on the citizen’s life situationand communicate them with them at eye level -both online and in physical spaces.
  • 26. case AARHUS CItIzEN SERVICES 03/ introduction 29 research 33 analysis 35 developing the idea and concept 37 co-serving 39 result 4103 05 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61
  • 27. customer: aarhus municipality year: 2006 case: aarhus citizen services 03/ case: aarhus citizen services INtRODUCtIONwhat characterises an optimal citizen service? And how is it created?Aarhus municipality came to 1508 with an interesting challenge: Designa new citizen service concept that both meets the citizens’ demandswith regard to peace of mind and efficiency and motivates them tohelp themselves via the municipality’s self-service solutions.the task together with the design company 3part, citizens should, take to the new service and that awe were given the task of developing the strategic large number of them would graduate from beingframeworks for a new citizen service concept in served by others to serving themselves.aarhus municipality. the task encompassed sub-sequent execution in the form of visual identity, Cooperation partner the project was carried outdetermining the physical lay-out of two citizen in collaboration with the danish design companyservice centres and marketing. 3part, who specialise in industrial design and service solutions.background citizen services is a public servicethat assembles all the services that most citizens Research and analysis the project started offneed in one place. in so doing, the citizens of the by defining the actual concept of citizen services,municipality only need to refer to one place. in the which includes form of service, service areas andcitizen services centre you can obtain information communication with the rest of the organisation.and guidance on public services, pick up forms or the target group’s needs were analysed and com-find information on everything from tax deduction pared with existing experiences with the field ofcards and change of address forms to housing citizen services. among other things, the projectbenefits, medical insurance or signing up for day team carried out field work around denmark ininstitutions. order to observe how other municipalities facili- tated interaction with their citizens.Success criteria the objective of the project wasto create a cohesive service concept that takes the on the basis of the observations and analyses,citizen’s life situation rather than the public sec- we developed a number of archetypal citizenstor’s organisational structure as its starting point. – called ‘personas’. these personas served as aone of aarhus municipality’s success criteria was, central tool for both development of the designfor instance, that within a short space of time its and preparation of the service concept.03 05 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61
  • 28. customer: aarhus municipality year: 2006 case: Århus Borgerservice 03/Concept on the basis of the insight obtained from to work efficiently in a pleasant working environ-the field work, we started developing the actual ment. therefore, the following key words, in orderconcept of citizen services in aarhus. the con- of priority, were fundamental when it came to thecept is based on the citizens’ central demands for layout centres:peace of mind, efficiency and speed – online and 1) hospitality.whwnever citizens physically come face to face 2) anchor – there must be a focal point.with the municipality. 3) Quality = reliability. 4) orientation (signify by using objects, notcentral to the service concept is the notion of ‘co- signs).service’ which we developed as phase between 5) Waiting-time content (fitting-out of the centresservice and self-service. our analyses showed should send out a signal that waiting time canthat a large group of citizens were motivated to be used both practically and for relaxation,use self-service solutions, but didn’t actually use depending on the citizen’s needs – it shouldthem, either on the grounds of uncertainty or lack also be possible to integrate both case handlingof it skills. through ‘co-service’, the municipality and self-service in the waiting time).employees help the individual citizen to servehim/herself until they feel confident enough to the service areas are divided into zones whichtake the step towards full self-service. reflect the needs of the target group: the ’Quick zone’ (sales of passports, driving licences, busVisual identity visually, the concept consists of tickets), the ‘learning zone’ (pcs for service anddistinct colours, ‘strips’ containing handwriting and co-service) and the ’case handling zone’. Withpictures of people, all of which the observer comes regard to employees, experience has shown thatinto eye contact with. the objective of the visual citizen services cannot be a success without theidentity was to create a striking and eye-catching backing of personnel. therefore, we moved thedesign that citizens would experience as reliable busy and seasonally-determined counters toand accommodating. one of the principle ideas the front of the room so as not to disturb thosebehind the use of handwriting is to show flexibility employees dealing with cases that took a whileand distinction. therefore, arabic handwriting is longer. additionally, offices were laid out in suchalso part of the identity. a way as to allow a high degree of knowledge- sharing. the layout of the offices incorporates aBoth in terms of the visual design and layout of ‘citizen-free’ area where employees can relax inthe two citizen service centres, we put particular peace and quiet.emphasis on making them personal and accom-modating. this was with a view to creating a sense marketing the development of the strategy, con-of equal and personal communication - commu- cept, identity and fitting-out was followed up bynication at eye level, which is informal without strategies for marketing, evaluation and influencebeing frivolous. of the citizens’ choice of channel. one of the goals was to increase the use of digital self-service op-Layout in terms of the centres’ layout, we worked tions among target groups - those who alreadyon a solution that appears both inviting and un- used the internet a lot - and moreover, to motivatederstandable for the citizen while accommodating those target groups who are a bit hesitant aboutthe needs of municipality employees. the citizen digital self-service.should feel welcome and be able to find their wayround easily – and the employee should be able03 05 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61
  • 29. customer: aarhus municipality year: 2006 case: aarhus citizen services 03/ case: aarhus citizen services RESEARCH the project team visited a number of citizen service centres around Denmark and conducted interviews and made observations, all of which were documented in the form of photos, sketches, notes and video. both citizens and employees participated. the objective was to gain an insight into how other municipalities facilitate interaction with the citizen. Subsequently, employees and citizens in Aarhus municipality became involved in the form of in- terviews and workshops with a view to obtaining a picture of what characterises their everyday situation and their experiences, needs and aspirations with regard to providing and receiving citizen services respectively.03 05 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63
  • 30. ”wHERE DO I GO?”the lack of a visual identity creates confusion”wHAt If I NEED tO SEE AbOUt mORE tHAN ONE tHING?”the numbering system is too complicated and does not necessarily fit in with the citizens’ situations”SHOULD OtHERS bE AbLE tO fOLLOw mY pRIVAtE LIfE?”signs above case handling booths highlight differences between citizens
  • 31. customer: aarhus municipality year: 2006 case: aarhus citizen services 03/ case: aarhus citizen services ANALYSIS the whole service was mapped out taking the user as a starting point. this mapping-out clearly illustrated a number of problems that were specifically centred on the meeting between the actual citizen service and the employees’ working day. the various types of citizen were grouped according to their needs, situation and motivation and were transformed into ‘personas’. the problems and personas pointed the way forward to opportunities for improving citizen services.03 05 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65
  • 32. customer: aarhus municipality year: 2006 case: aarhus citizen services 03/ case: aarhus citizen services DEVELOpING tHE IDEA AND CONCEpt Development of both the visual design and the physical layout was done in close cooperation with citizens and employees. personas, association cards and role playing were all used as a means of de- veloping the layout and service concepts.03 05 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67
  • 33. customer: aarhus municipality year: 2006 case: aarhus citizen services 03/ case: aarhus citizen services CO-SERVICE the idea of ‘co-service’ is central to the ultimate concept of citizen services. Co-service is a phase between service and self-service that meets the citizen’s needs for gradually being able to serve themselves. the layout of the citizen service centres has been the visual identity is based on distinctive colours designed so that it appears both inviting and and photographic portraits where eye contact understandable for the citizen while, at the same is established. Besides exuding flexibility and time, meeting the needs of municipal employees distinction, the concept helped ensure that citi- for being able to work efficiently in a good work- zen services quickly established its own identity ing environment. citizens come face to face with and did not inherit the slightly outmoded image human beings rather than machines. normally associated with municipal services. the service areas are divided into zones which part of the concept for the visual identity is based reflect the needs of citizens: the ‘Quick zone’, on communicating in languages other than dan- the ‘learning zone’ and the ‘case handling zone’. ish, which is in line with aarhus municipality’s the needs of employees have been met by mov- vision of being accommodating and meeting its ing the busy and seasonally-determined service citizens at eye level. desks to the front of the room so as not to disturb cases that take a while longer. the lay-out of the office is such that it allows a high degree of knowledge-sharing, and a ‘citizen-free’ area has been established where employees can relax in peace and quiet once in a while.03 05 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69
  • 34. customer: aarhus municipality year: 2006 case: aarhus citizen services 03/ case: aarhus citizen services RESULt A survey carried out by Epinion in April 2007 shows that 91% of Aarhus municipality citizens overall are either satisfied or very sat- isfied with their visit to to the Citizen Services centre – and that the users’ satisfaction with the service provided by its personnel tops 95%. the figures exceeded the expectations that were envisaged when the project was in development. then, one of the targets was that, within the first year of operation, 70% of citizens should find the Citizen Service centres easy to use and feel that they were of- fered a decent service.03 05 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71
  • 36. CE DESIGN 03 / tO UNCOVERAt NEEDS ERS HAVE. pIA bECH mAtHIESEN tO mAkE design manager at dsBmUSt pROVIDE UStOmERS
  • 37. At ‘the Good kindergarten’ it is not just about look-ing after children and developing their social skills.It is also about considering the needs of parentswith regard to peace of mind, personalisation andparticipation
  • 38. case tHE GOOD kINDER- GARtEN 04/ introduction 47 research 51 analysis 53 developing the idea and concept 55 result 57 ready start smart 58 pulse 5903 05 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 7
  • 39. customer: danish enterprise year: 2006 case : the good kindergarten 04/ and construction authority case: the good kindergarten INtRODUCtION what makes a good kindergarten? Countless projects have shown the importance of good physical frameworks, teaching practices and a healthy working climate in creating a good kindergarten. but few have viewed kindergartens as a service for parents. So we did. the task in partnership with copenhagen liv- ultimate solutions in particular. the success ing lab, we carried out the good kindergarten criteria were that the solutions should be cost- project for the danish enterprise and construction neutral and generalisable and that they should authority. the idea behind the task was to exam- be capable of being implemented within a short ine the everyday lives of children, teachers and time-frame. parents in a danish kindergarten. the objective was to identify and describe what creates the Cooperation partner the project was carried experience of quality - and how a core welfare out in collaboration with copenhagen living lab, a service such as childcare can be improved. the consultancy firm that specialises in the uncover- subsequent goal was to develop a number of ing of needs and analysis of people’s everyday ideas and implementable concepts that would lives with the aim of identifying opportunities for help solve some of the problems faced by kin- innovation. copenhagen institute of interaction dergartens and parents. design (cid) served as a sparring partner during the process. Finally, the danish enterprise and background the good kindergarten is one of construction authority and copenhagen munici- two pilot projects that demonstrate how service pality were active participants in and contributors design can be used to create a better public to the project. service. the pilot proojects are the first of a series of demonstration projects that the danish enter- Research the research phase consisted of desk prise and construction authority has developed in research and field work. the desk research work connection with the government’s grand efforts included the gathering and appropriation of to make denmark a leading design nation. knowledge in the field of childcare, perspectives on quality in childcare and social trends related Success criteria the danish enterprise and to family life and the provision of public services. construction authority laid down a number of Fieldwork consisted of participant observation success criteria for the pilot project which set and semi-structured interviews. the frameworks for the task in general and the03 05 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 7
  • 40. 03
  • 41. customer: danish enterprise year: 2006 case : the good kindergarten 04/ and construction authority Life as a parent together with copenhagen 1. the parents’ experience of the kindergarten/ living lab, we followed four kindergarten fami- childcare in general (’front stage’). lies over a period of two weeks and gained an 2. the parents’ contact with the kindergarten insight into their everyday lives which we then (points of contact). mapped out. this mapping-out of the families’ 3. the teachers’ working day (‘back stage’). lives encompassed the typical day of the children and the parents in the morning, afternoon and the projects frameworks meant that ‘weighty’ evening periods and the childrens’ day at the problems, such as sickness and stress were as- kindergarten from when they were dropped off signed a lower priority in the subsequent process until they were collected. of developing the idea and concept. Life at kindergarten We participated in the Result the project resulted in two concepts, both everyday life of the kindergarten and observed containing a number of individual ideas. one of relationships and activities. teachers were inter- the concepts focused on matching the parents’ viewed and followed in the daily activities from expectations to the reality of the kindergarten. the moment the kindergarten opened until it the framework for the concept is a suitcase, closed, and we interviewed both teachers and which the parents receive when the child enrols. management about their views on what char- the suitcase symbolises the journey through acterises a typical working day and life in the kindergarten upon which the child and his/her kindergarten and on how they viewed childcare parents are about to embark. Besides having a in general. symbolic and practical value, the suitcase con- tains a number of objects that inform the parent Life in the municipality We interviewed officials of the kindergarten’s cultural codes and rules. from copenhagen municipality’s child and youth this information is aimed at preventing future administration about their views on the kinder- communication breakdowns between parents garten as a welfare service and were thereby able and the kindergarten. to obtain a political-administrative perspective on the subject. the interviews with the officials also the second concept is about meeting the par- gave us an insight into the world of copenhagen ents’ basic needs for following the child’s life at institutions and childcare and the practices and kindergarten and being a ‘fly on the wall’. the conceptions that apply there. concept introduces a number of elements that make it easier for the parents to get a concrete Analysis: 12 problems the research phase gave insight into what is going on between the hours us a picture of what functions well and functions when the child is dropped off and collected. not so well, and the needs and expectations that characterise the various core users – namely, the project was submitted to the danish en- the parents. on the basis of these insights, we terprise and construction authority who use it identified a total of 12 main conclusions and as a demonstration project for both regulatory problems, each of which contained potentials authorities and design companies. Furthermore, and opportunities for rethinking and improving we are in dialogue with a number of municipali- the service experienced by users. the conclusions ties with a view to implementing some of the and problems fell into three categories: solutions.3 05 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 8
  • 42. 03 05
  • 43. customer: danish enterprise year: 2006 case : the good kindergarten 04/ and construction authority case: the good kindergarten RESEARCH the project team carried out field work at the Jorden Rundt (Round the Earth) kindergarten and with four families with children. the focus of the task was geared towards the parents and thereby the ‘front stage’ experience of the kindergarten service. However, at the same time, it was also important to gain an insight into the ‘backstage’ processes and the institutions’ perspective on being able to design a service that is relevant to all players involved.5 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 8
  • 44. back stage points of contact front stagethere are numerous problems associated with the everyday many parents feel that the level of communication, in the problems relating to the parents’ expectations ofworking life of teachers. generally, they spend a lot of time general, falls when the child goes from day nursery to and views on the childcare provided at the kindergartenon activities that, first and foremost, take time away not kindergarten due to the lower level of normalisation. this relate to both fundamental and general aspects of theonly from the children, but also from communication with applies to both day-to-day communication about the child childcare phenomenon and to more specific conditionscolleagues and parents. and decisions on major aspects of the kindergarten. at the particular kindergarten. GARtEN SICkNESS ARE bUYING A LOt Of tImE AND COLLECtION tHE mANAGEmENt? AGES ON tHE GROUNDS Of OVERLOAD At twO CENtRAL tHE DECISIONS fOR tHE kIN- ENCE CHRONIC StAff SHORt- pICtURE Of tHE SERVICE tHEY It’S UNCLEAR wHO IS mAkING Of COmmUNICAtION bEtwEEN pRACtICAL wORk AND AD HOC LACk Of A DYNAmIC CHANNEL pOINtS Of CONtACt: DROp-Off pLANNING ACHIEVES tAkES Up DERGARtEN – tHE pARENtS OR StAff (AND pARENtS) EXpERI- pARENtS DO NOt HAVE A CLEAR tHE pARENtS AND tHE kINDER- fOR pARENtS tO tHE pARENtS IN A CLOSED wAY CREAtE CONfLICtS DEmANDS AND pOLICIES tHE kINDERGARtEN IS NOt A mULtItUDE Of EXtERNAL GEARED tO bEING A SERVICE ENtS, kINDERGARtEN, tEm- DIffERENt ‘CULtURES’ (pAR- pORARY StAff, OtHER StAff) mANAGEmENt COmmUNICAtE tHE CHILD’S DAY IS ‘INVISIbLE’ tEACHERS mUSt COmpLY wItH03 05 07
  • 45. customer: danish enterprise year: 2006 case : the good kindergarten 04/ and construction authority case: the good kindergarten ANALYSIS Analysis of the data gathered consisted of a mapping-out of the service process and identification of ‘gaps’ between expectations and experiences of the service and identification of the various players’ needs and motivations. finally, the analysis resulted in identification of 12 key problem areas. Each problem area highlighted potentials and opportunities for rethinking and improving the service experience.7 09 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 8
  • 46. 03 05 07 09
  • 47. customer: danish enterprise year: 2006 case : the good kindergarten 04/ and construction authority case: the good kindergarten DEVELOpING tHE IDEA AND CONCEpt the project team focused on developing new supplementary service elements that were not resource-intensive but on the other hand were easy to implement. taking the problems with the greatest potential for realisation as a starting point, a number of ideas and, subsequently, two concepts were developed in close dialogue with parents and other partners involved in the project.9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 8
  • 48. 03 05 07 09 11
  • 49. customer: danish enterprise year: 2006 case : the good kindergarten 04/ and construction authority case: the good kindergarten RESULt the project resulted in two service concepts that introduce a number of new points of contact between parents and the kindergarten. One of the concepts focuses on the basic needs of the parents for following the child’s experiences during the course of the day, while the second is about making sure new parents are adequately prepared before their child starts at kindergarten. the overarching objective of both concepts is to increase the level of quality of the kindergarten as a welfare service experienced by the parents.1 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 8
  • 50. concept 1READY StARtSmARtwhen the child is enrolled, the parents receive a multi-functionalsuitcase containing information on everyday life and rules at thekindergarten. the suitcase symbolises the journey that the child andhis/her parents are embarking on, and its contents give the parentssome insight into cultural rules and codes that may initially be invis-ible but could give rise to misunderstanding further down the line. CONtRACt Before their child is enrolled in the kindergarten, new parents receive a sort of contract laying out the basic rules. the contract has space for ten rules, each of which is illustrated and accompanied by a brief description. it is up to the kindergarten itself to decide which ten rules it wants to incorporate as the most basic. the objective of the contract is to highlight the most basic cultural codes that are not necessarily described elsewhere, and which can be difficult to communicate without appearing offensive. For example, one of the rules states that parents must only wave goodbye once before they go. another one states that it is best if they don’t hang around for too long when they are collecting the child. pICtURE bOOk parents are issued with a picture book that tells them about everyday life at the kindergarten. through this picture book they gain an insight into the flow of the institution and all of the practical tasks performed by teachers during the course of a normal day that parents otherwise never see. the book is structured in such a way that it can be customised and can be read by both parents and children. Furthermore, if it can be customised it will be more meaningful for both the individual institution and the child. mEmENtOS the suitcase can be used for keeping the child’s drawings, photos and other material. thus, the parents have a kind of archive that contains mementos from the child’s time at kindergarten. pERSONALISAtION the suitcase can be personalised. For example, pictures, stickers and luggage labels can all be added. personalisation helps create added value and thereby makes it an item that the child and parents can keep and use again. at the same time, personalisation will make it easier to differentiate it from other suitcases if the child brings it along to the kindergarten. 03 05 07 09 11
  • 51. customer: danish enterprise year: 2006 case : the good kindergarten 04/ and construction authority concept 2 pULSE pULSE is a concept that gives parents a completely new opportunity to follow everyday life at the kindergarten. the concept consists of a number of individual communication tools that each, in their own way, inform the parents about the social and practical activities that take place at the kindergarten during the course of the day. COmbI-bUILDING bLOCkS realistic pre-fabricated building blocks that both children and teachers can use to illustrate their day. a set consists of 20 blocks with pictures on them that can be put together in various combinations. that way, the parents can quickly read whether the children have been inside or outside and whether they have been drawing, playing music and so on. this intuitive and pedagogic form allows children and adults to cooperate and at the same time, meets the needs of children and adults who don’t speak danish. tEXt NOtIfICAtIONS a text message-based service that notifies parents if there is a shortage of staff at the kindergarten. the system enables children and parents to prepare themselves mentally so that they know in advance who the substitute teacher in their specific classroom is, and if necessary, the best time to drop the children off. SOCIAL CLOUDS dynamic digital visualisation of the children’s social interaction with each other. social clouds function by means of giving the children a key ring or another personal object containing an rFid chip that registers the physical proximity of an individual child to other children. the raw data is visualised as animated clouds that grow and pulsate depending on who the children are together with. parents can see the animation on a screen in the kindergarten or via a website on their computer. DIGItAL LOGbOOk a digital logbook makes it possible for parents to receive information on the day via their mobile phone or the internet before they collect their children, or at home later. the logbook can be updated regularly or once a day, depending on the teacher’s plans and the parent’s needs.1 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 8
  • 52. Service design requires methods other than thosethat characterise traditional design tasks. It requiresmethods that involve the users, the providers andother partners. It also requires methods for map-ping-out formal and experienced service processesand to simulate the intended service experience. 03 05 07 09 11
  • 53. mEtHODS 05/ introduction 63 ethnographic methods 65 design game 67 service Blueprinting 69 service Quality model 71 idea development game 73 mapping our ideas 75 experience prototyping 77 video prototyping 791 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 8
  • 54. 03 05 07 09 11
  • 55. methods 05/ methods INtRODUCtION A service takes place over time and consists of a large number of relationships between various players, elements and points of contact. therefore, it is first and foremost essential to have tools for map- ping-out the whole service process. mapping-out the process exposes gaps between the formal, or expected service, and the experienced service and helps to identify potentials for the new solution. You can’t actually take a service into your hands and feel it, like you can with a product. therefore, it is crucial that you have tools for simulating the ultimate result – namely, the expected service experience. It is all about making the intangible service as tangible as possible. It is also important to use methods systematically to develop and prioritise ideas and concepts, since the complexity and volume of players involved is typically high. Since service design is all about taking what motivates and makes sense to the various co-creators of a service as the point of departure, methods, such as ethnographic fieldwork and design games - which we also use in other types of design tasks – are absolutely central to the process. All methods involve users, professionals, customers and other partners and are used in different phases of the design process – often more than once.1 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 8
  • 56. Creating Doing SayingWe consciously provoke users into reacting and creating, for participant observation provides an opportunity for ‘get- ethnographic interviews are often open and semi-struc-example, in relation to prototypes, drawing, photographs, ting a feel for the subject matter’ and direct observation tured so that users have the opportunity to set the agendabuilding blocks or mapping things out. this gives the users of behaviour and context. observations often reveal the within a given subject area. through interviews, we gainconcrete tools to uncover and express, for instance, what difference between what we say we will do and what we insight into how the user thinks, talks and attributesthey dream about, what means something to them – things actually do. often, we are not actually conscious of the way meaning to things.that we are not always conscious of. we act - or it is simply difficult to put it into words. 03 05 07 09 11
  • 57. methods 05/ methods EtHNOGRApHIC mEtHODS Ethnography is the act of describing a group of people by studying how they understand themselves, others and the world around them and the relationships and behavioural patterns that characterise them. we use field work as an ethnographic method of learning about the people we are designing for. fieldwork consists of ethnographic interviews and participant observations which we document using notes, photographs and video. As part of the field work, we also carry out different generative exercises with the users, for example, mapping-out their everyday lives.1 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 8
  • 58. through the use of design games, we achieve a common result and a common understanding of a given subject area. it minimisesthe need for translation and transferal between project participants, users and customers. at the same time, the game representsa democratic process where all participants are systematically involved.03 05 07 09 11
  • 59. methods 05/ methods DESIGN GAmE Design games are a generic term for a structured way of organising and involving participants in a design development process. Design games can take different forms – everything from board games to role-playing. they can be played at different points of a design de- velopment process with different objectives. for example, the design game can be used for acting out a project process within a project team – or for qualifying and prioritising problems with users and other partners.1 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 8
  • 60. 03 05 07 09 11
  • 61. methods 05/ methods SERVICE bLUEpRINtING Service blueprinting is a method we use to break down the service process chronologically into sequences. partly, we map out the formal process – i.e. the elements, sequences and contact points that make up the service from the perspective of the provider (‘back stage’). And partly, we map out the journey upon which the user embarks, as it actually unfolds and is experienced by them (‘front stage’). the objective is to identify gaps between the service that is expected and the service as it is experienced and, through this, localise the greatest development potentials.1 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 8
  • 62. the model illustrates the link between the expected service and the delivered service andidentifies the gaps that exist between the quality provided and the quality experienced. themodel was originally developed by valarie zeithaml, a. parasuraman and leonard l. Berryon the basis of qualitative and quantitative studies of a number of commercial services.copenhagen living lab subsequently developed it further.03 05 07 09 11
  • 63. methods 05/ methods SERVICE- QUALItY mODEL the service-quality model is a method of mapping-out the gaps iden- tified – the relationship between expected and experienced service – in relation to the various players who are involved in the creation and receipt of a service. In other words, the model localises the in- novation potentials spatially and can also be used to prioritise and evaluate ideas.1 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 8
  • 64. 03 05 07 09 11
  • 65. methods 05/ methods IDEA DEVELOpmENt GAmE the idea development game is a method of generating ideas on the basis of identified problems. the participants in the project team brainstorm alternately on the basis of the various elements such as words, objects, pictures, individuals and feelings. the idea is to systematically link familiar and unfamiliar categories that don’t normally ‘go together’. this linkage encourages surprising ideas, creative thoughts and offbeat notions – on the basis of an informed and inspired foundation. by virtue of the common development process, it is ensured that all perspectives, disciplines, interests and competences contribute to creation of the service ideas. this helps anchor the idea and leads to innovative and relevant solutions.1 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 8
  • 66. 03 05 07 09 11
  • 67. methods 05/ methods mAppING-OUt Of IDEAS we use different methods for categorising, evaluating and prioritising ideas in relation to identified problems and parameters. the param- eters are relevance criteria such as financial, social and environmental results, the projects success criteria and goals, implementability, level of innovation etc. the objective is to ensure systematic and strategic development of an idea that will result in relevant and sustainable concepts. It is productive to carry out evaluations and prioritisation several times during the process – both with users and other players. this helps ensure that the project develops in the right direction and at the right pace.1 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 8
  • 68. the advantage of this method is that you physically move around the room and test and experience all elements of the service atfirst hand. potential weaknesses and pitfalls are manifested in a different way to how they would be if you had tried to envisagethe situation at your desk at home.03 05 07 09 11
  • 69. methods 05/ methods EXpERIENCE- pROtOtYpING we use different methods to simulate the intended service experi- ence. One of the methods is role-playing. we create the framework for one or more scenarios, and together with the users we play out the process and situations, with or without objects. the role-playing can be done at the location where the user will come face to face with the service or in another physical 1:1 environment. Experience-prototyping can also be carried out via a narrative or visualisation, which enables participants to imagine, experience and test one or more elements in a service. the objective of experience- prototyping is to explore the qualitative elements that make up the service experience.1 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 8
  • 70. Fordelen ved denne metode er, at man bevæger sig fysisk rundt i rummet og afprøver og erfarer alle serviceelementer direkte på egen krop. mulige svagheder og faldgrupper viser sig på en anden måde, end hvis man havde forsøgt at tænke sig til det hjemme ved skrivebordet.03 05 07 09 11
  • 71. methods 05/ methods VIDEO- pROtOtYpING the service process is converted into a script and recorded on video. Actors and elements in the film can be realistic and consist of real people, surroundings and objects – or it can be animated, using dolls for instance. the service experience is conveyed using this method as a coherent ‘as-if’ experience and is therefore extremely effective, as a method of developing high-quality service experiences, in terms of relevance to users and as a way of conveying the solution to external and internal participants and partners.1 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 8
  • 72. 1508 helps companies create the services of tomor-row. Services that create results on the financial,social and environmental bottom line and ensuregreater customer loyalty. 03 05 07 09 11
  • 73. AppROACH 06/1 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 8
  • 74. CH AR 2. A SE NA E 1. R LYS S ItASk SOLUtION NG YpI 3. I Ot DE Ot A pR AN 4. DC ONC E p tA successful service design process takes as its starting point theusers’ everyday situation and expectations. It is important to designsolutions that enrich and motivate all parties involved - those receiv-ing the service and those providing it.Iterative process the process that leads to process phases in the research and analysisservice design solutions goes through a cycle phase, we procure knowledge about the us-from exploration of, and insight into the users’ ers’ everyday situation, unacknowledged needs,everyday situation to analysis of the data collect- expectations and the quality of service experi-ed and identification of patterns and problems. enced. We identify the areas with the greatestat its core is the users’ needs - and also those potential for improvement and best return onneeds that the user has not yet acknowledged. investment.on the basis of this knowledge, we develop ideas in the idea and concept phase we develop theand concepts that can be tested and adjusted idea systematically, whereby every prioritisedbefore we complete development of the final, problem and every space of possibility is chal-concrete service design solution. the project lenged. users are involved constantly in both theprocess is iterative, which means that the phases generation of ideas and validation of them. ideasare repeated several times at different points and problems are linked in a matrix so that weof the process. For example, we test the first can create a visual overview of the correlationhypotheses on problems and needs and the ideas between the prioritised problems and our solu-developed in response to them by involving dif- tions. ideas can now be coupled with one orferent participants in the process. this provided more actual analytical perspectives which in turn lead tothe development of new ideas and concepts. 03 05 07 09 11
  • 75. approach 06/ ”DESIGNERS wILL HAVE tO CHANGE tHEIR AttItUDE. tHEY NEED tO DESIGN wItH AND NOt fOR pEOpLE.” roBert young, proFessor, centre For design research, northumBria university in the solution phase, we develop prototypes We have assembled competences within the of the service solution and descriptions of the fields of anthropology, ethnology, concept design, actual solution. the design of the prototypes interaction design, communication, finance and depends on the individual service solution, but technology. these competences are incorporated it could, for instance, consist of a visualisation of in various ways into the project teams behind the physical elements, process diagrams, interaction development of the service design. flows or physical products. also, a key element of the solution phase is the development of a Collaboration service design is a relatively new business case for the solution so that the value field that challenges already familiar methods of the new service solution can be evaluated in and processes. We have established collabo- relation to investment in its development and rations with several national and international operation. experts in the field – both in order to build on the latest knowledge and to involve external multidisciplinary, holistic approach the resource people in the project work. our work service design process is characterised by the and approach are inspired by many wonderful involvement of several different perspectives and colleagues and collaboration partners. We would backgrounds. therefore, the users, competences especially like to thank copenhagen living lab and partners involved are more or less all active and copenhagen institute of interaction design participants and co-creators right through the (cid) for their inspiration and knowledge in the process. this is to ensure optimal accuracy of field. fire, innovation, and anchoring in relation to the service design solution.1 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 8