Rethinking value in a changing landscape


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Rethinking value in a changing landscape

  2. 2. Rethinking value in a changing landscape Synopsis Rethinking value in a changing landscape Quotes Synopsis How can businesses remain successful when most of the “True innovation has to be recognized by people as such. It should advance the interests current assumptions about value creation are becoming of the company while contributing to quality of life by giving people something appro- increasingly questionable and less capable of delivering priate to their specific needs. By understanding the transformations in the models of continuous profitable growth? society, industry and economy, and understanding the implications for people and our business, we can better identify new opportunities and create innovative solutions for This paper makes sense of changing economic paradigms sustainable growth and business leadership while addressing social and environmental and explores how changing world views will fundamentally issues – bringing true value to people.” transform the development and delivery of sustainable value. Stefano Marzano Chief Design Officer at Philips It proceeds to discuss business implications and challenges that organizations need to address to ensure future long- lasting competitiveness. “Successful, timely innovation is the lifeblood that ensures sustainable development and future profitable growth for Philips. This document provides strategic perspectives and new ways of thinking to stimulate discussion on how our approach to value creation and innovation can be reconsidered to effectively respond to a rapidly changing world.” Gottfried Dutiné Executive Vice-President Royal Philips Electronics and Global Head of Markets & Innovation “Brand and Rocchi make clear that the future of business “ain’t what it used to be.” The 21st century corporation will solve social and environmental problems, empower com- munities and networks, and experiment with radical new business models. “Rethinking Value in a Changing Landscape” provides an important roadmap for navigating this new terrain.” Stuart L. Hart A Philips Design paper - 2011 S. C. Johnson Chair in Sustainable Global Enterprise, Cornell University, Author of “Capitalism at the Crossroads”Page 2 Page 3
  3. 3. Rethinking value in a changing landscape Contents Rethinking value in a changing landscape Introuction Contents Introduction Introduction 5 The evolution of value 7 Historical legacy of value creation 7 The industrial economy 7 The experience economy 9 Emerging Value Paradigms 11 The knowledge economy 11 The transformation economy 13 Paradigms – a model for strategic reflection 15 Industrial paradigm - business implications 18 Experience paradigm - business and brand implications 20 Knowledge paradigm - business and brand implications 22 Transformation paradigm - business and brand implications 24 Conclusions 26 Future growth through the knowledge and transformation paradigms 26 Shared principles: 26 Differentiating traits: 26 Key success factors 26 Closing note 27 This document presents a framework for strategic reflection and planning which can support business stakeholders in creat- Recommended reading 29 ing real and sustainable value by providing a deeper understand- ing of the emerging market context. Authors 30 It is not the intention of this document to try and predict the future, but rather to illuminate and give meaning to the In addition, embracing the emerging economic value creation Acknowledgements 30 systemic patterns of change that are unfolding - deep systemic paradigms will mean businesses have to reconsider the meaning shifts which are caused by the combined effect of changing of some of the most basic concepts of our business vocabulary, socio-cultural, business, environmental and technological such as ‘consumer demand’, ‘branding’ ‘marketing’, ‘innovation’ realities. These insights can help guide the transformation of ‘value chains’ and ‘value propositions’. business thinking, practices and organizational culture required It may also prompt many organizations to reflect on - their to sustain future competitiveness. business mission, competences, organizational culture, process- The implications of the findings in this document have far- es, and their role in value creation and delivery. reaching consequences for organizations, and acting upon them Before we reflect on the ongoing systemic changes that will require substantial leadership, courage and vision to bring necessitate new business paradigms, we will first briefly review about the necessary changes. As a result, organizations will the legacy and development of the prevailing mindset. Better have to re-examine the basic assumptions and core practices of understanding the past may make it easier to grasp the changes their current business paradigm. that will drive the future.Page 4 Page 5
  4. 4. Rethinking value in a changing landscape The evolution of value Rethinking value in a changing landscape The evolution of value The evolution of value Historical legacy of Much of the current paradigm of business wisdom and value value creation delivery - industrialization, division of labor and mass produc- tion - has its roots in the Age of Modernity. For the first time, For two million years, humankind evolved and shared the fruits people were not working to fulfill their destiny in their com- of ingenuity and innovation in small communities. This led to a munities, but to earn monetary compensation for their labor gradual advancement of humankind as a hunter-gatherer spe- that could be exchanged for consuming the output of industrial cies, and ensured its ability to survive and adapt. Value creation production in order to modernize their lives. Societies in and sharing was not monetized, but was a social contribution advanced industrial economies developed a shared aspiration for the benefit of all members of a tribe. Humans progressed in to modernize their lives through the acquisition of products small hunter-gatherer tribes through mutual collaboration. The that fulfilled functional needs, automated many aspects of only division of labor was between men (hunters) and women people’s lives and provided pride of ownership, giving rise to (carers). the Industrial Economy. The Neolithic Agricultural Revolution started around 10,000 years ago and led to settlement, which completely transformed every aspect of human existence. It brought The industrial institutions of governance where kings, religion and landlords economy ruled, and peasants lived a cyclical existence from generation to generation. The value produced was for the benefit of commu- This industrialization of societies also fuelled the process of nities, but also contributed to ensure the growing wealth and urbanization, where people abandoned their pre-destined roles power of rulers and empires. Human settlement also brought in agricultural communities to relocate to cities where they specialization, where members of a village developed specific typically worked in factories or service industries. Many cities skills that were commonly passed down along filial lines. It became smokestacks of mass production and organized labor. meant that every member of an agricultural village had a clear The late nineteenth century focused on the development of status, role and way of contributing value in the community; industrial infrastructure such as railways that transformed the this combination also defined their identities. Most people modern world. were thus born into the role and identity that they would fulfill The consumer economy started in the 1920s, but came to a in the community. halt during the Great Depression of the 1930’s. It rapidly accel- The French Revolution in 1789 and the ensuing ‘Age of erated during the post-Second World War period from 1950 Reason’ or Enlightenment paved the way for another wave of until around 1980. This period witnessed the emergence of transformation of human civilization: ‘the Age of Modernity’. large companies that capitalized on their capability and capac- For the first time in human history, social thought included the ity to organize labor, develop and leverage mass-production concept of social progress and liberalization of humankind from technology, and organize the supply chain to meet the demand feudal and religious rule. of a growing wave of consumers who were earning far higherPage 6 Page 7
  5. 5. Rethinking value in a changing landscape The evolution of value Rethinking value in a changing landscape The evolution of value The experience economy The experience economy emerged in the early 1980s to fill the void resulting from the loss of identity, belief systems and cul- tural references that many people experienced. This economy was dominated by the rise of lifestyle brands. Through the experience economy, companies that built successful lifestyle brands could charge a premium for their products and services, and could thereby escape the commoditization and pressure on profit margins characteristic of the industrial economic paradigm. By refining their brand image and propositions to target specific market segments with shared lifestyle aspira- tions and mindsets, lifestyle brands became cultural signifiers that claimed to represent and embody people’s aspirations. the industrial age also widened the gaps of wealth distribution. In a sense, one can argue that people outsourced the man- Today, 2% of the richest people own 50% of the world’s assets, agement of their identities to trusted brands of choice. By buy- while the bottom 50% of the world population own less than 1%. ing into the lifestyle represented by a brand of choice, society Strong industrial competition led to an ongoing commoditi- discovered a way to regain a sense of identity. The modernist zation affecting most industries. It has pushed many businesses mindset of urban society -constantly looking toward future operating in the industrial paradigm into on-going cycles of development and progress - became a huge opportunity for cost-cutting, optimization, quality improvement and constant brands to repeatedly renew the styling of their propositions to process re-engineering in order to survive. It also meant that fuel consumption. There was therefore a shift from delivering many companies felt compelled to shift production to cheaper durable propositions (as in the industrial age) towards a dispos- labor in developing countries - leading to regional job losses able society that became addicted to constant renewal. and globalization - because the limited profitability margins The experience economy, fuelled by lifestyle brands, relied responded by ‘shouting’ increasingly louder and advertising required large markets to ensure sufficient shareholder profits. on media and brand management as a core competence. This budgets spiraled upwards.salaries than their rural counterparts. The mindset of moder- Today, the industrial economy, which delivered the peak of its meant effective management of key communication channels In January 2000, Naomi Klein published her influential booknity was different from any previous cultural mindset, as it was economic value contribution between 1950 and 1980, is still favored by your target audience; TV, lifestyle magazines, radio, “No Logo”. It is a strong anti-brand manifesto that echoeddriven by a belief in institutions and technology and was more very large. Yet it is becoming very difficult for many companies newspapers, and billboards. When the exponential growth of the growing sentiments of a growing body of people whofocused on the future than the past. This was an age of grand still using this operating model to sustain growth in increasingly the Internet started in the early-mid 1990s, it was merely seen proclaimed that brands are increasingly invading public space,visions, ideology and optimistic outlook. During this period, saturated markets. as another electronic billboard on which brands could display diminishing culture and fair choice, and less than ethical in themost of the economic value was delivered through a cycle of Although the Industrial paradigm brought progress to many, their message. The Web 1.0 version of the Internet was the way they manage jobs and share value and profits. By the timeindustrial production and mass product consumption. the accompanying process of urbanization changed people’s basis of the ‘Information Age’ when it became easy for compa- the term ‘Web 2.0’ was coined in 1999 by Darcy DiNucci, a Although the urbanization and industrialization of society social context and created new needs that could not be fulfilled nies to share messages and information. consultant on electronic information design, the experiencebrought great progress in the advancement of science, tech- by functional product propositions. When people relocated But, at more companies started to leverage the power and economy has reached its peak in economic value creation.nology and living standards of many, it brought society to an from the agricultural village context (where social status, roles benefits of establishing a lifestyle brand, a level of ad-fatigue Pine and Gilmore’s The Experience Economy was published inincreasing realization that there is a downside to progress, as and identity were clear) to urban environments for better started to emerge. People became increasingly cynical and the same year, yet developments in the ensuing years wouldevidenced by many of the environmental, social and economic job opportunities provided by the industrial economy, they skeptical of brand messages and brands in general. Today, the rapidly lead to the creation of a completely different paradigmdilemmas that beset the world of today. Much of the environ- benefited from higher incomes and access to products, but the average person living in developed economies is subjected to from the ‘staged brand experience’ described in the book. Themental decline, loss of biodiversity and even climate change can progress came at a social price. Typically, urban lifestyle was more than 3000 promotional messages per day, leading to emergence of the interactive Web brought a level of end-userbe attributed to the last two hundred years of industrialization, accompanied with a loss of certainty, a loss of religion, a loss of a complete cognitive overload. The scarcest commodity of empowerment never experienced before by business, and com-urbanization and consumerism. From a societal perspective, cultural status and a loss of identity. the experience economy became people’s attention. Brands pletely transformed the nature of value creation.Page 8 Page 9
  6. 6. Rethinking value in a changing landscape Emerging value paradigms Rethinking value in a changing landscape Emerging value paradigms Emerging value paradigms The knowledge economies, there is an unprecedented level of transparency economy and critique. Instead of talking, businesses are being forced to start listening. Finding ways of participating in on-line dia- At the turn of the millennium, the Internet evolved into Web logue requires very different tools, talent and thinking than in 2.0 and global access to the internet ramped up exponentially traditional top-down brand management practices. It actually from around 250 million users in 1999 to 1.8 billion users requires a different company culture to thrive in the knowledge today. Web 2.0 transformed the Internet from a giant billboard economy. of information to an interactive knowledge network and a One of the most profound social shifts of the knowledge globally-connected social engagement space. In the knowledge economy is that people no longer need brands to signify their economy, knowledge is not just based on lists of information, identity, social status or lifestyle. People are able to create but is socially constructed, discussed and shared. For the first authentic representations (or even play with multiple identities) time since the start of the industrial economy, the tools of of themselves on their own blogs, web pages or social media value production were not owned by companies and factory platforms such as Facebook or Twitter. Essentially, increasing owners, but were easily accessible for ordinary people. numbers of people are now less interested in brands, brand In the industrial and experience economies, value was cre- experiences or products, but more interested in building their ated by companies who had the power to invent, mass produce own personal brands on social media platforms, or sharing, and deliver. The knowledge economy changed these rules and developing and selling their own value to peer communities. transformed the principle of the value chain into value net- Many efforts by traditional businesses to build on-line platforms works. Suddenly, ordinary people could create content in the fail because they are locked into the experience economy form of blogs, photos and video, and create value that could mindset. They are therefore unable to grasp the implications of compete with traditional business, newspapers and magazines. the shift from top-down control to peer-to-peer and personal People could set up their own shops and trade peer-to-peer. empowerment that is taking place. Businesses such as Google, They suddenly had access to platforms where mass exchange Facebook and others understand that the value lie not so of opinion and social dialogue across geographical boundar- much in business-to-consumer branding, but in building scaling ies could take place in real-time. This level of empowerment platforms that would inspire and motivate people to invite their unleashed a new set of aspirations and possibilities in societies, peers to join and participate. People do not go to Facebook while at the same time presenting huge challenges to conven- to read about Facebook, but to see and interact with other tional brand management practices and business models. people and to build their own profiles. The knowledge age The control that business exercised over communica- shifted value away from staged brand experiences to empower- tion and media channels effectively evaporated. Today there ing people to fulfill their own ambitions, develop and showcase are multitudes of peer-to-peer and group discussions about their skills and, in many cases, unleash their entrepreneurial brands, products, services and solutions over which brands talent for their own benefit. have no control. The younger generation Y (born between eBay, the on-line auction platform, created ‘eBay university’, 1982 and 2002) are far more tech-savvy than previous genera- which hosts training sessions all over the globe to teach people tions. Interest and trust in brand messages has essentially been how to set up shops on eBay, how to source goods, how to replaced by trust in peer opinion. manage their inventories, and how to become successful entre- The era of using brand slogans to claim and promote a preneurs. In the process, it created a powerful value network particular positioning is coming to an end. In the knowledge of hundreds of thousands of shops where it profits from eachPage 10 Page 11
  7. 7. Rethinking value in a changing landscape Emerging value paradigms Rethinking value in a changing landscape Emerging value paradigms The transformation economy In recent years there have been a series of local and global incidents (e.g. food scares, public revolts, pollution scandals, financial crises and climate change) that highlighted mount- ing social, environmental and economic problems facing the world. The transparency brought by on-line debate has raised public awareness and is transforming the mindsets of people to demand a higher level of stakeholder accountability, participation and consultation in socio-economic develop- business models where value platform stakeholders can play ment. Scientific evidence and escalating public debate is leading multiple roles and create as well as consume value. people to question the way in which we produce and consume The empowerment of end-users to create and share their and how we distribute wealth. own value is not limited to digital or non-material media. Lego Many issues on a social and environmental level are grow- created ‘Lego Factory’, a platform where end-users can design ing in magnitude, affecting people in both advanced and less their own Lego components using simplified on-line CAD advanced economies. tools, for personal use or for selling to the Lego community on These include issues such as malnutrition, education, obe- a profit-sharing basis. It has implemented new technology that sity, aging society, climate change, loss of biodiversity, resource enabled it to produce, package and distribute one-off designs in depletion, energy consumption, waste, water scarcity, air an affordable yet profitable way. The Lego approach has added pollution and rising food prices. Many of them are too complex a new innovation paradigm, a new revenue model, and new for any single stakeholder to resolve. They require a systemic enabling technologies into its business model. approach and coordinated actions in the local contexts of It is also increasingly re-defining the way in which companies intervention through multi-stakeholder collaboration. innovate and the way stakeholders in a value platform collabo- There is also increasing evidence that a substantial propor- rate and share knowledge. Innocentive, is an open innovation tion of Generation Y who are now becoming economically platform that connects organizations on institutions with com- active and independent are more interested in meaningful work plex or difficult-to-solve research and development issues to than in the pursuit of wealth or material status. Especially in and refined through experimentation and through piloting col- a world-wide multi-disciplinary network of ‘problem solvers’. advanced economies, the concept of quality of life is increas- laborative ventures in various geographical and social-cultural Many large scale companies have testified of the success and ingly related to better living conditions, work-life balance, and contexts. cost saving of ‘outsourcing’ difficult innovation problems to this personal fulfillment. Several companies are already piloting such ventures, and growing platform. The size and the urgency of social and environmental issues, some have already achieved positive and encouraging prog- While the knowledge economy will continue to grow and the advancement of clean technologies and the global spread of ress in discovering models of value creation in monetary and deliver economic, and stakeholder value in years to come, knowledge from simultaneous top-down and bottom-up soci- non-monetary terms. An exemplary case is the initiative by the there are already signs of consolidation around a number of etal actions are converging to create the beginnings of a new Danone Group, which set up a joint venture in 2006 with the platforms that form very strong centers of gravity on the economic value creation paradigm. Many entrepreneurs and Grameen Group (which includes Grameen Bank, the famous Internet and which will capture most of the on-line activity. corporations are starting to explore value creation and new pioneers of micro-credit) and global and local stakeholders. Nikesh Arora, Google’s President of Global Sales Operations business models that go beyond fulfilling personal consumer The intention was to address the high levels of malnutrition in and Business Development, foresee a future in which there are needs and desires. Bangladesh while creating profit as well as brand and socio- 15 to 20 players that provide the most popular online services. Social innovation and social ventures have moved beyond economic value for everyone involved. This is food for thought for any business contemplating philanthropy, turning social and environmental challenges into ‘Danone Grameen Food’ established a network of stakeholderspeer-to-peer transaction, yet at the same time empowers the development of a mass on-line proposition as part of its market opportunities. They are driving the next wave of eco- with complementary expertise to introduce a low-cost yogurtentrepreneurs to create their own profitable business. The innovation and growth strategy. What is the role of business in nomic value creation that will transform the way we do busi- fortified with micro-nutrients in a specific area of Bangladesh.most successful knowledge economy businesses are the ones the socio-cultural context of the future, where end-users and ness by focusing financial and creative resources on creating Economic affordability for low-income communities waswhich were able to provide platforms that motivated mass par- other value platform participants are increasingly empowered better social living conditions and improving the (immediate) achieved through an inclusive business model which profession-ticipation, sparked continuous activity and interest, and offered to create and share their own value and where a number of environment. alized the supply chain of milk, sugar, and date molasses fromaccessible possibilities for individual empowerment on a social, large players will be positioned to take the lion’s share of host- The imperative of the emerging transformation economy will local micro-farms; created the smallest Danone plant anywhereintellectual, talent development or entrepreneurial level. ing the enabling platforms? therefore be to provide meaningful context-specific proposi- in the world (promoting the use of labor while reducing neces- The knowledge economy has irrevocably blurred the The knowledge paradigm brought benefits related to per- tions built around long-lasting, profitable, ethical, and fair busi- sary investment levels); and allowed local woman to profit fromboundaries of concepts of ‘business-to-business’ or business- sonal empowerment to multitudes of people who have access ness practices, and based on multiple stakeholder collaboration distributing the yogurt by charging a commission. The initiativeto-customer’, key ingredients of the traditional ‘value chain’ to the Internet. The knowledge paradigm has been instru- and value sharing. has created more than 1,600 jobs within a 30km radius aroundintroduced by the industrial paradigm. People trading on eBay, mental in raising awareness and enabling discussion across As in the early phase of the knowledge economy, the busi- the plant. The ‘reasonable’ profit that Danone generates isfor example, can create, buy and sell goods. Value can flow in the world of issues which affect quality of life and sustainable ness models necessary to achieve these ambitions are not reinvested, for the time being, in similar experimentations inmultiple directions. The knowledge age has introduced new development on both a global and local scale. mature; they are only just emerging. They will be developed other regions.Page 12 Page 13
  8. 8. Rethinking value in a changing landscape Paradigms Rethinking value in a changing landscape Paradigms Paradigms — a model for strategic reflection LOCAL SOLUTION PEERS LEVERAGE STAKEHOLDERS BRAND EXPERIENCE STAKEHOLDER CONSUMER SEGMENT COOPERATION LOCAL ISSUE INDUSTRY CONSUMER GLOBAL ISSUE COMMODITY INDUSTRY ENABLE PARTICIPATION CONSUMER AND ENTREPENEURSHIP SEGMENT FULFILLING OFFERING CONSUMER FUNCTIONAL LIFESTYLE SEGMENT NEEDS OPTIONS MEDIA CHANNELS PLATFORM ‘Paradigms in Value Creation’ presents a model for understand- ing the drivers of future value. It also shows what is required to leverage the changing societal contexts and deliver appropriate value in each of the periods covered. This is by no means a small challenge. Each paradigm requires The emerging paradigms in value creation have far-reaching a unique skill set, mode of thinking, enabling processes and - consequences for the future vitality and competitiveness of most importantly - business models and performance measure- organizations. ments. This generally brings a new level of complexity. In order Many companies naturally tend to create future strategies to cope, companies often need to set up parallel organizational and innovation roadmaps based only on their existing para- platforms with distinct processes, ways of working, funding and digm, which often does not exploit the full potential available. performance measurements so that initiatives are not stopped Even supposed sources of innovation such as incubators are prematurely and don’t fail due to a lack of organizational often trapped in the same paradigm as the parent organiza- support. tion. Companies which can transform their business models, Companies do not necessarily have to follow the linear processes, talent base, capabilities and organizational culture progression of these paradigms, but may be able to ‘leap-frog’. to leverage emerging paradigms will create new landscapes for It often takes the same amount of effort for organizations to future growth and profitability (even in their existing industry), move from one paradigm to the next as it does to leapfrog to a whereas companies ‘trapped’ in a declining paradigm are likely non-adjacent paradigm. to face increasing pressure on profitability and opportunities The next sections will explore elements and building blocks for organic growth. of importance to consider for maximizing opportunities The model shown in Figure 1 does not imply that paradigms for each paradigm. In general, paradigms to the right of the which peaked in the past in terms of economic value creation diagram in Figure 1 have greater future growth opportunities, growth will cease to exist. It does, however, challenge com- but come with challenges including a lack of proven business panies to pursue strategic conversations and actions that will models, and innovation process requirements that are not allow them to transform through leveraging the changing socio- conducive to business cultures and processes often found in economic landscape. paradigms to the left of the diagram.Page 14 Page 15
  9. 9. Rethinking value in a changing landscape Paradigms Rethinking value in a changing landscape Paradigms 1950>> 1980>> Unfolding Future Industrial Experience Knowledge Transformation economy economy economy economy Captivating idea Product ownership Experience Self actualization Meaningful living View Local Global Contextual Systemic Quest Modernizing one’s life Explore lifestyle identities Individual empowerment Address collective issues People mindset E ect Productivity & family life Work hard play hard Develop your potential Meaningful contribution Skills Specialization Experimentation Creativity Transformative thinking Approach Follow cultural codes Break social taboos Pursue Aspirations Empathy & cooperation Economic driver Mass production Marketing & branding Knowledge platforms Value networks Focus Product function Brand experience Enabling creativity Enhancing meaning Business mindset Qualities Products Product-service mix Enabling open-tools Inclusive value networksFigure 1. Value proposition Commodities Targeted experiences Enable self-development Ethical value exchangeParadigms in Value Creation.This diagram provides a high-leveloverview of value creation from Approach Persuade to purchase Promote brand lifestyle Enable to participation Leverage cooperationa people- as well as a businessperspective. Note: these para-digms are relevant for all markets;even though the timeline shown Goal Pro t Growth Development Transformationon the top is only applicable fordeveloped Western markets.Page 16 Page 17
  10. 10. Rethinking value in a changing landscape Industrial paradigm Rethinking value in a changing landscape Industrial paradigm Industrial paradigm — business implications INDUSTRY CONSUMER COMMODITYAs mentioned before, many businesses operating in theindustrial paradigm face ever-increasing pressure on marginsdue to commoditization, and often have limited prospects forsustained top-line growth.Leadership focus: According to Michael Treacy and FredWiersema (1995) industrial economy companies need toachieve competitive excellence in at least one business dimen-sion in order to stay competitive. Usually companies can onlylead in one dimension: FULFILLING FUNCTIONAL Operational excellence. It means efficiently, consistently and cost effectively NEEDS providing a limited range of standard or routine services Customer intimacy. It means developing and maintaining intimate relationships with selected groups of current or new customers Product leadership. It means continuously developing and launching new programs and services not readily available elsewherePage 18 Page 19
  11. 11. Rethinking value in a changing landscape Experience paradigm Rethinking value in a changing landscape Experience paradigm Experience paradigm — business and brand implications BRAND EXPERIENCE CONSUMER SEGMENTIn this paradigm, building and managing brand equity will still bevery important, but as mentioned already, building top-downmanaged brands is becoming increasingly costly and ineffective.There are simply too many brands trying to capture customerattention and ‘selling’ their brand experience in a world domi-nated by peer-to-peer trust and recommendations. In the experience paradigm, building power brands requireda very different business mindset and skill-set than in the indus-trial paradigm. Whereas the latter was focused on maintain-ing technological superiority, optimizing quality management, INDUSTRYefficiency of execution and productivity management, manyof these competences could be outsourced in the experienceeconomy. There are a number of key enablers required to perform in CONSUMERthe experience economy: SEGMENT Focus on marketing excellence. In the experience economy, many companies typically adopted an ‘asset light’ strategy. They outsourced manu- facturing and technology development, and instead focused on managing brand narratives, building media strategies, orchestrating brand experiences and building brand loyalty. This often meant a shift in emphasis towards marketing excellence, consumer understanding, and aligning the value proposition portfolio and communication to build the brand image and fulfill consumer needs and aspirations. A clear understanding of key market segments and their behavior, needs and aspirations was crucial. OFFERING Brand experience management. Develop end-user empathy. The strategy of experience brands is to find emotional reso- CONSUMER SEGMENT An important attribute of leading lifestyle brands which offer the ‘preferred brand experience’ is brand leadership. nance with people within a tightly coordinated set of brand attributes. Managing the ‘brand experience’ requires a level LIFESTYLE Brands need to be highly in tune with their customers and end-users in order to build relationships. Many companies of control of key ‘touch points’ at which consumers/custom- ers interface with the brand. This requires creating a clear OPTIONS think that responding to every consumer/customer need and and appealing brand position, capturing the attention of key desire (‘customer is king’) is the way to build a respected target audiences, demonstrating core values, maintaining the brand. brand image and delivering value propositions that exemplify MEDIA CHANNELS the brand lifestyle. Beyond needs to inspiration. The experience economy fulfilled the need of people to Today, this quest has become much more challenging. There discover and re-establish their identity in the urban context. are a multitude of lifestyle reference points provided by brands, Leading brands do not merely aim to fulfill the expressed popular cultural icons and peer self-expression in social media. needs of people, but deliver propositions that guide and People are empowered by an increasing confidence and ability inspire them to expand their horizons. to shape and express their own unique identity and lifestyle vision.Page 20 Page 21
  12. 12. Rethinking value in a changing landscape Knowledge paradigm Rethinking value in a changing landscape Knowledge paradigm Knowledge paradigm — business and brand implicationsThe level of end-user empowerment which surfaced duringthe knowledge economy is prompting many businesses to projections is often not a good idea. New platforms need a completely different set of measurements than in earlier PEERSre-assess their strategies with regard to value creation, their economic paradigms. It is advisable to think in milestonescompetence portfolio and brand communication. Web 2.0 has rather than revenue projections. Scale is the first objec-not only provided people with the possibility of peer-to-peer tive of a new knowledge economy platform. If the platformcollaboration and value exchange, but it has transformed their does not fulfill its ‘scaling’ objectives (i.e. exponentialaspirations in the process. scaling through peer-to-peer recommendations), then it The quest for lifestyle guidance and identity has made way will not survive long enough to warrant a business model.for the ambition of people to collaborate, develop their talent If a platform rapidly grows, then the business can start toand fulfill their potential. People are increasingly using social experiment with revenue models. It is often not possible tomedia and on-line business platforms to brand themselves to predict which platform propositions will scale, and there-their peers and the world at large, and to create and exchange fore it is important to seed many experiments in order totheir own value in the networks they choose to participate in. discover which opportunities warrant further development. Businesses in the knowledge paradigm have to shift the Engagement.focus of their value contribution from selling products andbrand experience propositions to creating enabling platforms The biggest challenge for businesses is learning to under-that fulfill and support these changing socio-cultural ambitions. stand the social principles that may lead to scaling platforms. ENABLE PARTICIPATION This presents challenges on many levels: There should be a compelling motivation for people to use the platform and create content in the first place. There AND ENTREPENEURSHIP needs to be a social trigger that encourages them to invite Branding. their peers. There should be sufficient value and variation to Companies have to think differently about their brands and keep them active and engaged on the platform (stickiness); branding. Instead of ‘shouting’ they have to start ‘listening’. the longer people are prepared to spend on a platform, Companies must remain true to their core brand values, but the better its chances for growth. An important principle by end-users. There are currently two classes of revenue also need to understand that platforms are focused on the of Web 2.0 is that communities that choose a particular models, each with many different examples: 1. Pay for people who use them, not on the enabling brands, because platform feel a strong sense of co-ownership. In the most Premium (PayPal, eBay, Amazon, Zynga) and 2. Syndication essentially people are using these platforms to establish successful platforms, most of the content and richness is of data and contextual ad click-throughs (YouTube, Google, their own personal brands. Once they have achieved this provided by peers themselves, and not by the company that etc). The best success examples of knowledge economy and established a social network, they are more committed provides the platform. Many platforms engage users in the companies share two principles: first the ability to create to the platform. continuous development and evolution of the platform. on-line (peer-to-peer driven) scale and secondly excel- Therefore, no platform is launched as a ‘complete’ solution, lence in data analysis that leverage ‘crowd intelligence’ to Segmentation (or not?). but instead remains in a dynamic Beta state of continuous achieve the best relevance. This is why knowledge economy Companies need to reflect carefully on their traditional development. businesses need to focus first on attracting a crowd. This approach to segmentation. In the knowledge economy, it is principle is successfully applied by Google, Amazon and Business models. near impossible to create lifestyle segmentations, as people Facebook to lead their respective platform categories. do not pursue traditional lifestyle directions anymore. Most A key principle shared by many of the most successful of the successful on-line platforms (Facebook, Blogger, platforms today is that they become meta-platforms. This Organizational requirements. PLATFORM Twitter, eBay, Amazon) offer platforms with very broad means they offer a multitude of opportunities for other The knowledge paradigm is difficult to combine with past appeal around core social aspects, and allow the platforms businesses and users to develop value-sharing proposi- paradigms, as organizations need to create enabling condi- to develop their own social groupings, structures and inter- tions that will expand the platform. This is a shared feature tions to deal with starting initiatives without clear tradition- est groups. of platforms like Blogger, Wordpress, YouTube, Twitter, al business plans. They also have to create conditions which Facebook, eBay, Amazon and many others. One major chal- allow a higher degree of transparency and engagement Innovation and new value creation. lenge is the perception that everything on the Internet is with stakeholders. And they should develop a co-creative In the knowledge economy, starting a new venture with free. This makes it necessary to create large-scale communi- innovation culture that shares development, innovation and a traditional business plan and 5-year revenue/profit ties where indeed most of the value is accessible for nothing revenue with other stakeholders.Page 22 Page 23
  13. 13. Rethinking value in a changing landscape Transformation paradigm Rethinking value in a changing landscape Transformation paradigm Transformation paradigm LOCAL SOLUTION — business and brand implications LEVERAGE STAKEHOLDERS STAKEHOLDER COOPERATION LOCAL ISSUELeading companies always responded to the ‘Zeitgeist’ of thetime. At the height of the industrial economy, people wereinspired to modernize their lives through access and owner- GLOBALship of technology applications and products. In the experienceeconomy, the leading brands fulfilled the need for lifestyle guid- ISSUE Building trust, partnerships andance and the void of lost identity caused by urbanization. In the value sharing networks.knowledge economy, leading businesses provide platforms thatempower people to create and share ideas, communicate with A key principle of success in the transformation economytheir peers and produce their own value. is that ‘how’ and ‘with who’ become equally as important As emerging economies expand and progress, many socio- as ‘what’. In order to create competitive answers aroundenvironmental issues are increasingly receiving attention on complex issues, companies need to rely on complementarysocial network platforms. There is an increasing awareness and expertise, global know-how and local contextual insights,interest amongst business, entrepreneurs and ordinary people which require experimentation via new venturing and coop-to act on shared global issues such as pollution, malnutrition, erative approaches with conventional and non-conventionalenvironmental decline, climate change and aging society. stakeholders. It becomes essential to engage credible It is becoming increasingly apparent to many visionaries knowledge experts, to tap into the knowledge of multiplethat companies can flourish by ‘doing good’. The transforma- for-profit and non-profit stakeholders with deep localtion economy will be driven primarily by a systemic shift in the contextual insights, and to leverage existent social networksglobal socio-economic mindset. That means mobilizing business which are already trusted by the potential target audience.talent, competences and resources to address these issues, not This also necessitates different business models where valuethrough philanthropy (because it is not scalable), but through creation and profit is transparently shared and fairly distrib- Value network ways of doing business and engaging stakeholders. uted across the value network. A number of companies (e.g. Danone) have started to Businesses with a credible track record in participating Organizational enablers.experiment with new sustainable business models to effectively in value networks that address key socio-economic/envi-address specific socio-economic or socio-environmental issues. In the new process of value creation, companies are experi- ronmental issues will be able to leverage this experienceAlthough new learnings and business models in this paradigm menting with innovative management practices. These range and competence to become desirable partners for otherare only starting to emerge, there are already a number of from the invention of unconventional business models - by ventures by branding themselves as value network playersclear principles that can guide companies who wish to explore leveraging new marketing, distribution and brand strate- and builders. That will ensure invitations from local NGOs,future growth opportunities in the transformation paradigm. gies - to the definition of new evaluation matrixes for judging governments and other stakeholders who seek their advice, success and measuring performance in economic, social and competence and skills. environmental terms. On this complex learning path, the aim Systems thinking – think global and act local. is not to immediately maximize profit and short-term finan- The systems approach, which leverages value network coopera- Many of the issues around which transformation paradigm cial return on investments. Rather, it is to understand ‘what’ tion emerging from the business initiatives and experiments of initiatives will be dealt need to be addressed on a systems to propose in a potential value network relating to a specific creating new business models in the transformation paradigm, level. This is because issues are often interconnected and issue (product? enabling technology? service contribution?); will fundamentally change the institutional role of business in also need to take into account local cultural traditions, determining ‘how’ to establish a solid base for maximizing society. Balancing shareholder profits with shared value creation thinking and nuances. It is therefore essential that initiatives value creation in terms of profitability and necessary compe- will not only generate profitable growth opportunities for adopt global ambitions while driving results on a local level tencies for current and future growth; and working out ‘who’ business, but will also support local skill and entrepreneurship to ensure practical results. Discovery and practical learning to partner in exchanging knowledge, expertise and sharing development, which will lead to more inclusive and socially- can only be realized through practical pilot initiatives. the outcomes of the value network. sustainable business.Page 24 Page 25
  14. 14. Rethinking value in a changing landscape Conclusions Rethinking value in a changing landscape Closing note Conclusions Closing noteCompanies that are able to master and leverage new paradigmsof economic value creation have more options to sustain futuregrowth and profitability. Companies who are unable to makethese transitions will face increasing pressure of commoditiza-tion and cut-throat competition. Preparing an organization to operate and derive value froma new paradigm is no trivial task and requires vision, leadershipand above enabling conditions for learning and experimenting.The leadership of such organizations needs to be fully awareof the challenges, and must also be dedicated to creating such Differentiating traits:enabling conditions. Each economic paradigm require a completely new mindset, — The knowledge economy is about building platformsa re-definition of value, a new approach to value creation and that achieve scale through stimulating peer-to-peerdissemination, and a new (parallel) set of performance mea- collaboration and enable people to develop theirsurements to prevent new initiatives from being axed based on potential, fulfill their aspirations and become theirthe wrong assumptions. own authentic brands. — The transformation economy will be built on systemic Future growth through the knowledge initiatives to derive business opportunities from and transformation paradigms addressing local/global socio-economic and socio- environmental issues. The approach (how) andTwo key economic paradigms for future growth are the knowl- the engagement (who) will be an important principle. Next to roadmap innovation, radical or break-away innovation In Philips Design we track how value is changing by identifyingedge paradigm and the transformation paradigm. Both have dis- Successful initiatives need to build trusted local value is fundamental for business growth. Break-away innovation has so-called weak signs. Or as William Gibson puts it: “The futuretinct challenges, but they also share some common principles networks that add value by solving issues and been driven to a large extend by advances in performance and is already here – it’s just not evenly distributed.” In order towhich differentiate them from earlier paradigms. empower local stakeholders and entrepreneurs to technology. But in the recent years it has become increasingly assess the importance of these weak signs we position them in share in the economic value. clear, from examples like the Nintendo WII and the Apple Ipod, the historical context (as presented in this paper on chang-Shared principles: that innovations also need to be in sync with developments in ing paradigms) and develop design visions (Design Probes) to Key success factors— The knowledge and transformation paradigms what people value and aspire to achieve breakthrough growth. provoke debate in order to generate (high level) insights. To assume a level of democratization of technology In the knowledge economy, the choice of leveraging existing Innovating how products and services help people to achieve understand which weak signs resonate with a larger audience, and value creation. meta-platforms or building a dedicated platform is a major their future goals and aspirations, in other words innovat- as starting point for developing growth propositions together— Both leverage a high level of stakeholder participation. consideration, yet understanding and discovering the social ing meaning, is based on a deep understanding how value is with the innovation partners – technology, strategy, marketing— Both require a re-think of business models to mechanisms that causes peer-driven platform scaling is the key changing for people and on how socio cultural paradigms are - in Philips. transform value dissemination from a chain to a success factor. developing. Recent books, e.g. Douglas. Holt’s: How Brands network in which value can flow in multiple directions. In the transformation economy, the establishment of best Become Icons, and Roberto Veganti’s: Design Driven Innovation— Both favor continuous experimentation rather than global and local networks of competencies and expertise around – Changing the Rules of Competition by Radically Innovating Paul Gardien top-down visions and planning. a particular issue becomes a key competitive business asset. what Things Mean- illustrate this clearly. Head of Design Strategy & Design Innovation, Philips DesignPage 26 Page 27