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    Innovation by design Innovation by design Presentation Transcript

    • innovation by design © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 1
    • 0.0 © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 2
    • youngjin yoo http://yoo.cwru.edu © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 3
    • innovation © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 4
    • information infrastructure © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 5
    • ubiquitous information environments © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 6
    • 0.1 © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 7
    • two ideas © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 8
    • first idea: how to find innovation idaes that are not obvious © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 9
    • “If I had asked my customers what they wanted, they’d have said a faster horse” -- Henry Ford © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 10
    • Maturity Performance Disruption Takeoff Ferment Time © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 11
    • how to spot the next curve in knowledge economy? © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 12
    • the problem of innovations © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 13
    • © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 14
    • © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 15
    • assumption: innovation is different from creativity © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 16
    • innovation is a result of systematic, organized, and disciplined efforts © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 17
    • the morning is about methods © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 18
    • second idea: how to organize to continue to innovate © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 19
    • afternoon: structure technology culture © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 20
    • 1.0 © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 21
    • what is the most famous innovation over the last three years? © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 22
    • © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 23
    • since 2001 42,000,000 iPods 850,000,000 songs 8,000,000 videos © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 24
    • 14 million iPods in a quarter © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 25
    • 108 iPods per minute 3 million songs per day © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 26
    • There are many MP3 players and iPod clones. But none of them copied its success. Why? © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 27
    • © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 28
    • multiple meanings © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 29
    • buy it © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 30
    • take it © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 31
    • watch it © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 32
    • from things to actions © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 33
    • 1.1 © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 34
    • deep changes in the economy © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 35
    • CFO of the year © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 36
    • CFO magazine © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 37
    • 1998 - Scott Sullivan WorldCom © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 38
    • 1999 - Andrew Fastow Enron © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 39
    • 2000 - Mark Swartz Tyco © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 40
    • sponsor - arthur andresen © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 41
    • ethical issue? © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 42
    • fundamental shifts in the economy © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 43
    • from industrial economy to knowledge economy © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 44
    • from things to meanings © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 45
    • 1.2 © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 46
    • one more personal example © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 47
    • Yu-Gi-Oh Economy Trading card GameBoy pack Movie TV series Toys On-line game © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 48
    • more than just cards © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 49
    • connections create unique experiences © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 50
    • knowledge economy © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 51
    • from possessions to connections © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 52
    • from having to experiences © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 53
    • from nouns to verbs © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 54
    • from single meanings to multiple meanings © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 55
    • from or to and © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 56
    • from foreground to background © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 57
    • 1.3 © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 58
    • physical elements no yes no traditional goods intangible elements knowledge yes service products products © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 59
    • Starbucks vs. Dunkin’ Donuts © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 60
    • Lous Vuitton vs. grocery bag © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 61
    • Mon Blanc vs. Bic © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 62
    • solution selling IBM UPS Rockwell Automation Parker Hannifin © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 63
    • products with layers of knowledge © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 64
    • what is your company’s iPod? © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 65
    • it takes a paradigm shift © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 66
    • © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 67
    • 2.0 © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 68
    • Netflex vs. Blockbuster © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 69
    • 2.1 © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 70
    • what do they sell? © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 71
    • video vs. experiences © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 72
    • different meanings of video rental experiences © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 73
    • opens up new innovation possibilities © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 74
    • requires new combination of resources © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 75
    • outside-in approach to innovations © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 76
    • most R&D focus on inside-out perspectives © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 77
    • how can you see the outside-in opportunities that customers cannot articulate? © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 78
    • how can you beat the curse of disruptive innovations? © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 79
    • three approaches © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 80
    • 2.2 © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 81
    • understanding the hierarchy of innovation © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 82
    • Maturity Performance Disruption Takeoff Ferment Time © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 83
    • innovations in computer industry Mobile Computers Personal Computers Performance Micro computers Main frame Time © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 84
    • disruptive innovation is not as disruptive as it looks when you focus on parts © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 85
    • Number of Transistors Per Chip 1000000000 100000000 Number of Transistors 10000000 1000000 100000 Microprocessors 10000 1000 Logic Chips 100 10 1 59 83 65 70 73 78 85 93 99 02 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 Source: (Moore, 2004) Year © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 86
    • Declining Feature Size of Semiconductors 100 Micrometers (Microns) 10 Feature length 1 Junction Depth 0.1 Gate Oxide 0.01 Thickness 0.001 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 87
    • Growth in Hard Disk Recording Density 10000000 1000000 Recording Density 100000 10000 1000 100 10 1 1957 1962 1967 1977 1982 1987 1992 1997 Year © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 88
    • © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 89
    • radical distruptive innovations comes from novel combinations of parts that are following linear innovation paths © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 90
    • new combinations of parts offer meanings of the product © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 91
    • creates new competitive space with new customers and competitors © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 92
    • personal personal computer calculator potential new market through expansion of meanings of computers © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 93
    • portable mp3 CD player players potential new market through expansion of meanings of computers © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 94
    • incumbents are not well equipped to see the new meanings, failing to capture the opportunity © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 95
    • 2.3 © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 96
    • focus on the meanings not the product in thinking about the innovations © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 97
    • if you are the product manager of Tide, how would you create the Tide killer? © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 98
    • asking right questions © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 99
    • Q: why do you use Tide? A: to have clean cloth © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 100
    • product-focused question © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 101
    • Q: what do you mean by clean cloth? © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 102
    • meaning-focused question unlocks the door for product innovations © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 103
    • no dirt clean color fresh smell ready for important meeting soft fabric © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 104
    • multiple meanings of experiences © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 105
    • physical cognitive social cultural © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 106
    • who is your customer © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 107
    • when and where © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 108
    • what do they do before and after © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 109
    • customer experience map Activities Actor A Current experience Actor B Actor C © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 110
    • where do you get these ideas? © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 111
    • Design Methods • Ask • Watch • Learn • Try © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 112
    • Ask • Cognitive Maps • Scenario Cards • Conceptual Landscaping • Visual Journals • Customer Experiences • Narrative • Extreme User Interviews • Personal Archaeology © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 113
    • Watch • Behavioral Mapping • A Day in the Life • Fly on the Wall • Immersion / Shadowing • Video / Photo Journal © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 114
    • Learn • Cognitive Task Analysis • Profiling the Users • Affinity Diagrams • Competitive Product Survey • Cross-cultural Observations • Historical Analysis • Activity Analysis • Scenarios • Error Analysis • Flow Analysis © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 115
    • Try • Paper prototype • Multiple Model with different scale • Bodystorming • Try it yourself • Role Playing • Rapid Prototyping • Rewriting Narratives © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 116
    • two most important methods © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 117
    • observation © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 118
    • prototyping © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 119
    • not to collect data but to get inspired © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 120
    • not to converge but to open up new possibilities © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 121
    • to understand the context and background in order to innovate foreground © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 122
    • © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 123
    • 2.4 © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 124
    • small group exercise © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 125
    • the meanings of keychain © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 126
    • what’re on your keychain? © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 127
    • 2.5 © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 128
    • analyzing the innovation space © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 129
    • 1. Business model 5. Product performance how the enterprise makes money basic features, performance and functionality 2. Networking 6. Product system enterprise’s structure/ extended system that surrounds an offering value chain 7. Service how you service your customers Finance Process. Offering Delivery Business Networking Enabling Core Product Product Service Channel Brand Customer model process process performance system experience 8. Channel how you connect your offerings 3. Enabling process to your customers assembled capabilities 9. Brand how you express your offering’s 4. Core process benefit to customers proprietary processes that add value 10. Customer experience how you create an overall experience for customers Source: Doblin Consulting © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 130
    • Target Story • More space for info • Flat space for easier readability • Space for individual comments • Clear visual hierarchy • Sleeve for patient info card to differentiate really important vs required • Color coded neck rings for information different patients © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 131
    • 2.6 © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 132
    • summary © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 133
    • the big idea © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 134
    • how to spot next breakthrough innovation opportunity? © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 135
    • outside-in © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 136
    • customer driven © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 137
    • seeking multiple meanings of your product © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 138
    • understanding the hierarchy of innovations © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 139
    • applying design methods to understand meanings © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 140
    • understanding innovation space © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 141
    • 3.1 © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 142
    • Sony Case Discussion © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 143
    • what was the symptom of the problem © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 144
    • why could not Sony build “walkman” iPod? © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 145
    • strong product organizations © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 146
    • fiefdoms © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 147
    • language © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 148
    • mental model © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 149
    • innovation processes © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 150
    • Sony is not alone in this struggle © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 151
    • IBM OneIBM © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 152
    • NASA OneNASA © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 153
    • Nestle OneNestle © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 154
    • HP Front and Back © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 155
    • Technology Organizational Innovation Innovation Institutional Innovation © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 156
    • 3.2 © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 157
    • © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 158
    • © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 159
    • who killed it? © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 160
    • organization kills ideas © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 161
    • why organization is the problem? © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 162
    • detour: a brief history (1) Single business with a function structure CEO Human Resources Finance New Products Operations Marketing Sales © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 163
    • detour: a brief history (2) A diversification strategy with a product or a market structure CEO Human Resources Finances Staffs IT Division A Division B Functions Functions © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 164
    • detour: a brief history (3) A international strategy with a division+international structure CEO Functions Staffs Divisions International Functions Countries © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 165
    • detour: a brief history (4) A customer-oriented strategy with a multi-dimensional structure CEO Functions Staffs Divisions International Customer Functions Countries Global accounts © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 166
    • innovations require both specialized expertise and integrations of knowledge © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 167
    • ideally, Functional focus Product/Customer focus Geographic focus © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 168
    • in reality, Functional focus Product/Customer focus Geographic focus © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 169
    • innovation strategy should focus on Functional focus Product/Customer focus Geographic focus © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 170
    • managing the tension between the two © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 171
    • the problem of knowledge © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 172
    • situated © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 173
    • contextualized © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 174
    • multiple meanings © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 175
    • customer © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 176
    • Integrated Knowledge Infrastructure solution A solution B © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 177
    • leadership providing design vision © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 178
    • organization structure © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 179
    • technology platform © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 180
    • culture © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 181
    • 3.2.1 © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 182
    • “What happened was, the designers came up with this really great idea. Then they take it to the engineers, and the engineers go, ‘Nah, we can’t do that. That’s impossible.’ And so it gets a lot worse. Then they take it to the manufacturing people, and they go, ‘We can’t build that!’ And it gets a lot worse.” Steve Jobs, Oct 14, 2005, in Time © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 183
    • Apple’s solution © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 184
    • deep collaboration © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 185
    • cross pollination © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 186
    • concurrent engineering © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 187
    • design engineering manufacturing © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 188
    • design engineering manufacturing © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 189
    • when there are more than one product organizations © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 190
    • alternative project structures Functional structure Lightweight team Market Concept Heavyweight team Autonomous, “tiger” team Market Concept Market Concept Source: Kim Clark and Steven Wheelwright Revolutionizing New Product Development © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 191
    • Functional “Light weight” teams focus “Heavy weight” teams “Tiger” teams Product/ Customer focus © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 192
    • two other alternatives Matrices: Functional Everyone has “two bosses”: focus both functions and products/ customers have line authority Centers of excellence: Different parts of the firm are organized in different ways: line authority is split Geographic Product focus focus © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 193
    • matrix organization Function 1 Function 2 Function 3 © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 194
    • centers of excellence Function 1 Function 2 Function 3 © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 195
    • importance of aligning incentive and power © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 196
    • there is no silver bullet © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 197
    • 3.3 © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 198
    • from organization design to organization designing © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 199
    • projects as the generative mechanisms for knowledge integrations © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 200
    • investing on people © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 201
    • building “T” people © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 202
    • tension between the logic of familiarity and the logic of variety © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 203
    • what killed Segaway? © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 204
    • why Rokr did not succeed? © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 205
    • why did Walkman succeed? © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 206
    • How does Frank Gehry organize his organization to consistently deliver remarkable buildings that are distinctive yet all bear his design character? It is a balance between familiarity and variety. © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 207
    • Gestalt of Organization Designing • Cognitive Psychology • Music • Product Design • Organization Design • Notion of family resemblance © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 208
    • © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 209
    • © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 210
    • © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 211
    • © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 212
    • Four Very Different Projects Projects Owner Funding Time Size Cost Barcelona Fish Olympic committee Public 6 months 180 ft x 115 ft $2.2 M Bilbao Basque govern’t Public 1991- 1997 2 $127.5 M 256 K ft EMP Paul Allen Private 1995- 2000 2 $110 M 140 K ft PBL CWRU Donor + University 1997- 2002 2 $61.7 M 150 K ft © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 213
    • four different conditions © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 214
    • four different sets of available resources © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 215
    • four different purposes © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 216
    • without losing your identity © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 217
    • 3.3.1 © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 218
    • Gehry’s Design Practice © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 219
    • it begins with © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 220
    • © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 221
    • vision © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 222
    • dream image © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 223
    • what makes you to be in the business © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 224
    • response to customer © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 225
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    • © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 263
    • © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 264
    • © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 265
    • 3.3.2 © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 266
    • building on information infrastructure © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 267
    • centralized database © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 268
    • layers of local information © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 269
    • modular design © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 270
    • same syntax coordinate © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 271
    • multiple meaning © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 272
    • attending to local contexts © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 273
    • while seeing the global © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 274
    • intense collaboration © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 275
    • no more “throwing papers over the wall” © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 276
    • DESIGN CONSTRUCTION ARCHITECT F CONTRACTOR I R E W SUBS A DESIGN CONSULTANTS L L FABRICATORS © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 277
    • architect engineer fabricator Central Database sub- contractor contractor © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 278
    • other examples © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 279
    • what if other people tell me what they know © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 280
    • market place of knowledge © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 281
    • when I need them © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 282
    • del.icio.us © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 283
    • flickr.com © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 284
    • RSS feed © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 285
    • all need strong technology infrastructure © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 286
    • 3.4 © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 287
    • Buildings gives forms to Architectural Gestalt of Vision organization design The use of Collaborative & representation participative tools project management is projected into the environment by designing Organization Structures for Projects © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 288
    • familiarity and variety © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 289
    • Fish Project O • Most ideal experiences • First use of Catia -- paperless G • Gave a birth to their organization design gestalt S1 S2 • Becomes a dream image of future projects (a) Fish © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 290
    • Bilbao O P7 P6 • Working with public funding and foreign labor P5 P4 G AA P3 • 7 prime contracts P2 • Catia -- for exterior and communication & P1 S4 coordination S3 S1 S2 • Intense collaboration in gallery and exterior (b) Bilbao Gugenheim © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 291
    • EMP O T8 • Strong prime contract T7 7 T6 T5 • Key subs were negotiation-based G PC T4 T3 • Catia -- bi-directional flow of information; five key subs using the system S1 S4 S5 • Minium paper-based drawing S6 T2 S2 S3 • Intense collaboration at T2 -- structural steel T1 (c) EMP © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 292
    • Weatherhead Building S22 O • Initially reluctant PC S5 • Catia used for design & no tape measures G PC • Class room and metal enclosure were key areas of S4 S1 intense collaborations S2 S3 (d) Peter B. Lewis building © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 293
    • design gestalt © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 294
    • intense focus on form- giving as means to mobilize resources © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 295
    • design attitude © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 296
    • © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 297
    • liquid vs. crystal © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 298
    • multiple models © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 299
    • being functional © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 300
    • constraints © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 301
    • reinventing wheel © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 302
    • intensely collaborative © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 303
    • building on the image of the past and tradition while creating new path © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 304
    • innovation is not done by a lone genius © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 305
    • what is the design gestalt of your company? © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 306
    • 3.5 © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 307
    • big idea © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 308
    • two tensions for organizing for innovation © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 309
    • tension one: specialization and integration of knowledge © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 310
    • organizing principle one: build project-based, customer driven collaborative teams © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 311
    • tension two: the logic of familiarity and the logic of variety © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 312
    • organizing principle two: build on organizational gestalt © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 313
    • market customer engineering design noun verb or and average exception foreground background data inspiration © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 314
    • designing interactions within and without organizations as mirror image of each other © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 315
    • http://yoo.cwru.edu © copyright 2006, youngjin yoo 316