DesignwithIntent101 patterns for influencingbehaviour through design1.0Dan LocktonwithDavid HarrisonNeville A. Stanton&
Design with Intent:101 patterns for influencing behaviour through designDan Lockton with David Harrison & Neville A. Stant...
The Architectural Lens draws on techniques used toinfluence user behaviour in architecture, urbanplanning and related disc...
Can you slant orangle things sosome actionsare easier thanothers?AnglesSome cigarette bins are sold toauthorities using th...
Can you channelpeople so theycome together(or split up)?Converging & divergingGates (and gatehouses) channelvisitors throu...
Can you bring afeature to theusers, or movethe users towhere you wantthem to be?Conveyor beltsMoving walkways in airports ...
What wouldhappen if yousimply took awayfeatures you don’twantpeopletouse?Feature deletionVarious politicians have proposed...
Can you hidefunctions orelements you’dprefer peopledidn’t use?Hiding thingsThese church hall heating controlshave been hid...
Can you use theproperties ofdifferent materialsto make someactions morecomfortable thanothers?Material propertiesRough-tex...
Can get people tofollow the path youwant them to, onthe way to reachingsomething theywant?MazesSome store layouts route or...
Can you recognisethe desire pathsof some of yourusers, and thencodify them intoyour system, soothers follow too?Pave the c...
Can you rearrangethings so peopleinteract withthem in thelocations youwant them to?PositioningPositioning pedestrian cross...
Can you putthings in users’way, so they takean alternativeroute, or adjusttheir speed?Roadblock‘Chicanes’ can slow down dr...
Can you divideyour system upinto parts, sopeople only useone bit at a time?Segmentation & spacingThese individual seats re...
How simply canyou structurethings, to makeit easier for usersto do what you’dlike them to do?SimplicityEcoButton allows a ...
The Errorproofing Lens represents a worldviewtreating deviations from the target behaviour as‘errors’ which design can hel...
Can you designan extra‘confirmation’step before anaction can beperformed?Some British Rail train doorsrequire passengers t...
Can you edit thechoices presentedto users so onlythe ones you wantthem to have areavailable?Choice editing can be driven b...
Can you giveusers warningsbased ondetecting theerror they’vemade, or might beabout to make?The parking brake warning light...
Can you makethe defaultsetting thebehaviour you’dprefer users toperform?In this software ‘nag’ screen, thedefault button (...
Can you detectand suggest abetter option tousers when itlooks like they’remaking an error?Google’s suggestion algorithm is...
Can you setthings up so oneaction can’t beperformed untilanother iscompleted?Most modern cash machinesdon’t dispense cash ...
Can you makeparts fit onlywhen the rightway round, oronly with theproducts theyshould do?EpMatched affordances3.ly/ErroDes...
What happens ifyou make anoption somethingpeople opt outof, rather thanopt in to?This building society asks newsavers if t...
Can you changethe size of theportions or theunits of ‘stuff’you give users?‘Portion packs’ for snacks givecustomers the ‘r...
Can you keep atask going thatneeds to be, orprevent onebeing startedinadvertently?To prevent accidentally engagingreverse ...
All the patterns are really about interaction design inone form or another, but the Interaction Lens bringstogether some o...
Can you use theform of yourobject itself as akind of interface,giving feedbackor suggestivecues?Royal VKB’s 100g/250g Bala...
Can you giveusers asuggestion atexactly the rightmoment forthem to changetheir behaviour?Automatic warning signs can alert...
Can you show thatthe first stage ofa process hasbeen completedalready, to giveusers confidenceto do the next?Pre-filled de...
Can you giveusers feedback ontheir behaviourfrom other usersof the system,equal in status tothemselves?Peer feedback on co...
Can you let usersknow theirprogress towardsachieving a goal?As demonstrated by examples fromLinkedIn and Wikipedia, progre...
Can you let usersknow how whatthey’re doing isaffecting thesystem?Energy meters can allow house-holders to see which appli...
Can you giveusers a previewor simulation ofthe results ofdifferent actionsor choices?Interactive savings / loan simulat-or...
Can you giveusers a report onwhat they’vebeen doing, orits effects?GreenPrint, software that reduceswasted prints through ...
Could yoursystem adaptwhat it offers tomatch individualusers’ needs andabilities?The Pam personal activity monitorsuggests...
Can you offerusers a wizard to‘tunnel’ themthrough a decisionprocess in the wayyou’d like?This installation wizard tries t...
Games are great at engaging people for longperiods of time, getting them involved, and, ifwe put it bluntly, influencing p...
What happens ifyou set people achallenge, orgive them atarget to reachthrough whatthey’re doing?Whoever laid out this coff...
What happens ifyou encourageusers to collect aset of things(friends, activities,places, objects,etc) through usingyour sys...
Can you leavedeliberate gaps (ina design, message,etc) which userswill want to fill,becoming engagedin the process?Deliber...
Can you splityour system upinto achievablelevels which helpusers feel likethey’re makingprogress?Easy-to-reach levels lowe...
What happens ifyou plan yourdesign to besomething peoplewant to spread,and make it easyfor them to do so?ShareThis and sim...
Can you designsomething which‘plays’ with itsusers, provokingcuriosity or makinginteractions intoa game?Spiral wishing wel...
Can you encourageusers to take up orcontinue abehaviour byrewarding it,through the designof the system?Kai’s Power Tools (...
What happens ifyour system givesusers particularroles to play, ormakes them feellike they’re playinga role?Tim Holley’s Ti...
Can you giveusers feedbackon their actionsas a score orrating allowingcomparison to areference point ?The ‘Brain Age’ scor...
Can you tell astory via yourdesign, whichinterests usersand keeps themengaged?Dyson uses narrative bookletsdrawing custome...
What happens ifyou give rewardsor feedback on anunpredictableschedule, so userskeep playing orinteracting?Arcade games suc...
The Perceptual Lens combines ideas fromproduct semantics, semiotics, ecologicalpsychology and Gestalt psychology about how...
Can you usesymmetry to makeelements lookrelated, orasymmetry to showdifference andfocus attention?The symmetrical holes on...
Can you usecolour to suggestassociationsbetween particularbehaviours andoutcomes?This racecourse bookmaker’s key-board has...
Can you create anobvious contrastbetween parts ofyour design or thecontext in whichits used?In 2004, Britain’s Royal Mails...
Is there anythingto be gained frommaking somethinglook like it worksone way, whileactually doingsomething else(or nothing ...
Can you make itlook like there’sa sequence forusers to follow,through thelayout ofelements?This East German rail ticketmac...
Can you employ ametaphor / analogyof somethingfamiliar, so peopleunderstand or useyour system thesame way?Tipjar.com, laun...
Can your systemmirror or mimic auser’s behaviouror mood in someway, to increasethe engagement auser feels?Chatbots have ev...
Can you use colour,images or othersensory stimuli toset a particularmood for a user’sinteraction withyour system?Changes i...
Can you removecues that peopletake for granted, toget them to thinkmore about whatthey’re doing?‘Naked roads’ with signage...
Can you designthe form of yoursystem to suggestparticular actions(or constraints onaction) to users?Reshaping the holes on...
Can you givepeople a ‘map’ ofthe routes orchoices they canuse to achievedifferent goals?Presenting a simplified set of pos...
Can you direct yourusers’ attention towhat you want, bymaking it moreprominent, obviousor exaggerated?The ‘big red button’...
Can you groupelements so thatusers perceivethey have similarfunctions or shouldbe used together?This power supply has cont...
Can you useambient sensoryeffects (sound,light, smell, etc) toencourage users tointeract or behaveinthewayyou’dlike?The di...
Can you makeelements looksimilar so usersperceive them tosharecharacteristics,or that they shouldbe used together?Paid-for...
Can you (perhapsselectively) revealwhat’s going onunder the surface,to influence users’perceptions andbehaviour?Dyson’s tr...
Can you make auser feel like heor she (orsomeone else)‘owns’ or hasresponsibility forsomething?One UK shopkeeper writes cu...
The Cognitive Lens draws on research inbehavioural economics and cognitive psychologylooking at how people make decisions,...
Can you influenceusers by helpingthem reducefeelings of guiltabout theirbehaviour?This message both implies that oneshould...
Can you get usersto commit to anidea or goal, sothey feel theyshould behaveconsistently withthis commitment?In a 1976 stud...
Can you add‘decoy’ choices,making theothers (which youwant people topick) look better incomparison?Would you choose the $7...
Can you usepeople’s desirefor tidiness toinfluence them torearrange elementsor take actionsyou want them to?The AWARE Puzz...
Can you use anauthority figureor authoritativeinstruction totell users whatthey should (orshould not) do?Impenetrable ‘agr...
Can you designyour system toengage people’semotions, or makethem emotionallyconnected to theirbehaviour?The open beak of t...
Is it possible toshow users thechoices that anexpert or authorityfigure would makewhen in the samesituation they’re in?End...
Can you selectivelypresent choicesin a way whichframes the rangeavailable in a morepositive light?Starbucks’ drink sizes s...
Can you make iteasy for a newbehaviour tobecome habitual,by building it intoanexistingroutine?Simply choosing to take the ...
Can you give yoursystem apersonality orcharacter thatengages users,becoming a‘social actor’?Dutch researchers have used Ph...
Can you help userssee other people’sperspectives andthought processes,by revealing themthrough the designof your system?Tw...
Can you make usersfeel they’ve beendone a favour (bythe system, or byother users) andwant to return it?This busker’s postc...
Can you rephraseor rename whatyou’d like users todo, so it alignsbetter with whatthey already wantto do?Twitter changed th...
Can you emphasisethat a resource isvaluable, limited inquantity, orrunning out (oractually limit itartificially)?We’re use...
Can you showpeople what otherusers like them aredoing in thissituation, andwhich choices aremost popular?Amazon’s recommen...
The Machiavellian Lens comprises designpatterns which, while diverse, all embody an ‘endjustifies the means’ approach of t...
Can you affectusers’expectationsor assumptionsby controlling thereference pointsthey have?Restaurant menus may use‘anchor’...
Can you deliberatelydisable somefunctions eventhough they’re stillpresent, to driveusers to upgrade,or to allow pricediscr...
Can you includesomething youwant users to do,along withsomething theywant to do, so bothget done?Crushing up pills or tabl...
Can you degradethe performanceof a product orsystem until userscomply with somebehaviour changeyou want?Some Nokia phones ...
Can you givesomething awaywhich gets peopleinterested oraddicted, so theycome back andpay for more?Offering one chapter (o...
Can you configurea system so thereis no ‘middleground’ possible,and users mustmake a choice oneway or the other?An even-nu...
Can you designyour system sousers becomecommitted to aparticular formator way of doingthings?Panasonic cameras include a‘b...
Can you designthings to becometechnologicallysuperseded (oreven wear out)quickly, so peoplereplace them?While new models d...
Can you structurea system so thatno one user canget an advantageover otherssimply by beingfirst to act?If person 1 cuts a ...
Can you arrangethings so that anotherwise attractiveoption has anunpleasant, self-defeating deterrentside-effect?Security ...
Can you directusers to use aproduct or systemin a particular waythrough examplesor demonstrations?Alka-Seltzer reputedly i...
Can you get usersto try differentactions or repeat abehaviour bymaking the systemrespond or givefeedback slowly?Duplicate ...
Can you designthings to becomeunfashionable orundesirable quickly,to spur the desirefor replacement orupgrades?Fashions an...
Can you helpusers overcomeworry about theirbehaviour (perhapsafter havingsuggested it inthe first place)?The term ‘halitos...
The Security Lens represents a ‘security’worldview, i.e. that undesired user behaviour issomething to deter and/or prevent...
Can you useambient sensoryeffects (sound,light, smell, etc) tomake it harder forusers to behave incertain ways?Blue lighti...
What happens ifusers know (orbelieve) that whatthey’re doing isvisible to theirpeers also usingthe system?Neighbourhood Wa...
Can you give people‘lower down’ ahierarchy theability to observeand monitor thebehaviour ofpeopleabovethem?TheyWorkForYou ...
What happens ifusers know (orbelieve) theirbehaviour is visibleto or monitored bypeopleinpositionsofpower/authority?CCTV i...
What happens ifyour designthreatens to (oractually does)harm users whobehave in the‘wrong’ way?Spikes on walls—such as the...
What happens ifyour designthreatens todamage users’property if theyuse it the‘wrong’ way?‘Traffic control spikes’ are anat...
Can you giveusers differentchoices or accessto functionsdepending on thecapabilities theycan demonstrate?Child-proof lids ...
Can you give usersoptions or accesstodifferentfunctionsdepending on theirpossession of aspecial tool, key,device or token?...
Can you test whatusers know(information,passwords, etc) togive them accessto differentfunctions?Remembering usernames, pas...
Can you changethe optionsavailable tousers based ontheir current orpreviousbehaviour?‘Teaching machine’ textbooksallow stu...
Can you makedifferent choicesavailable tousers dependingon their location?Some supermarket trolleys havedevices fitted to ...
Can you use criteriainnate to particularindividuals, groupsor objects to blockor make differentoptions available?Artificia...
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101 Patterns for Influencing Behaviour Through Design by Dan Lockton with David Harrison & Neville A. Stanton

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101 Patterns for Influencing Behaviour Through Design by Dan Lockton with David Harrison & Neville A. Stanton

  1. 1. DesignwithIntent101 patterns for influencingbehaviour through design1.0Dan LocktonwithDavid HarrisonNeville A. Stanton&
  2. 2. Design with Intent:101 patterns for influencing behaviour through designDan Lockton with David Harrison & Neville A. StantonISBN 978-0-9565421-0-6 (printed cards)ISBN 978-0-9565421-1-3 (ebook)April 2010Published by Windsor, Berkshire, UKThis is Tiresias Infofont, made available under the GNU General Public Licenceby the RNIB, and available from http://www.tiresias.orgProduced on Ubuntu (and Windows XP via Sun VirtualBox)Your feedback is very welcome: dan@danlockton.co.ukdesignwithintent.co.ukWith the exception of certain images, the proprietorsand nature of which are identified on the introductioncard for each lens, this work is licensed by Dan Locktonunder the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial- Share Alike 3.0 licence, available at:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0or by writing to: Creative Commons, 171 2nd Street,Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USACleaner Electronics Research GroupBrunel Design, Brunel UniversityTransportation Research GrpUniversity of Southampton
  3. 3. The Architectural Lens draws on techniques used toinfluence user behaviour in architecture, urbanplanning and related disciplines such as trafficmanagement and crime prevention throughenvironmental design (see also the Security Lens).While most of the techniques have been developedin the built environment, many of the ideas can alsobe applied in interaction and product design, even insoftware or services; they are effectively about usingthe structure of systems to influence behaviour.Some of the patterns, such as Simplicity, Featuredeletion and Hiding things are really fundamental toall kinds of design.Architectural LensImage for Pave the Cowpaths is ascreenshot of an annotated Google Mapon Kittelson & Associates website(http://prj.kittelson.com/tigardtrails)All other photos by Dan LocktonDesignwithIntentArA3.ly/Arch
  4. 4. Can you slant orangle things sosome actionsare easier thanothers?AnglesSome cigarette bins are sold toauthorities using the sloping top asa feature, discouraging peopleleaving litter on topA3.ly/ArchDesignwithIntent
  5. 5. Can you channelpeople so theycome together(or split up)?Converging & divergingGates (and gatehouses) channelvisitors through a narrow opening,allowing a toll to be levied, or tohelp control potential threatsArA3.ly/ArchDesignwithIntent
  6. 6. Can you bring afeature to theusers, or movethe users towhere you wantthem to be?Conveyor beltsMoving walkways in airports helptravellers move more quickly, butalso prevent people blockingcorridors, especially in groupsArA3.ly/ArchDesignwithIntent
  7. 7. What wouldhappen if yousimply took awayfeatures you don’twantpeopletouse?Feature deletionVarious politicians have proposedsimply removing standby buttonsfrom consumer electronicproducts, to reduce energy useArA3.ly/ArchDesignwithIntent
  8. 8. Can you hidefunctions orelements you’dprefer peopledidn’t use?Hiding thingsThese church hall heating controlshave been hidden (leaving only thetimer accessible) to reduce errorsby users unfamiliar with themArA3.ly/ArchDesignwithIntent
  9. 9. Can you use theproperties ofdifferent materialsto make someactions morecomfortable thanothers?Material propertiesRough-textured paving can act asa subtle barrier between cycle andpedestrian tracks: stray over theline on a bike and you’ll feel itArA3.ly/ArchDesignwithIntent
  10. 10. Can get people tofollow the path youwant them to, onthe way to reachingsomething theywant?MazesSome store layouts route orchannel shoppers past ‘impulsepurchase’ items—often snacks—ontheir way to the checkoutsArA3.ly/ArchDesignwithIntent
  11. 11. Can you recognisethe desire pathsof some of yourusers, and thencodify them intoyour system, soothers follow too?Pave the cowpathsIn Tigard, OR, residents markedinformal ‘neighbourhood trails’ theyused on a map, so the city couldprioritise ones to ‘formalise’ArA3.ly/ArchDesignwithIntent
  12. 12. Can you rearrangethings so peopleinteract withthem in thelocations youwant them to?PositioningPositioning pedestrian crossingpush-button units on the right-handside (UK) makes it more likely thatusers turn to notice oncoming trafficArA3.ly/ArchDesignwithIntent
  13. 13. Can you putthings in users’way, so they takean alternativeroute, or adjusttheir speed?Roadblock‘Chicanes’ can slow down drivers,pedestrians and cyclists; thecrossing chicane prevents running orcycling straight across the roadArA3.ly/ArchDesignwithIntent
  14. 14. Can you divideyour system upinto parts, sopeople only useone bit at a time?Segmentation & spacingThese individual seats replace abench on the Paris Métro – spacedso that someone cannot lie downor occupy more than oneArA3.ly/ArchDesignwithIntent
  15. 15. How simply canyou structurethings, to makeit easier for usersto do what you’dlike them to do?SimplicityEcoButton allows a user to put acomputer into a low-power statewith just one press, making it mucheasier for users to save energy.ArA3.ly/ArchDesignwithIntent
  16. 16. The Errorproofing Lens represents a worldviewtreating deviations from the target behaviour as‘errors’ which design can help avoid, either by makingit easier for users to work without making errors, orby making errors impossible in the first place. It’soften found in ergonomics, health & safety-relateddesign, medical device design and manufacturingengineering (as poka-yoke): where, as far as possible,one really doesn’t want errors to occur at all.A key difference between errorproofing and someother views of influencing user behaviour which implyattitude change leading to the target behaviour, isthat errorproofing doesn’t care whether or not theuser’s attitude changes, as long as the targetbehaviour is met. Attitude change might be an effectof the errorproofing, but it doesn’t have to be.Errorproofing LensImages for Defaults, Did you mean? andOpt-outs are screenshots of CIB PDFBrewer software, a Google search for‘recursion’ and Yorkshire BuildingSociety website respectively.All other photos by Dan LocktonDesignwithIntent3.ly/ErroE
  17. 17. Can you designan extra‘confirmation’step before anaction can beperformed?Some British Rail train doorsrequire passengers to lower thewindow to get access to thehandle, mounted on the outsideAre you sure? 3.ly/ErroDesignwithIntentE
  18. 18. Can you edit thechoices presentedto users so onlythe ones you wantthem to have areavailable?Choice editing can be driven bylegislation, e.g. leaded 4-star petrolbeing phased out in the EU by 2000(when this photo was taken)EpChoice editing 3.ly/ErroDesignwithIntentE
  19. 19. Can you giveusers warningsbased ondetecting theerror they’vemade, or might beabout to make?The parking brake warning lighton a car’s dashboard is a warningto the driver: don’t drive offwithout releasing the brake!EpConditional warnings3.ly/ErroDesignwithIntentE
  20. 20. Can you makethe defaultsetting thebehaviour you’dprefer users toperform?In this software ‘nag’ screen, thedefault button (pressed if the userjust hits ‘enter’) is information onlicensing rather than ‘I agree’EpDefaults 3.ly/ErroDesignwithIntentE
  21. 21. Can you detectand suggest abetter option tousers when itlooks like they’remaking an error?Google’s suggestion algorithm iscontinually evolving to takeaccount of search trends; it alsoincludes this nice ‘easter egg’!EpDid you mean? 3.ly/ErroDesignwithIntentE
  22. 22. Can you setthings up so oneaction can’t beperformed untilanother iscompleted?Most modern cash machinesdon’t dispense cash until youremove your card, making it lesslikely you’ll leave it behindEpInterlock 3.ly/ErroDesignwithIntentE
  23. 23. Can you makeparts fit onlywhen the rightway round, oronly with theproducts theyshould do?EpMatched affordances3.ly/ErroDesignwithIntentEThe bevelled corner on SIM cards,memory cards and floppy disksensures that they can’t be insertedthe wrong way round
  24. 24. What happens ifyou make anoption somethingpeople opt outof, rather thanopt in to?This building society asks newsavers if they want to opt out ofdonating part of their interest tocharity – by default it is donatedEpOpt-outs 3.ly/ErroDesignwithIntentE
  25. 25. Can you changethe size of theportions or theunits of ‘stuff’you give users?‘Portion packs’ for snacks givecustomers the ‘right’ amount offood to eat in one go (sometimes aparticular amount of calories)EpPortions 3.ly/ErroDesignwithIntentE
  26. 26. Can you keep atask going thatneeds to be, orprevent onebeing startedinadvertently?To prevent accidentally engagingreverse gear, most gearboxesinclude a ‘gate’ over/under whichthe stick must be lifted or pressedEpTask lock-in/out3.ly/ErroDesignwithIntentE
  27. 27. All the patterns are really about interaction design inone form or another, but the Interaction Lens bringstogether some of the most common design elementsof interfaces where users interactions with thesystem affect how their behaviour is influenced. Sothere are some core Human-Computer Interactionpatterns here, such as kinds of feedback, progressbars, and previews, and some currently less-usedsuch as feedforward.This lens also includes some patterns from thegrowing field of Persuasive Technology, wherecomputers, mobile phones and other systems withinterfaces are used to persuade users: changingattitudes and so changing behaviour throughcontextual information, advice and guidance. Amongthese are kairos, tailoring and tunnelling, identified inBJ Foggs seminal book Persuasive Technology: UsingComputers to Change What We Think and Do.Interaction LensImages for Feedback through form,Summary feedback and Tailoring aretaken from promotional videos/demosby Royal VKB, GreenPrint and Pam,available athttp://shop.royalvkb.com/shopexd.asp?id=423&menu=2,http://www.printgreener.com andhttp://www.pam.com/indexc.php?demo=1&f=1&ClientTZ=-60 respectively.Images for Partial completion, Peerfeedback, Progress bar, Simulation &feedforward and Tunnelling & wizardsare screenshots of Amazon, Slashdot,Digg, LinkedIn, Wikipedia, Yahoo!savings calculator and Foxit PDF reader.Other photos by Dan LocktonDesignwithIntentInInIn3.ly/InteI
  28. 28. Can you use theform of yourobject itself as akind of interface,giving feedbackor suggestivecues?Royal VKB’s 100g/250g BalancingBowls are weighted so they tiltnoticeably and audibly when the‘portion size’ is reached when fillingInFeedback through form 3.ly/InteDesignwithIntentI
  29. 29. Can you giveusers asuggestion atexactly the rightmoment forthem to changetheir behaviour?Automatic warning signs can alertdrivers to upcoming dangers at theright point for them to respond andslow down accordinglyInKairos 3.ly/InteDesignwithIntentI
  30. 30. Can you show thatthe first stage ofa process hasbeen completedalready, to giveusers confidenceto do the next?Pre-filled details such as deliveryaddresses can be an effective way ofspeeding up an order process and red-ucing ‘shopping cart abandonment’InPartial completion In3.ly/InteDesignwithIntentI
  31. 31. Can you giveusers feedback ontheir behaviourfrom other usersof the system,equal in status tothemselves?Peer feedback on comments andstories is central to sites such asSlashdot (‘karma’ scores) and Digg(’digging’ and ‘burying’)InPeer feedback In3.ly/InteDesignwithIntentI
  32. 32. Can you let usersknow theirprogress towardsachieving a goal?As demonstrated by examples fromLinkedIn and Wikipedia, progressbars showing ‘nearly complete’ canmake a goal seem more achievableInProgress bar In3.ly/InteDesignwithIntentI
  33. 33. Can you let usersknow how whatthey’re doing isaffecting thesystem?Energy meters can allow house-holders to see which appliances usethe most electricity, and how muchthis is costingReal-time feedback3.ly/InteDesignwithIntentI
  34. 34. Can you giveusers a previewor simulation ofthe results ofdifferent actionsor choices?Interactive savings / loan simulat-ors such as this from Yahoo! areincreasingly common, and caninfluence customer decisionsInSimulation & feedforward3.ly/InteDesignwithIntentI
  35. 35. Can you giveusers a report onwhat they’vebeen doing, orits effects?GreenPrint, software that reduceswasted prints through better usability,provides users (and their bosses!)with a summary of resources savedInInIn3.ly/InteDesignwithIntentISummary feedback
  36. 36. Could yoursystem adaptwhat it offers tomatch individualusers’ needs andabilities?The Pam personal activity monitorsuggests exercise regimes tailoredto the user—something approachingthe role of a ‘personal trainer’InTailoring InIn3.ly/InteDesignwithIntentI
  37. 37. Can you offerusers a wizard to‘tunnel’ themthrough a decisionprocess in the wayyou’d like?This installation wizard tries to getusers to ‘choose’ to install additional(andirrelevant)softwarebypresentingthem as default parts of the processInTunnelling & wizards InIn3.ly/InteDesignwithIntentI
  38. 38. Games are great at engaging people for longperiods of time, getting them involved, and, ifwe put it bluntly, influencing people’s behaviourthrough their very design. Yet this potential has(so far) been underexplored in application toother kinds of situations outside ‘recreation’.The Ludic Lens includes a number of techniquesfor influencing user behaviour that can bederived from games and other ‘playful’interactions, ranging from basic socialpsychology mechanisms such as goal-setting viachallenges & targets, to operant conditioning viaunpredictable reinforcement and rewards, tocommon game elements such as scores, levelsand collections.Ludic LensImages for Collections are screenshots ofthe University of Washingtons UbiFitsoftware, developed in collaboration withIntel Labs Seattle, available athttp://dub.washington.edu/projects/ubifitImages for Levels and Rewards arescreenshots of Facebook/FarmVille andKPT5 software.Images for Playfulness and Role-playingare promotional photos kindly supplied bySteve Divnick(http://www.spiralwishingwells.com) andTim Holley (http://timholley.de)Image for Make it a meme is ascreenshot of Regretsy’s story onGooseonthelooses chicken ponchos(http://www.regretsy.com/2009/10/20/kentucky-frilled-chicken)Other photos/images by Dan LocktonDesignwithIntentLu3.ly/LudiL
  39. 39. What happens ifyou set people achallenge, orgive them atarget to reachthrough whatthey’re doing?Whoever laid out this coffee tub asa target for throwing coins knew alot about influencing people todonate generously and enjoy itChallenges & targets 3.ly/LudiDesignwithIntentL
  40. 40. What happens ifyou encourageusers to collect aset of things(friends, activities,places, objects,etc) through usingyour system?UbiFit Garden encourages users tomaintain a regular variety ofexercise activities, in order to‘collect’ different types of flowerLuCollections Lu3.ly/LudiDesignwithIntentL
  41. 41. Can you leavedeliberate gaps (ina design, message,etc) which userswill want to fill,becoming engagedin the process?Deliberate use of red links onWikipedia, signifying articles whichshould be written, “encourage[s] newcontributors in useful directions”LuLeave gaps to fill Lu3.ly/LudiDesignwithIntentL
  42. 42. Can you splityour system upinto achievablelevels which helpusers feel likethey’re makingprogress?Easy-to-reach levels lower thebarriers to participation andencourage continued engagementfor games such as FarmVilleLuLevels Lu3.ly/LudiDesignwithIntentL
  43. 43. What happens ifyou plan yourdesign to besomething peoplewant to spread,and make it easyfor them to do so?ShareThis and similar quick-access social sharing services canmean rapid ‘viral’ or ‘meme’ statusfor interesting or amusing storiesLuMake it a meme Lu3.ly/LudiDesignwithIntentL
  44. 44. Can you designsomething which‘plays’ with itsusers, provokingcuriosity or makinginteractions intoa game?Spiral wishing wells turn givingmoney to charity into somethingactively fun for donors, andprovoke curiosity of passers-byLuPlayfulness Lu3.ly/LudiDesignwithIntentL
  45. 45. Can you encourageusers to take up orcontinue abehaviour byrewarding it,through the designof the system?Kai’s Power Tools (pioneeringvisual effects software) revealed‘bonus functions’ to reward userswho developed their skill levelLuRewards Lu3.ly/LudiDesignwithIntentL
  46. 46. What happens ifyour system givesusers particularroles to play, ormakes them feellike they’re playinga role?Tim Holley’s Tio encourageschildren to become ‘energychampions’ for their household,influencing parental behaviourLuRole-playing Lu3.ly/LudiDesignwithIntentL
  47. 47. Can you giveusers feedbackon their actionsas a score orrating allowingcomparison to areference point ?The ‘Brain Age’ score given by DrKawashima’s games for Nintendogives users a clear incentive tokeep using the softwareLuScores Lu3.ly/LudiDesignwithIntentL
  48. 48. Can you tell astory via yourdesign, whichinterests usersand keeps themengaged?Dyson uses narrative bookletsdrawing customers (and potentialcustomers) into the story behindthe company and its technologyLuStorytelling Lu3.ly/LudiDesignwithIntentL
  49. 49. What happens ifyou give rewardsor feedback on anunpredictableschedule, so userskeep playing orinteracting?Arcade games such as this coinpusher usually employ a strongelement of unpredictable reinforce-ment, to keep users playing/payingLuUnpredictable reinforcement3.ly/LudiDesignwithIntentL
  50. 50. The Perceptual Lens combines ideas fromproduct semantics, semiotics, ecologicalpsychology and Gestalt psychology about howusers perceive patterns and meanings as theyinteract with the systems around them, and putsthem into forms which invite the designer tothink about how they might influence peoplesbehaviour. Most are predominantly visual, butthey need not be: sounds, smells, textures andso on can all be used, individually or incombination.These techniques are often applied byinteraction designers in the course of doing a jobwithout necessarily considering how they caninfluence user behaviour.Perceptual LensImages for Implied sequences andNakedness are from Sludgegulpers andITDP-Europes Flickr streams, CC-BY-SAand CC-BY licensed respectively(http://www.flickr.com/photos/sludgeulper/4188746062 andhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/38607288@N03/3836906872)Images for Metaphors, Mimicry &mirroring and Similarity are screenshotsof Tipjar.com from the Wayback Machine,Eliza chatbot from http://nlp-addiction.comand a Microsoft Bing searchOther photos by Dan LocktonDesignwithIntentPe3.ly/PercP
  51. 51. Can you usesymmetry to makeelements lookrelated, orasymmetry to showdifference andfocus attention?The symmetrical holes on thislifebuoy, even without the text,suggest that it should be grippedwith both hands simultaneouslyPe(A)symmetry 3.ly/PercDesignwithIntentP
  52. 52. Can you usecolour to suggestassociationsbetween particularbehaviours andoutcomes?This racecourse bookmaker’s key-board has a detailed language ofcolour-coded groups of functions,to aid rapid action-takingPeColour associations3.ly/PercDesignwithIntentP
  53. 53. Can you create anobvious contrastbetween parts ofyour design or thecontext in whichits used?In 2004, Britain’s Royal Mailswitched to using red rubber bandsfor bundling post, to make them easierto spot if dropped accidentallyContrast 3.ly/PercDesignwithIntentP
  54. 54. Is there anythingto be gained frommaking somethinglook like it worksone way, whileactually doingsomething else(or nothing at all)?Many elevator/lift ‘door close’buttons are reputedly ‘placebobuttons’, giving an illusion of controlbut not speeding up the processPeFake affordances3.ly/PercDesignwithIntentP
  55. 55. Can you make itlook like there’sa sequence forusers to follow,through thelayout ofelements?This East German rail ticketmachine makes very clear theorder in which the interface shouldbe used, with a sequential layoutPeImplied sequences 3.ly/PercDesignwithIntentP
  56. 56. Can you employ ametaphor / analogyof somethingfamiliar, so peopleunderstand or useyour system thesame way?Tipjar.com, launched in the late1990s, was one of the first simplemicropayment systems, using thefamiliar metaphor of a tip jarPeMetaphors 3.ly/PercDesignwithIntentP
  57. 57. Can your systemmirror or mimic auser’s behaviouror mood in someway, to increasethe engagement auser feels?Chatbots have evolved beyond theclassic ELIZA, and are being used insocial engineering attacks to extractinformation and deliver malwarePeMimicry & mirroring 3.ly/PercDesignwithIntentP
  58. 58. Can you use colour,images or othersensory stimuli toset a particularmood for a user’sinteraction withyour system?Changes in hue, saturation andbrightness can set moods: whichroom would you choose to stay in?(assuming the bed was made!)PeMood 3.ly/PercDesignwithIntentP
  59. 59. Can you removecues that peopletake for granted, toget them to thinkmore about whatthey’re doing?‘Naked roads’ with signage andmarkings removed can encouragepedestrians, cyclists and drivers to bemore aware of each other’s presencePeNakedness 3.ly/PercDesignwithIntentP
  60. 60. Can you designthe form of yoursystem to suggestparticular actions(or constraints onaction) to users?Reshaping the holes on bins tomatch the ‘form’ of different typesof waste has been shown to increaserecycling levels significantlyPePerceived affordances3.ly/PercDesignwithIntentP
  61. 61. Can you givepeople a ‘map’ ofthe routes orchoices they canuse to achievedifferent goals?Presenting a simplified set of poss-ibilities, transport maps can influenceusers’ perceptions of geography, andpromote certain routes over othersPePossibility trees 3.ly/PercDesignwithIntentP
  62. 62. Can you direct yourusers’ attention towhat you want, bymaking it moreprominent, obviousor exaggerated?The ‘big red button’ is a commonway of making a control prominent.Here on London’s DLR, it is recessedto help avoid accidental pressesPeProminence 3.ly/PercDesignwithIntentP
  63. 63. Can you groupelements so thatusers perceivethey have similarfunctions or shouldbe used together?This power supply has controlsoften used in pairs (coarse & finevoltage adjustment, and outputterminals) explicitly groupedPeProximity & grouping 3.ly/PercDesignwithIntentP
  64. 64. Can you useambient sensoryeffects (sound,light, smell, etc) toencourage users tointeract or behaveinthewayyou’dlike?The distinctive ‘Subway smell’ mayonly be a by-product of baking, butintentional ‘scent branding’ is incr-easingly common in retail designPeSeductive atmospherics3.ly/PercDesignwithIntentP
  65. 65. Can you makeelements looksimilar so usersperceive them tosharecharacteristics,or that they shouldbe used together?Paid-for links on Microsoft’sBing look very similar to the realsearch results, to increase thechance of users clicking themPeSimilarity 3.ly/PercDesignwithIntentP
  66. 66. Can you (perhapsselectively) revealwhat’s going onunder the surface,to influence users’perceptions andbehaviour?Dyson’s transparent dust containerboth demonstrates the vacuumcleaner’s effectiveness, and makesit likely to be emptied more oftenPeTransparency 3.ly/PercDesignwithIntentP
  67. 67. Can you make auser feel like heor she (orsomeone else)‘owns’ or hasresponsibility forsomething?One UK shopkeeper writes custom-ers’ names on the packaging ofsnacks they buy, discouraging litter-ing through ‘taking ownership’PeWatermarking 3.ly/PercDesignwithIntentP
  68. 68. The Cognitive Lens draws on research inbehavioural economics and cognitive psychologylooking at how people make decisions, and howthis is affected by ‘heuristics’ and ‘biases’. Ifdesigners understand how users makeinteraction decisions, that knowledge can beused to influence interaction behaviour. Equally,where users often make poor decisions, designcan help counter this, although this may lead toa ‘we know what’s best for you’ attitude.Dozens of cognitive biases and heuristics havebeen identified which could potentially beapplied to design. The patterns detailed beloware some of the most commonly used; thisselection draws heavily on the work of RobertCialdini, Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein.Cognitive LensImages for Desire for Order andPersonality are promotional photos fromthe Interactive Institute’s AWARE project(http://www.tii.se/aware/designConcept.html) and Philips robotics(http://www.research.philips.com/technologies/projects/robotics.html)Images for Decoys, Do as you’re told,Provoke empathy, Rephrasing &renaming and Social proof arescreenshots of Magazines.com, the USDHS ESTA website, Twitterfall.com,Twitter.com and Amazon.co.ukrespectively.Other photos by Dan LocktonDesignwithIntentCgCg3.ly/CognC
  69. 69. Can you influenceusers by helpingthem reducefeelings of guiltabout theirbehaviour?This message both implies that oneshould feel bad about the ethics ofcoffee production, and offers aneasy way to take away the guiltAssuaging guilt 3.ly/CognDesignwithIntentC
  70. 70. Can you get usersto commit to anidea or goal, sothey feel theyshould behaveconsistently withthis commitment?In a 1976 study, householderssent a ‘We are saving oil’ stickersubsequently used 10% less heatingoil than groups not sent the stickerCgCommitment & consistency3.ly/CognDesignwithIntentC
  71. 71. Can you add‘decoy’ choices,making theothers (which youwant people topick) look better incomparison?Would you choose the $79.88option here, when the other twooffer you a free gift AND save youslightly more money?CgDecoys 3.ly/CognDesignwithIntentC
  72. 72. Can you usepeople’s desirefor tidiness toinfluence them torearrange elementsor take actionsyou want them to?The AWARE Puzzle Switch, a lightswitch design by Loove Broms andKarin Ehrnberger, is visibly ‘disordered’when in the ‘on’ positionCgDesire for order Cg3.ly/CognDesignwithIntentC
  73. 73. Can you use anauthority figureor authoritativeinstruction totell users whatthey should (orshould not) do?Impenetrable ‘agreements’ suchas this often make heavy use ofauthority (and threats) to reinforcetheir message: do as you’re toldCgDo as you’re told Cg3.ly/CognDesignwithIntentC
  74. 74. Can you designyour system toengage people’semotions, or makethem emotionallyconnected to theirbehaviour?The open beak of these ‘baby bird’litter bins at a city farm (visited bylots of children) suggests that theyare hungry and would like to be fedCgEmotional engagement Cg3.ly/CognDesignwithIntentC
  75. 75. Is it possible toshow users thechoices that anexpert or authorityfigure would makewhen in the samesituation they’re in?Endorsements where the celebrityis an ‘expert’ (such as chef HestonBlumenthal in this Waitrosecampaign) can lend credibilityCgExpert choice Cg3.ly/CognDesignwithIntentC
  76. 76. Can you selectivelypresent choicesin a way whichframes the rangeavailable in a morepositive light?Starbucks’ drink sizes start with‘tall’, framing the range further upthe scale and avoiding any mediocreimplications of ‘small’ or ‘medium’CgFraming Cg3.ly/CognDesignwithIntentC
  77. 77. Can you make iteasy for a newbehaviour tobecome habitual,by building it intoanexistingroutine?Simply choosing to take the stairsrather than the lift / elevator canquickly become part of a dailyroutine at home or workCgHabits Cg3.ly/CognDesignwithIntentC
  78. 78. Can you give yoursystem apersonality orcharacter thatengages users,becoming a‘social actor’?Dutch researchers have used Philips’iCat robot to influence users’ decision-making with washing machines,advising and expressing opinionsCgPersonality Cg3.ly/CognDesignwithIntentC
  79. 79. Can you help userssee other people’sperspectives andthought processes,by revealing themthrough the designof your system?Twitter, Facebook et al allow us tosee at any moment the problemsand concerns of millions of others justlike us (or not) all over the worldCgProvoke empathy Cg3.ly/CognDesignwithIntentC
  80. 80. Can you make usersfeel they’ve beendone a favour (bythe system, or byother users) andwant to return it?This busker’s postcards may be‘free’, but the social norms ofreciprocation mean most peoplewill give him some tip in returnCgReciprocation Cg3.ly/CognDesignwithIntentC
  81. 81. Can you rephraseor rename whatyou’d like users todo, so it alignsbetter with whatthey already wantto do?Twitter changed the name of the‘Devices’ tab to the more easilyunderstandable ‘Mobile’ to encouragemore users to set up their phonesCgRephrasing & renaming Cg3.ly/CognDesignwithIntentC
  82. 82. Can you emphasisethat a resource isvaluable, limited inquantity, orrunning out (oractually limit itartificially)?We’re used to retailers emphasisingthat ‘everything must go’ and thennot actually closing; in this case,however, the shop did close downCgScarcity Cg3.ly/CognDesignwithIntentC
  83. 83. Can you showpeople what otherusers like them aredoing in thissituation, andwhich choices aremost popular?Amazon’s recommendations canbe helpful to buyers by expandingthe scope of their knowledge, whileincreasing sales for AmazonCgSocial proof Cg3.ly/CognDesignwithIntentC
  84. 84. The Machiavellian Lens comprises designpatterns which, while diverse, all embody an ‘endjustifies the means’ approach of the kindassociated with Niccolò Machiavelli. These willoften be considered unethical, but neverthelessare commonly used to control and influenceconsumers through pricing structures, plannedobsolescence, lock-ins and so on, and are centralto work by authors such as Vance Packard andDouglas Rushkoff, revealing the ‘hidden’structures which shape our everyday behaviour.In technology contexts, Benjamin Mako Hill andChris Nodder have both done great workexploring this area.Elements of game theory are present in some ofthepatterns,andthisisworthfurtherinvestigation.Machiavellian LensImage for Antifeatures & crippleware isfrom Orin Zebests Flickr stream,CC-BY-SA licensed(http://www.flickr.com/photos/orinrobertjohn/68106611)Images for First one free, Forceddichotomy and Slow/no response arescreenshots of Bill Moggridge’s‘Designing Interactions’ website(http://www.designinginteractions.com/book), an example survey built usingsurveymonkey.com, and a registrationform on the Univadis website(http://www.univadis.co.uk/medical_and_more/Registration?locale=en_GB)respectively.Other photos by Dan LocktonDesignwithIntentMv3.ly/MachM
  85. 85. Can you affectusers’expectationsor assumptionsby controlling thereference pointsthey have?Restaurant menus may use‘anchor’ items: prominently placed,higher-priced dishes, raising whatcustomers expect to be payingMvAnchoring 3.ly/MachDesignwithIntentM
  86. 86. Can you deliberatelydisable somefunctions eventhough they’re stillpresent, to driveusers to upgrade,or to allow pricediscrimination?Sony’s cheaper 60-minute MiniDiscswere identical to the 74-minute onesexcept for a pre-written portion ofcode preventing full use of the spaceMvAntifeatures & crippleware 3.ly/MachDesignwithIntentMvM
  87. 87. Can you includesomething youwant users to do,along withsomething theywant to do, so bothget done?Crushing up pills or tablets in aspoonful of peanut butter can be agood way to get dogs to take medi-cines they would otherwise refuseMvBundling 3.ly/MachDesignwithIntentMvM
  88. 88. Can you degradethe performanceof a product orsystem until userscomply with somebehaviour changeyou want?Some Nokia phones allegedlysense when a 3rd-party battery isused and switch into a high-powermode so it runs out more quicklyMvDegrading performance 3.ly/MachDesignwithIntentM
  89. 89. Can you givesomething awaywhich gets peopleinterested oraddicted, so theycome back andpay for more?Offering one chapter (often theintroduction) free has becomeincreasingly common as a way ofpromoting new books more widelyMvFirst one free 3.ly/MachDesignwithIntentM
  90. 90. Can you configurea system so thereis no ‘middleground’ possible,and users mustmake a choice oneway or the other?An even-numbered (e.g. four-point) rating scale does not allow a‘middle’ value: it forces respondentsinto making a ‘good or bad?’ choiceMvForced dichotomy 3.ly/MachDesignwithIntentM
  91. 91. Can you designyour system sousers becomecommitted to aparticular formator way of doingthings?Panasonic cameras include a‘battery authentication’ system,which prevents using cheapernon-Panasonic replacementsFormat lock-in/out 3.ly/MachDesignwithIntentM
  92. 92. Can you designthings to becometechnologicallysuperseded (oreven wear out)quickly, so peoplereplace them?While new models do bring realtechnological advances, Apple hasmanaged to create an ‘upgradetreadmill’ for iPhone buyersMvFunctional obsolescence3.ly/MachDesignwithIntentM
  93. 93. Can you structurea system so thatno one user canget an advantageover otherssimply by beingfirst to act?If person 1 cuts a cake into halves,and person 2 chooses the half he orshe wants, there is no advantage inperson 1 cutting the cake unfairlyMvI cut, you choose 3.ly/MachDesignwithIntentM
  94. 94. Can you arrangethings so that anotherwise attractiveoption has anunpleasant, self-defeating deterrentside-effect?Security ink tags release indelibleink if removed incorrectly, in anattempt to make it simply notworth stealing the clothesMvPoison pill 3.ly/MachDesignwithIntentM
  95. 95. Can you directusers to use aproduct or systemin a particular waythrough examplesor demonstrations?Alka-Seltzer reputedly introducedthe ‘two tablets per dose’ directionto users as part of a 1960s TV ad;before that, only one was takenMvServing suggestion3.ly/MachDesignwithIntentM
  96. 96. Can you get usersto try differentactions or repeat abehaviour bymaking the systemrespond or givefeedback slowly?Duplicate orders can be a problemwhere web forms are slow to submitand users click multiple times: thiskind of instruction is commonMvSlow / no response 3.ly/MachDesignwithIntentM
  97. 97. Can you designthings to becomeunfashionable orundesirable quickly,to spur the desirefor replacement orupgrades?Fashions and trends are obvious inhigh-street retailing, but are alsoprevalent (and can be deliberatelycreated) in other fieldsMvStyle obsolescence 3.ly/MachDesignwithIntentM
  98. 98. Can you helpusers overcomeworry about theirbehaviour (perhapsafter havingsuggested it inthe first place)?The term ‘halitosis’ was allegedlyintroducedina1921Listerinead,partofa series making people worried aboutbad breath, then offering a solutionMvWorry resolution 3.ly/MachDesignwithIntentM
  99. 99. The Security Lens represents a ‘security’worldview, i.e. that undesired user behaviour issomething to deter and/or prevent though‘countermeasures’ designed into products,systems and environments, both physically andonline, with examples such as digital rightsmanagement.From a designer’s point of view, this can oftenbe an ‘unfriendly’ – and in some circumstancesunethical – view to take, effectively treatingusers as ‘guilty until proven innocent’. However,thinking further about the patterns, it’s possibleto think of ways that they could be applied tohelp users control their own habits or behaviourfor their own benefit – encouraging exercise,reducing energy use, and so on.Security LensImage for Sousveillance is a screenshotof TheyWorkForYou(http://www.theyworkforyou.com)Other photos/images by Dan Lockton,including photo of Mentor TeachingMachines textbookDesignwithIntentSe3.ly/SecuSeS
  100. 100. Can you useambient sensoryeffects (sound,light, smell, etc) tomake it harder forusers to behave incertain ways?Blue lighting is used in some pub-lic toilets (e.g. here, in Edinburgh)to discourage drug injection bymaking veins difficult to seeSeCoercive atmospherics3.ly/SecuDesignwithIntentS
  101. 101. What happens ifusers know (orbelieve) that whatthey’re doing isvisible to theirpeers also usingthe system?Neighbourhood Watch schemesare signed so that they provide adeterrent effect—”people here arevigilant about what’s going on”Peerveillance 3.ly/SecuDesignwithIntentSeS
  102. 102. Can you give people‘lower down’ ahierarchy theability to observeand monitor thebehaviour ofpeopleabovethem?TheyWorkForYou allows the publicto monitor politicians’ activitieseasily: transparency leading tobetter accountabilitySeSousveillance 3.ly/SecuDesignwithIntentSeS
  103. 103. What happens ifusers know (orbelieve) theirbehaviour is visibleto or monitored bypeopleinpositionsofpower/authority?CCTV is often presented as acrime deterrent, influencing publicbehaviour, whether or not it isswitched on or actually monitoredSeSurveillance 3.ly/SecuDesignwithIntentSeS
  104. 104. What happens ifyour designthreatens to (oractually does)harm users whobehave in the‘wrong’ way?Spikes on walls—such as thesestick-on plastic ones—can act as adeterrent to climbing or sitting,with varying effectivenessSeThreat of injury 3.ly/SecuDesignwithIntentSeS
  105. 105. What happens ifyour designthreatens todamage users’property if theyuse it the‘wrong’ way?‘Traffic control spikes’ are anattempt to enforce one-way trafficat entrances to car parks (etc): thethreat is made very clearSeThreat to property3.ly/SecuDesignwithIntentSeS
  106. 106. Can you giveusers differentchoices or accessto functionsdepending on thecapabilities theycan demonstrate?Child-proof lids are often used oncontainers for dangeroussubstances, such as medicines andgarden and cleaning productsSeWhat you can do 3.ly/SecuDesignwithIntentSeS
  107. 107. Can you give usersoptions or accesstodifferentfunctionsdepending on theirpossession of aspecial tool, key,device or token?Access cards allow the issuer torestrict entrance to certainbuildings or areas to whoever has acard with the right permissionsSeWhat you have 3.ly/SecuDesignwithIntentSeS
  108. 108. Can you test whatusers know(information,passwords, etc) togive them accessto differentfunctions?Remembering usernames, pass-words and answers to security ques-tions is increasingly part of oureveryday lives, on- and offlineSeWhat you know 3.ly/SecuDesignwithIntentSeS
  109. 109. Can you changethe optionsavailable tousers based ontheir current orpreviousbehaviour?‘Teaching machine’ textbooksallow students to progress indifferent orders depending on whichconcepts need more explanationSeWhat you’ve done 3.ly/SecuDesignwithIntentSeS
  110. 110. Can you makedifferent choicesavailable tousers dependingon their location?Some supermarket trolleys havedevices fitted to lock the wheelswhen taken outside a defined area,usually an adjacent car parkSeWhere you are 3.ly/SecuDesignwithIntentSeS
  111. 111. Can you use criteriainnate to particularindividuals, groupsor objects to blockor make differentoptions available?Artificial height restrictorsattempt to allow only certain typesof vehicles into a car park, bydiscriminating on vehicle heightSeWho or what you are 3.ly/SecuDesignwithIntentSeS
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