Design council: Design for innovation


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The purpose of this design plan is to bring the design elements of the strategy together in one place and to communicate these as widely as possible across design, industry, government and education. The Design Council's aim is to provide a useful strategic framework for organisations, institutions and individual businesses with an interest in making design-led innovation happen.

"Design can help organisations transform their performance, from business product innovation, to the commercialisation of science and the delivery of public services," commented Rt Hon David Willetts MP, Minister for Universities and Science. "That is why design forms an integral part of the Government's plans for innovation and growth and features strongly in our Innovation and Research Strategy for Growth. The UK has the potential to succeed globally but to do so we must harness our strengths. Design is undoubtedly an area where we are amongst the best in the world, with potential to do even better."

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Design council: Design for innovation

  1. 1. Design forinnovationFacts, figures and practical plans for growthA Design Council paper published to coincide with the Government’sInnovation and Research Strategy for GrowthDecember 2011 Design Council 34 Bow Street, London WC2E 7DL Telephone +44 (0)20 7420 5200 Facsimile +44 (0)20 7420 5300 Email info @ © Design Council 2011 Charity number 272099
  2. 2. Design for innovation | CONTENTSContentsForeword1. Innovation and growth 22. Defining design within innovation 43. The expansion of design 54. The UK design sector 75. Economic evidence on the role of design 86. A business innovation infrastructure with design inside 107. A public innovation infrastructure with design inside 128. Planning for the next generation of innovators 149. Design for Innovation policy priorities 1510. Design for Innovation actions 16End notes 20 about the Design Council The Design Council places good design at the heart of social and economic renewal. As a centre of new thinking and insight into the role of design in innovation, it is one of the world’s leading design organisations. For more than 60 years, it has sought to provide evidence and demonstrate how design can help build a stronger economy and improve everyday life through practical projects with industry, public services and education. The Design Council is a charity, incorporated by Royal Charter, that promotes design and architecture for the public good. For more information please visit:
  3. 3. Design for innovation | FOREWORDforeWorD“Design can help organisations transform The Design Council has produced this their performance, from business product Design for Innovation plan to coincide innovation, to the commercialisation with the Innovation and Research Strategy of science and the delivery of public for Growth published in December 2011 services. That is why design forms which sets out how the government will boost an integral part of the Government’s business investment in innovation enabling plans for innovation and growth and greater success in the global economy. features strongly in our Innovation and Research Strategy for Growth. The purpose of this design plan is to bring the design elements of the Innovation andThe UK has the potential to succeed Research Strategy together in one place andglobally but to do so we must harness to communicate these as widely as possibleour strengths. Design is undoubtedly an across design, industry, government andarea where we are amongst the best in the education. Our aim is to provide a usefulworld, with potential to do even better.” strategic framework for organisations, institutions and individual businessesrt Hon David Willetts MP, Minister with an interest in making design-ledfor Universities and science innovation happen on the ground. Throughout this plan we have tried to add value to what now sits within the government’s strategy. We have synthesised arguments, brought the underlying facts and evidence to the fore and set out the design priorities. In addition we have laid out the specific design initiatives and actions that the government is funding directly as part of its stimulus package in collaboration with the Design Council and other innovation partners. This design plan has its origins in the Design for Growth Summit, hosted at the Design Council on 23 June 2011. A broad constituency of opinion-formers in areas of design, business, policy and education participated in the event and suggested ideas for swift practical action. We’d like to thank everyone who contributed. David Kester, Chief executive, Design Council 1
  4. 4. 1Design for innovation | 1 INNOVATION AND GROWTHinnovation anD groWtHThe Innovation and Research Strategy The government’s strategy is clear thatfor Growth sets out the government’s innovation, across the public and privateapproach to boosting business investment sectors, is the only pathway to sustainablein innovation and enabling UK success in economic growth, higher real incomes andthe global economy. This section provides greater quality of life in the long term.a high-level summary of the main themesof the government’s strategy. This is illustrated by research findings on the impact of innovation on businessThe Innovation and Research Strategy performance. For instance, NESTA’sis focused on overcoming the economic Innovation Index shows that companies thatchallenges facing the UK by stimulating introduced a new product between 2002 togrowth and employment, rebalancing 2004 saw average employment growth ofthe economy and delivering effective 4.4% during the subsequent 3 years comparedpublic services. to 2% for non-innovative businesses.These goals have to be achieved in the innovation and research strategya challenging international context. sets out how the government’s supportAt the same time as the global economy will drive growth by addressing fiveis slowing, it is also becoming more critical areas:competitive. More countries are seeking toproduce innovative products and services DisCoverY anD DeveLoPMentand to attract mobile investment capital and – fostering scientific and technologicalhigh value business activities. Global trends breakthroughs by prioritising investment insuch as population growth, demographic areas that have wide application and wherechange, resource pressures and climate the UK has competitive strengths to exploitchange are also presenting challenges emerging global markets. The governmentfor societies all around the world. will back challenge-led innovation in those technology areas requiring interdisciplinaryTo thrive in the global economy, the UK collaboration to develop new business modelsmust rise to the challenge of achieving products and services. It is also establishingprosperity through increasing innovation. an elite national network of technology and innovation centres, branded ‘Catapult Centres’, to support business innovation in technology areas where the UK is strong internationally. The capability to use design for commercialising technology will be integrated within the comprehensive support service that the Catapult Centres will provide to business. 2
  5. 5. Design for innovation | 1 INNOVATION AND GROWTHinnovative bUsinesses gLobaL CoLLaboration– supporting business innovation across – responding to the international challengesall sectors of the economy. Technology- and opportunities of changing innovationbased businesses are important but future geography. Innovation and research areeconomic growth also depends on businesses increasingly international endeavours. Theacross the economy investing in their own government will develop and support newforms of innovation. Design, managerial forms of international partnership andand organisational competencies, human collaboration. It will promote UK expertiseresources and intellectual property are around the world including attracting inwardincreasingly important forms of innovation. investment and exploiting opportunities inThe government’s strategy recognises the growth markets. As part of this approach, thetransformational role of design in leading or strategy identifies the work the Design Councilsupporting product and process innovation will undertake with UKTI to promote the useacross all businesses and announces the of the UK’s design strengths to support UKexpansion of the Designing Demand business and to attract inward investment.mentoring programme to build greater designcapability and understanding among SMEs. neW innovation CHaLLengesThe government will also work with the design – encouraging innovation in all parts ofsector to raise awareness of the R&D Tax Credit. our society, with the government acting as an innovation leader as a customerKnoWLeDge fLoWs in tHe for new products and through deliveringinnovation eCosYsteM public services. The government can enable– encouraging high-impact collaborations innovation in a number of ways includingbetween entrepreneurs, researchers and through mobilising resources and newexperts in design, intellectual property, partnerships around big societal challenges,measurement and standards. The UK’s acting as a lead customer for innovativeinnovation ecosystem of institutions with goods and services, and through developinga worldwide reputation is a source of and promoting innovations that delivercompetitive advantage. The government better and more efficient public services. Thewill build on this to provide incentives for government’s strategy recognises the successgreater collaboration between businesses of design-led open innovation competitionsand universities, remove barriers to cluster that address major societal challenges, anddevelopment and strengthen essential parts the important role that design can play inof the infrastructure. This will include strengthening the public sector’s capacity to becontinuing support for the Design Council’s an intelligent customer delivering cost savingsInnovate for Universities programme to help and improved efficiency. The integral rolepromote a greater understanding of how design that design has to play in each of these areascan help university Technology Transfer is explored in greater detail in the followingOffices to commercialise academic research. sections of this paper and is reflected in the Design for Innovation Actions summarised in section 10. 3
  6. 6. 2Design for innovation | 2 DEFINING DESIGN WITHIN INNOVATIONDefining Design WitHin innovationGood design is essential to good business. the common features of design are that it is:It turns new ideas into practical products,environments and services around the a creative and user-centredchanging needs of users. This section approach to problem solving.describes design in the context of The idea of adopting design principlesbusiness innovation i. at the heart of business culture and management is linked to global businessCreativity in business is the success stories such as at Apple, Dysonorigination of new ideas. and Burberry. ‘Design Thinking’ buildsCreative ideas that may result in innovation on theories around creative culture andcome from multiple sources including front- thinking styles and deploys design methodsline staff within a business, specialists in within strategic business management ii.technological or scientific discovery thatmay be external to a business, and from the a management process for theengagement of citizens and consumers. development of new products and services. The design process is a highly definedinnovation in business turns ideas into value. series of actions and staged gateways thatInnovation applies ideas and new knowledge guides and controls research, developmentto the production of goods and services and production in manufacturing andto improve product quality and process service businesses. The design processperformance. It is driver of renewal and typically includes both technical designgrowth in an organisation and hence also (such as engineering for manufacture)in the wider economy. and non-technical design (such as experience and identity).Design is the connection betweencreativity and innovation. a set of professions linkedDesign shapes ideas to become practical by a common discipline.and attractive propositions for users or Good design outcomes in business arecustomers. Design may be described as supported by professional designers andcreativity deployed to a specific end. design managers, some who work in consultancy and others within client firms. The professions of design have developed over more than 150 years through the educational routes of art and design, engineering and architecture. They are closely linked and frequently taught within the same schools.blatchfordChas A Blatchford & Sons’ has commented “whenmicroprocessor-controlled amputees say they can walkknee, the Intelligent Prosthesis, nine miles without getting tired,led to the market accepting I’m satisfied we’re on the rightelectronic control of lower path”. Blatchford’s experiencelimbs. It was a major step in demonstrates the role of designchanging amputees’ lives. Saeed as a creative, user-centredZahedi OBE, the company’s approach to problem solvingTechnical Director and combining technical andshortlisted for the 2011 Prince customer experience aspectsPhilip Designers Prize, of product development. 4
  7. 7. 3Design for innovation | 3 THE EXPANSION OF DESIGNtHe exPansion of DesignAs areas for competitive advantage, such Company spendingas the use of technology, become more Anecdotal case studies of an expansion ofglobally contested, design has become the design are supported by wider evidence ofdifferentiator for business innovation. This business spending. UK firms cite design assection looks at the expansion of design in increasing in importance when combatingpolicy, management and business education. the effects of recession iii. A 2008 report from Cambridge University’s Institute forbusiness case studies Manufacturing calculatesThe adage that if you can’t compete on cost design expenditure in the UK at aroundall you have is design has been exemplified £50bn annually iv.through powerful case-studies over the lastdecade. The turnaround of Apple from a loss- A rise in design for innovation spending is a keymaking computer company in the mid-90s aspect of a wider shift in business investmentto the second biggest company in the world over the last thirty years away from tangiblesis a consequence of a design-led approach to (such as plant and machinery) and towardsinnovation and a powerful partnership at the intangibles (such as knowledge-based servicestop of the business between the late CEO, Steve including design). OECD employment inJobs, and the Senior Vice President of Design, knowledge-based services increased from 50Jonathan Ive. Similar examples include the million in 1970 to over 150 million by 2005 v.turnaround of the clothes retailer Burberryto become a top performing company in theFTSE 100 over the last six years. In this case,business commentators credit the consistentgrowth to a similar style of partnershipbetween CEO Angela Ahrends and ChiefCreative Officer, Christopher Bailey.Leading UK manufacturers, such asDyson, JCB and Jaguar all regarddesign as essential to their expansionin highly competitive global markets. burberry Burberry, under Chief Creative In the final three months of Officer, Christopher Bailey 2010, Burberry enjoyed a 36 MBE, has used design-led per cent increase in global innovation to rejuvenate its retail sales, driven largely brand offer from a traditional by high-end consumers British clothes manufacturer in emerging markets, and into leading luxury brand in less posted record high share than a decade. The company prices in early 2011. The fully integrates the fashion, company’s turnaround shows materials and process elements a UK business using design of their operations with the use to succeed in an increasingly of the latest communication competitive global market. tools, such as digital social media, to extend its brand reach and appeal to customers. 5
  8. 8. Design for innovation | 3 THE EXPANSION OF DESIGNDesign in policy The first so-called D-School was establishedAs businesses seek to trade in high-value within Stanford in 2003. Now sited in the $35mgoods and intellectual property, national Hasso Plattner Institute of Design,governments have thrown their weight behind it is one of 60 D-Schools in a growingefforts to strengthen and protect local design league table recorded and monitored bycapabilities. Respective plans reflect the varying BusinessWeek. Design is now integratedcharacteristics of national innovation systems. into teaching at Harvard, MIT, Illinois InstituteThe EU launched a design innovation policy in of Technology, Carnegie Mellon2010 with funding for projects that raise the and other leading US MBA schools. Someperformance of SMEs. Most individual EU business schools, such as the Rotmanmember states have their own bespoke policies School of Management in Canada, haveand plans. For instance, this year the Danish placed design at the centre of their pedagogy.Department of Construction and Enterprisepublished its Design Vision 2020 with a strong Design in business teaching has spreademphasis on challenge-led innovation and from the US to Europe and the Far East.public services. The Korean government In Germany the complete model of thecredits the success of its manufacturing Stanford D-School has been exported to theindustry, including global players Samsung University of Potsdam. The US educationaland LG, to investment in design. In 2009 model is interdisciplinary with businessChina announced a strategy to shift from courses adapting to integrate design.‘Made in China’ to ‘Designed in China’ as partof its plan to reduce dependency on low-value Since 2005, some UK universities havemanufacturing and develop original products experimented in multidisciplinary programmesand brands. This has led to establishing strengthening links between business schoolstwenty-seven design zones with incubators, and design schools. At Imperial Collegeprototyping and research capabilities. design has been incorporated in to the MBA as part of a long-standing relationship withDesign in business education the Royal College of Art. Other examplesBusiness schools have responded quickly to include Northumbria University whichthe rising demand for design teaching offers a Masters in Multi-disciplinary Designwithin their curricula. As companies seek Innovation run by the School of Designto integrate design and accelerate innovation, in collaboration with Newcastle Businessthe requirement for bespoke courses and School and the School of Computing,modules within MBAs has proliferated. Engineering and Information Sciences.folding plugSouth Korean-born Min-Kyu The original folding plug, shownChoi, an MA design graduate in the image, is now beingfrom the Royal College of Art won developed by Made in Mind, athe Brit Insurance Designs of the venture comprising of Choi andYear Award in 2010 for his folding London based businessmanplug design concept. Folding flat Matthew Judkins rumouredfor storage, the design reduced for release early 2012. Thethe overall plug size by over 70%, folding plug illustrates howfolding down to just 10mm wide design education, combining— no thicker than a Macbook Air. appreciation of design with creative engineering, can lead to the development of products with strong commercial potential. 6
  9. 9. 4Design for innovation | 4 THE UK DESIGN SECTORtHe UK Design seCtorAlongside strengths in science and Most UK design consultancies tend to betechnology, the UK has a world-class design micro businesses selling their servicesindustry. This section provides an overview nationally. A high proportion of theof the shape and nature of UK design. leading design firms, however, export their services around the world. SomeUK design is a global success story and a of the top consultancies in areas such aspowerful sector to help accelerate innovation industrial design and architecture nowand growth. It is supported by one of the report few or even no UK clients.largest design education systems with someof the most highly sought-after colleges The UK design infrastructure is well-regardedglobally. British art and design colleges have internationally and includes strong culturaldeveloped over 150 years and continue to assets such as the Victoria and Alberteducate some of the world’s leading designers, Museum and the Design Museum, robustwho in turn are sought internationally for trade and professional associations andtheir creativity and skill. Some of the best- strong local networks. The infrastructureknown names in design are British and many is well positioned to engage in nationalof the world’s best brands, buildings and efforts for innovation and growth.products are designed from studios in the UK.In 2010, the Design Council’s sector surveymapped the industry calculating its size at230,000 designers, making it the largestdesign industry in Europe vi. Despite therecession the sector continues to expand.Since 2005 the design industry has grown29% with earnings up by £3.4bn. Itsturnover is calculated at £15bn includingconsultancy and in-house design teams. british Pavilion at shanghai expo, 2010 The Shanghai Expo provided Awarded the Gold Medal at a platform for countries to the Expo, the Pavilion shows demonstrate their strengths, how design shapes ideas to identity and creative abilities. become practical and attractive The Heatherwick design studio propositions for users or and wider project team, rather customers that can break the than creating a conventional mould of traditional thinking. advertisement for the UK, The Pavilion was a powerful worked with Kew Gardens’ advertisement for UK design as Millennium Seedbank to design a global success story. the iconic ‘Seed Cathedral’. 7
  10. 10. 5Design for innovation | 5 ECONOMIC EVIDENCE ON THE ROLE OF DESIGNeConoMiC eviDenCe on tHe roLe of DesignThe expansion of design into innovation the value of design in businessmanagement and economic strategy has There is, however, a body of researchprovided the research base used by policy- providing numeric data on the value ofmakers for insight and intervention. This design to business. The headline numberssection provides an overview of the economic demonstrate the potential of design forrole of design. growth and innovation:Design goes hand in hand with civilisation — The Design Council tracked public quotedas it is a manifestation of the human impetus firms that use design intensively over ato make things better. As such design cannot ten-year period between 1994 and 2004be reduced to a set of economic metrics as and compared them to poorer design-users.its value must be understood on many levels The design intensive firms outperformedincluding socially and culturally. For instance, their peers by 200% through bull anda well-designed building or public space, such bear the new Olympic Park, may deliver civicpride, build social cohesion or improve health — 80% of UK businesses believe thatoutcomes, as well as providing jobs in the design will help them stay competitiveconstruction and engineering industry. in the current economic climate. This figure rises to 97% among rapidly growing companies viii. — An in-depth ‘Value of Design Survey’ of 503 businesses by the Design Council shows that every £100 a design alert business spends on design increases turnover by £225. The survey also reports businesses that see design as integral are more than twice as likely as others to see rapid growth ix. — UK firms consider design to be the sixth most important factor driving business success — higher than R&D and marketing. The number one slot was quality of staff and the second was financial management x. olympic velodrome The 6,000-seat Olympic The Mayor of London, Boris Velodrome, built by the Olympic Johnson, commented that: Delivery Authority (ODA) “Not only does the Velodrome and designed by a team led by represent a fantastic investment Hopkins Architects, has been in sport, it’s a world-class awarded the Prime Minister’s achievement in British Better Public Building Award architecture and design”. The which recognises new buildings, Velodrome shows how good places and spaces that improve design can promote economic, the delivery of public services, environmental and social give a sense of identity, regeneration. community and local pride, and help build a sustainable future. 8
  11. 11. Design for innovation | 5 ECONOMIC EVIDENCE ON THE ROLE OF DESIGNeconomic impact on sMes The survey underlines many inherentincluding hi-tech and start-ups weaknesses in the use of design by smallerEvidence from the Design Council and companies. The discrepancy betweenother international policy organisations large and small businesses commissioningidentifies high potential returns from raising design reflects a broader issue aroundawareness of design with SMEs. Where small businesses redesigning productslarger companies benefit from dedicated and innovating. For instance largerdesign managers, smaller companies businesses are almost twice as likely tofrequently lack a strategic approach to commission design (61%) compared to micro-design in management, relevant design businesses who frequently view externalprocess for product or service development, designers as high-risk and high well as the confidence and know-howto commission professional designers. Regional variations point to stronger know- how and access to design in the South EastIn the wake of the banking collapse in 2008, while in some areas, such as the North Eastthe Design Council completed its ‘Design a relatively high proportion of firms (23%)in Britain’ survey of 1,500 UK firms xi. This view design, worryingly, as having no rolehas been a longitudinal survey dating back in their business. Similarly in some sectorstwenty years. Over the three-year period where innovation is traditionally viewed assince the previous survey the value firms weak, such as construction and agriculture,placed on design increased significantly: the value placed on design is half that in strong innovation sectors such as manufacturing.— the proportion of firms who regard This information may help policy-makers design as integral doubled to 30% optimise the advice and support given to SMEs, including the use of incentives such as— the use of the mix of design disciplines R&D Tax Credits and Innovation Vouchers. rose by 15%— the majority of UK firms now believe design will help them stay competitive through the downturn.sugruSugru is a new air-curing The Designing Demandrubber made by Jane ni programme helped SugruDhulchaointigh’s company, commercialise the productFormFormForm, in East starting with being clear onLondon. Sugru can be moulded what differentiated it within itsinto any shape, bonds like field. Sugru was listed as onea glue and cures at room of The 50 Best Inventions oftemperature to a tough flexible 2010 by TIME magazine andsilicone rubber. It has been demonstrates the importance ofenthusiastically adopted raising the awareness of designby people looking to repair with start-ups and SMEs andand adapt their products supporting them to adopt ainstead of buying new. strategic approach to design. 9
  12. 12. 6Design for innovation | 6 A BUSINESS INNOVATION INFRASTRUCTURE WITH DESIGN INSIDEa bUsiness innovation infrastrUCtUreWitH Design insiDeThe UK has a sophisticated ecosystem of The service deploys trained Design Associatesorganisations across the public, education to mentor the CEOs and management teams ofand private sectors providing expertise SMEs providing up to 10 days of coaching andin such areas as research, design, quality peer-to-peer support. Typically the Associatesassurance, technology development and help the management team understand howintellectual property. design can be used strategically to boost company performance. Together they identifyPart of the government’s contribution opportunities, implement cultural and processtowards the ecosystem is through its changes, and instigate projects including‘innovation infrastructure’ made up of commissioning designers.specialist institutions such as the DesignCouncil, Technology Strategy Board and An independent evaluation of the service inNESTA. This section provides evidence on 2011 showed that every £1 invested in a designthe role of government in strengthening project from the service returned over £25connections to design and how this supports within a two-year period. Typical benefitsinnovation in business and science. for participating firms have been accelerated business growth, increased market share andDesigning Demand successful new product, service and brandOver the last four years the Design Council development xii.has provided high-level design coaching toover 2,300 SMEs through a programme called The priority for business supportDesigning Demand, one of the government’s programmes, such as Designing Demand,Solutions for Business products. The purpose is to maximise the impact of governmentof this BIS-funded programme has been to investment through targeting priority sectorscounteract a lack of design capability and and incentivising businesses to contributeconfidence in SMEs. It has provided further towards participation. As industry seeksevidence on the impact of design and also simple and easily navigable services, the onusthe benefits of raising standards of design is on the providers to ensure that the diverseleadership at board level. offers, such as Business Coaching for Growth and the Manufacturing Advisory Service, are smartly linked and offer a flexible and interlinked mix of activities.White LogisticsWhite Logistics is a family The wider plan also addressedowned, medium sized haulage improved operational efficiency,business based in the West a more focused customer/salesMidlands. In 2010, with the strategy, and the development ofsupport of the Design Council, their people. The transformationWhite’s developed a strategic of White Logistics demonstratesplan for a clear, sector-leading the role of design in areasidentity that communicates that have traditionally beenambition and a distinctive seen as lacking in innovationbrand promise. with little to differentiate one business from the other. 10
  13. 13. Design for innovation | 6 A BUSINESS INNOVATION INFRASTRUCTURE WITH DESIGN INSIDECommercialising science targeting clustersThe high ratio of impact to cost of the The lessons from Innovate for UniversitiesDesigning Demand approach lends itself well and Designing Demand re-enforce evidenceto targeting clusters or sectors where there that technology intensive firms and start-upsis high-growth opportunity. For instance, benefit from strong embedded design skills.a version of the programme, called Innovate Mentoring is also an effective approach andfor Universities, has helped universities can be incorporated into existing supportto commercialise science research and mechanisms such as those to supporttechnology. In this instance the Design technology transfer, including the newAssociates are paired with programme Catapult technology and innovation centres,leaders in Technology Transfer Offices. and other forms of support such as Business Coaching for Growth.The design advice builds capability withinresearch teams that tend to be strong on As well as targeting high-growth clusters,research, pure science and technology and the design coaching approach has provedweak on user-led design. Practical mentoring successful in sectors where low rates ofhas helped accelerate ventures to market. innovation and stubborn slow-growth areIn the case of Oxford University the mentor prevalent. For instance, Designing Demandsupported the university’s most successful has demonstrated high impacts in terms ofspinout in recent years ultimately attracting profits and jobs in agriculture, haulage andover £4m towards the smart-metering low-technology Typical benefits of bringing designto early science and technology include de-risking projects through prototyping, sortingusability issues through co-design withusers, and attracting investment throughvisualisation and brand presentations.navetas smart MeterThe University of Oxford The Design Council’s Innovatedeveloped a new process for for Universities programmemeasuring electricity usage helped the team to develop thebut needed design support to product and identify markettake it to a stage where they opportunities. The originalcould raise seed investment for spinout was bought by energya spinout company and fund management firm, Navetas.the next stage of development. Further investment of £4m has been secured to enable the company to continue developing the product and run national trials with a major UK energy company. 11
  14. 14. 7Design for innovation | 7 A PUBLIC INNOVATION INFRASTRUCTURE WITH DESIGN INSIDEa PUbLiC innovation infrastrUCtUreWitH Design insiDeTo stimulate a culture of innovation, reform Many good examples of transformation andpublic services and meet the needs of public innovation within central and local authoritypolicy challenges, government has a role delivery already exist. The redesign, foras lead commissioner and innovator. This instance, of the Passport Agency turned asection provides evidence on the role of service that was in crisis in 1999 to the UK’sdesign within public sector innovation. highest rated private or public service for three years in a row by 2006 xiii. However, evidenceTo meet the needs of public service reform from within and outside government points toand address the many urgent public policy long-term systemic issues around public sectorchallenges, government must lead as an innovation, including the need for cultureinnovator. From streamlining centralised change around risk and experimentation,services such as road taxation, improving broader staff and customer engagement inlocally administered housing benefits, or innovation, and improved skills in engagingdeveloping new solutions to the rising tide of the private sector.chronic disease and obesity, civil servants arecharged with achieving the NAO description NESTA research points to public sectorof public sector innovation — “new ideas that innovations happening despite — ratherwork at creating public value”. than because of — the organisational culture around them xiv. The tendency is for agencies to work in silos with new ideas failing to flow across departmental boundaries. According to government’s own research, the impact of design on public sector organisations has also been largely neglectedxv. new UK Passport In 1999, at least 500 holidays More recently, the UK Passport were cancelled because of poor has been redesigned and is performance at the UK Passport now one of the most secure and Agency with applications taking trusted documents in the world, up to 10 times longer than they meeting rigorous international were meant to. Yet in 2006, standards and providing a for the third year running, more efficient service for UK the agency ranked first for citizens travelling abroad. overall customer satisfaction in the CompariSat surveys of public and private sector organisations, with a 97% approval rate. This was achieved by prioritising customer relations and service design. 12
  15. 15. Design for innovation | 7 A PUBLIC INNOVATION INFRASTRUCTURE WITH DESIGN INSIDEThe Design Council’s demonstration projects Working frequently in collaboration withprovide an action research base on the impact partners such as the Technology Strategyof design in the public sector. Board, the programmes have used design techniques to engage citizens, front-line staffPublic services by Design and specialists in bringing new ideas to market.The Public Services by Design programme, The emphasis has been on maximising thefunded by BIS, has provided strategic early participation and investment of thesupport and mentoring to local and central private sector combining design, technologygovernment projects including a local and producers. The consistent results haveauthority homelessness service and HMRC’s delivered rapid acceleration and uptake ofcompany registration scheme. Results commercial ideas. Recent evaluation of twoover two years with 30 agencies point to health projects identified over £25m of salessignificant potential efficiencies and savings. within two years for SMEs who participatedIndependent evaluation estimates that for in the programme and forecast returns of £23every £1 spent raising design capability, for every £1 spent by the public sector xvii.£26 has been saved by providersxvi. Lessons from these demonstrations point toDesign Council Challenges significant benefits for the public sector inThe Design Council Challenges programme achieving innovation at scale, as well as inhas demonstrated the value of ‘open efficiency through increasing its capabilityinnovation’ within the public sector. A key to use design as a strategic approach, embedfocus has been around security with a Home design processes within leadership andOffice programme identifying innovations to management and commissioning designDesign Out Crime and a range of preventative professionals more challenges with the Departmentof Health, including infection control, patientdignity, assisted living for the ageing anddementia care.reducing violence andaggression in a&eNHS staff experience more This holistic design approachthan 150 incidents of violence has identified solutions toand aggression every day with improve the patient experience,a financial cost that exceeds support frontline staff, and£69m annually. Working with inform and inspire key NHSthe Department of Health, decision-makers. The solutionsthe Design Council has run are designed to give a cleara UK-wide open innovation return on investment bothcompetition to tackle this issue. financial and in the experience of staff and patients. 13
  16. 16. 8Design for innovation | 8 PLANNING FOR THE NEXT GENERATION OF INNOVATORSPLanning for tHe next generation of innovatorsAs the dynamics of innovation change, There are good current examples of suchgovernment has a role in working with cross-curricular design activity that aim toindustry to develop a workforce with relevant broaden access to design within primary anddesign skills and capabilities. This section secondary education. These include thereflects on the role of the education system. Sorrell Foundation’s National Art & Design Saturday Club which gives young peopleapplying the lessons in education aged 14–16 the opportunity to study art andSystemic issues of weak design capability design every Saturday morning at their localwithin organisational management could art and design college or university for free.potentially be addressed over a longer The Design Council’s Eco Design Challengeperiod through the education system. is a further example. This programme givesThe siloed approach to design education in students the opportunity to make parts ofschools results in many students lacking any their school more sustainable by working withunderstanding of the basic business facts designers to calculate the size of their school’saround design. For instance, current GCSE ecological footprint and then to create ways tostudies in business and economics fail to address make it for business competitiveness andinnovation. A limited number of schools benefit These initiatives help inform the educationfrom cross-curricular design programmes and career decisions young people take. Inor have specialist status such as the JCB addition, they demonstrate that studentsAcademy, where design and engineering are who do not pursue design and the relatedfully integrated into all subjects. disciplines further in their education and careers still benefit from the early developmentHigh quality Design & Technology teaching of decision-making and problem-solvingin schools is also important to maintaining skills that design education brings, particularlyand growing a pipeline of students entering with an interdisciplinary, architecture and engineering HEcourses and on into the professions. Involving Further research is needed to appraisedesign and engineering practitioners in the impact that the development ofschools brings Design & Technology to life for interdisciplinary approaches to schoolstudents and teachers, enhances the quality education could have on national innovationof teaching and learning and gives students capability.access to professional role-models that mightencourage them to consider careers in design,architecture and engineering. the JCb academy The JCB Academy is a The Academy’s specialist University Technical College programmes benefit from for 14–19 year-old students close links with industry with a multidisciplinary — not just JCB, as the main approach to providing high- industry sponsor, but also quality engineering and other major engineering business education to develop, firms in the area including “the engineers and business Rolls-Royce and Toyota. This leaders for the future”. ensures that curriculum and teaching activities are embedded in real industrial practice and challenges. 14
  17. 17. 9Design for innovation | 9 DESIGN FOR INNOVATION POLICY PRIORITIESDesign for innovation PoLiCY PrioritiesThe Innovation and Research Strategy for for KnoWLeDge fLoWs in tHeGrowth provides a framework for investment innovation eCosYsteMin economic growth. This section reflects the Use design to strengthen connectionsgovernment’s commitment to design as an between universities and the wideressential element of this process. innovation infrastructure. A greater understanding within universitiesfor DisCoverY anD DeveLoPMent of the use of strategic design will speedStrengthen the commercialisation of up the commercialisation process byscientific and technological breakthroughs helping identify market needs, making newthrough design. concepts viable and appealing, attracting newNew investment in infrastructure, such as the investment and reducing risk. An expansionCatapult technology and innovation centres, of multidisciplinary approaches at post-provides opportunities to match design know- graduate level in design, business, sciencehow and talent to where it’s most needed. and engineering education would strengthenExisting research funding and knowledge the role of universities in the innovationpartnerships can be exploited to address gaps ecosystem.or provide new evidence on priorities that willhave an impact on our capacity to innovate, for gLobaL CoLLaborationsuch as the competitive global environment Use design to attract inward investmentor the role of our design education system. and promote export opportunity. Initiatives such as Tech City UK provide anfor innovative bUsinesses opportunity to attract investment based onStrengthen design capabilities and the access to UK design and creative skills.access to design. The Olympics and wider programmes ofWhere government investment is being made the government and UKTI provide ongoingor sustained in new technologies government opportunities to establish connections forcan provide the connections to tried and tested design firms and design-led businesses. Thedesign advice and networks. Targeted support existing design sector infrastructure includingfor clusters and sectors through Designing events, cultural institutions and organisationsDemand and other business support products, can help maximise trade and investment.including the Manufacturing AdvisoryService and Business Coaching for Growth, for neW innovation CHaLLengesprovide opportunities to accelerate innovation Demonstrate design leadership inby using design and exploiting UK design commissioning services and public policy.capabilities. The uptake of design can also be The continued efforts to reform publicincentivised through R&D Tax Credits and services provide an ongoing opportunity toInnovation Vouchers. engage design in achieving transformational change and in delivering efficiencies across the system. Design leadership and skills can be incorporated into broader management and leadership training. Open innovation design projects on new policy challenges can incentivise early engagement between government, technology and business. 15
  18. 18. 10Design for innovation | 10 DESIGN FOR INNOVATION ACTIONSDesign for innovation aCtionsDesign is a cross-cutting theme in thegovernment’s Innovation and ResearchStrategy for Growth. This section lists agreedand funded design-related actions that theDesign Council will take forward workingwith partners.aCtion for DisCoverYanD DeveLoPMentaction 1: A stronger bridge will be built Each Catapult will be encouraged to workbetween design and technology through the out the best approach to fit their specificCatapult technology and innovation centres. circumstances. Examples of approaches they should consider include:The new Catapult network being establishedby the Technology Strategy Board will — offering a design mentoring servicestimulate innovation, accelerate growth and tailored to meet the needs of theiranchor high value development in the UK. technology and sector. The DesigningThe Catapults will provide access to the best Demand and the Innovate for Universitiestechnical expertise, infrastructure, skills and programmes are good models to informequipment — resources which companies, such tailored services;particularly small ones, need to innovate andgrow. The use of design for commercialising — bringing together the design, technologytechnology will be integrated within the role and manufacturing communities toand mission of the Catapults. To support address particular major challengesthe development of this approach, Catapults and opportunities. This approach couldwill have access to expert help and advice build on the TSB’s Innovation Platformsincluding, for example, high-level guidance programme by adding a specific designfrom a panel of design experts of international element; andstanding which the Design Council willhelp establish. — participating in a design-based Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) scheme. Informed by the established KTP programme, this could involve placing design graduates (KTP Design Associates) with Catapult business users. The business users would benefit from both the expertise of the Associate and the links he or she would bring to their ‘parent’ university or other research organisation. 16
  19. 19. Design for innovation | 10 DESIGN FOR INNOVATION ACTIONSaCtion for innovative bUsinesses aCtion for KnoWLeDge fLoWs in tHe innovation eCosYsteMaction 2: Design will be made an integralelement of support for potential high action 3: The link between universitiesgrowth SMEs through expanding the and design will be strengthened byDesigning Demand programme and building on the success of the Designdelivering it in collaboration with other Council’s Innovate for Universitiesbusiness support programmes. programme.The Design Council is delivering Designing Funded by BIS, this programme hasDemand, a BIS-funded mentoring programme, promoted a greater understanding of howto build greater design capability and design can be integrated into Technologyunderstanding among SMEs. Building on the Transfer Office (TTO) projects and hassuccess of this programme, the government is demonstrated how design can improve theincreasing its funding for Designing Demand marketability of new products includingto £1.3 million per annum. This expansion through spinout companies. Benefits include:of the Designing Demand programme will reducing risk in the commercialisationenable up to 100 SMEs to receive support process and maximising IP value, identifyingeach year. Delivering it in collaboration new market opportunities, increasing speedwith other business support programmes of commercialisation, attracting newwill help ensure that target businesses are investment, success with competitive fundingprovided with an enhanced, more joined-up applications, improving team collaborationservice to help increase their productivity and and providing new skills and methods. BIScompetitiveness including through increasing funding is allowing a further seven universityinnovation. The Design Council will work with TTOs around the UK to benefit from thethe providers of Business Coaching for Growth mentoring programme in 2011/12.and the Manufacturing Advisory Service toachieve this. action 4: The Design Council will work with the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) and other partners to develop an effective and consistent means of measuring the impact of design. The Design Council and the AHRC will work together to develop a robust programme of university-led design research that will build on previous design metrics work to improve understanding of how design, creativity and innovation impact on economic performance and social value creation. This will inform existing national and European metrics leading to greater adoption of design in the innovation process. 17
  20. 20. Design for innovation | 10 DESIGN FOR INNOVATION ACTIONSaCtion for gLobaL CoLLaborationaction 5: The Design Council will work Design support should be an integral part ofclosely with UKTI to promote the use of the the services offered to entrepreneurs settingUK’s design strengths to attract inward up and growing businesses in the area. Toinvestment and increase exports. This will achieve this, the Design Council will:include ensuring design is an integralelement of the support available for — work closely with UKTI’s Tech Citybusinesses in established and emerging Investment Organisation to help overseas-clusters, such as Tech City UK, that provide based, early stage technology entrepreneursconcentrations of opportunity to build on and high growth innovative companiesUK competitive strengths. first to locate or expand in East London and then to access practical support to helpIn taking this action forward, full advantage them scale; andwill be taken of opportunities presented by theLondon Olympics including the associated UK — partner with the Technology StrategyBusiness Ambassadors initiative. Board and the UKTI to provide design support alongside the Tech City LaunchpadThe Tech City UK initiative in East London initiative to support and extend the existingprovides a good example of an opportunity East London tech build on an existing cluster of technologycompanies. The initiative aims to support thearea to become the digital capital of Europeand location of choice for technology-basedentrepreneurs and companies. As well ascommitment and assistance from government,it has active support from major globaltechnology companies including Cisco, Inteland Google. 18
  21. 21. Design for innovation | 10 DESIGN FOR INNOVATION ACTIONSaCtion for neWinnovation CHaLLengesaction 6: A toolkit and coaching programme action 7: The Design Council will workwill be developed to support government to with government departments andbecome a design leader in the commissioning partners to develop further design-ledof services and public policy. open innovation competitions that address major societal challenges.In order to drive value for money in thecurrent fiscal climate government must enlist The Design Council has developed andinnovative solutions. The lessons learnt from run a number of successful design-ledexisting successful programmes now need open innovation competitions to addressto be drawn together to develop a design/ major societal challenges such as crime,innovation-led approach to commissioning reducing the risk of infection in hospitals andthat will be far more widely adopted across discouraging violence and aggression in A&Ethe public sector. The approach needs to departments. Building on this experience, thebe embedded in the culture of senior civil Design Council will work with governmentservants so that they provide design and departments, innovation partners and theinnovation leadership and can act as an design industry to identify further challenges‘intelligent customer’. that would benefit from this approach. The aim will be to develop and test design-ledDrawing from the success of their existing solutions, including those best developedprogrammes and working with BIS, the initially at a local level, that can be deployedCabinet Office and innovation partners, at a scale that matches the scope and severitythe Design Council will develop: of the major public challenge addressed.— a design/innovation-led commissioning toolkit for adoption by government departments and more widely across the public sector; and— a supporting coaching programme for senior civil servants. This could initially be aimed at the ‘Top 200’ group and potentially delivered in collaboration with the Institute for Government.With the benefit of this support, the intentionis that each government department with amajor commissioning role will be encouragedto run at least one design/innovation-ledcommissioning ‘competition’ over the next12 months. 19
  22. 22. Design for innovation | END NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSenD notesi Definition from HMT Cox Report on ix The Value of Design Factfinder Creativity in Business (2005) report, Design Council (2007)ii Design Thinking is a term developed x Design in Britain 2008, Design Council (2009) by Prof David Kelly and the xi Design in Britain 2008, Design Council (2009) consultancy IDEO at Stanford xii Independent evaluation of Designingiii Driving Recovery with Design, Demand, Eden Partners (2011) Design Council briefing (July 2009) xiii Design Council Magazine, Issueiv Livesey, F., Moultrie. J., Company spending 4, September 2008 on design: Exploratory survey of UK xiv Hughes, A., Moore, K., and Kataria, firms 2008, Cambridge: University of N. Innovation in Public Sector Cambridge/Design Council (2009) Organisations, NESTA (2010)v Hutton, Will. Design in the Knowledge xv Acha, V. ‘Open by Design: The Role of Economy 2020, Design Council (2010) Design in Open Innovation.’ DIUS (2008)vi Design Industry Research, xvi Independent evaluation of Public Services Design Council (2010) by Design, Centrifuge Consulting (2010)vii Multidisciplinary design education in xvii Independent evaluation of the UK: Report and recommendations Design Bugs Out, Ekosgen (2009) from Multidisciplinary Design Network, Design Council (2010)viii Design in Britain 2008, Design Council (2009)aCKnoWLeDgeMentsimage creditsP.4 Endolite Foot Range 2011, P.8 Velodrome, designed by Hopkins Architects designed by Saeed Zahedi OBE Courtesy of the Olympic Delivery Authority Courtesy of Chas. A. Blatchford Photographed by David PoultneyP.6 ISS12 finale and runway shots P.9 Sugru air-curing rubber, Courtesy of Burberry; designed by FormFormForm Folding plug Courtesy of Sugru Photographed by Ifeyinwa Onugha P.11 Navetas Smart MeterP.7 UK Pavilion, Seed Cathedral at the Shanghai Courtesy of Navetas Expo 2010, designed by Heatherwick Studio Photographed by Mike Oakes Photographed by Iwan Baan P.11 White Logistics Courtesy of Allotment Brand Design Photographed by Jonathan Oakes P.12 2011 UK Passport Courtesy of Home Office P.13 A&E full height panel slices Image by Pearson Lloyd P.14 Students at JCB Academy Courtesy of JCB Academy 20