Deloitte university press gov on the go


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vEr the past 25 years, productivity in the private sector has risen by more than 50 percent.
Globalization, advanced manufacturing processes, and a deeper understanding of individual
and organizational psychology have all contributed significantly to this growth. But the single most
significant contribution to this growth has been the private sector’s ability to harness the disruptive
power of technology and to use it invent better and more efficient processes.
The public sector, on the other hand, has been unable to keep pace, despite, in some cases,
eventually adopting similar technologies. At the same time that private sector productivity grew
50 percent, productivity in the public sector actually fell. A productivity gap has emerged between
the public and private sectors—one widened by government’s inability to dynamically absorb and
capitalize on new technologies like we’ve seen in the private sector.
Mobile technology, a very powerful productivity booster, offers the public sector a chance to
hit the reset button. It can not only improve internal communications and access to information
within public agencies, but also enable the government to fully redesign service delivery by leveraging the power of citizens as co-creators. Mobile presents the government with a unique opportunity to drive efficiency and productivity and—at the same time—create vast improvements in the
services it provides citizens. Our analysis shows that if mobile adoption rates in government were to
double to 70 percent, additional value generated (in terms of government output) could exceed $50
billion annually.
This report examines three key areas where mobile acts as an enabler of productivity for the government and its citizens:
• The mobile government work

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Deloitte university press gov on the go

  1. 1. Gov on the GoBoosting Public Sector Productivityby Going MobileBy William D. Eggers and Joshua Jaffe Second of a series of studies on mobile government
  2. 2. About the authorsWilliam D. EggersWilliam Eggers is a leading authority on government reform. He is responsible for research andthought leadership for Deloitte’s Public Sector industry practice.His seven books include the Washington Post best seller If We Can Put a Man on the Moon:Getting Big Things Done in Government (Harvard Business Press, 2009), Government 2.0(Rowman and Littlefield, 2005), Governing by Network (Brookings, 2004), and The PublicInnovator’s Playbook (Deloitte Research 2009). His books have won numerous awards includingthe Louis Brownlow award for best book on public management, the Sir Antony Fisher award forbest book promoting an understanding of the free economy, and the Roe Award for leadershipand innovation in public policy research.Solution Revolution, his next book (co-authored with Paul Macmillan), will be published inSeptember 2013 by Harvard Business Review Press. He can be reached at JaffeJoshua Jaffe is a manager in Deloitte Consulting LP. His work and research focus on public sectorthought leadership, advanced analytics, and big data. Joshua has more than a decade’s worth ofexperience in public sector consulting and has authored or contributed to dozens of studies ongovernment and government service. He can be reached by email at Deloitte’s MobileGovernment LeadersRob Frazzini leads Deloitte Digital at the federal level. Rob has been a principal with DeloitteConsulting LLP for over 14 years, where he has served in many capacities including as the globalmanaging director of Deloitte’s Technology Integration practice. Before joining Deloitte, Robspent much of his time as an entrepreneur, launching several companies across a wide variety ofbusiness sectors. In 2001, Consulting magazine recognized Rob as one of the top 10 consultantsin the United States. He can be reached at Salzetti is a principal with Deloitte Consulting LLP in Deloitte’s Public Sector consultingpractice. He serves as the mobile leader for state government and state leader for Deloitte Digital,and is the lead principal for the State of California. Jason has more than 19 years of technologyintegration experience implementing large-scale systems across industries. He has led engage-ments for a number of Fortune 500 clients and the State of California. He can be reached
  3. 3. Boosting Public Sector Productivity by Going MobileContents Executive summary | 2 Introduction | 4 The public/private productivity gap | 6 Mobile tech and productivity: The evidence | 8 Harnessing mobile | 11 1. The mobile government worker | 11 2. Citizen services 2.0 | 17 3. Co-creaton and co-production: Citizens as the solution | 19 Implementation: Putting mobile to work | 24 Conclusion: Getting mobile right | 27 Appendix | 28 Endnotes | 30 Contacts | 34 Acknowledgements | 35 Recent Deloitte Research public sector thought leadership | 36 1
  4. 4. Gov on the GoExecutive summary O ver the past 25 years, productivity in the private sector has risen by more than 50 percent. Globalization, advanced manufacturing processes, and a deeper understanding of individual and organizational psychology have all contributed significantly to this growth. But the single most significant contribution to this growth has been the private sector’s ability to harness the disruptive power of technology and to use it invent better and more efficient processes. The public sector, on the other hand, has been unable to keep pace, despite, in some cases, eventually adopting similar technologies. At the same time that private sector productivity grew 50 percent, productivity in the public sector actually fell. A productivity gap has emerged between the public and private sectors—one widened by government’s inability to dynamically absorb and capitalize on new technologies like we’ve seen in the private sector. Mobile technology, a very powerful productivity booster, offers the public sector a chance to hit the reset button. It can not only improve internal communications and access to information within public agencies, but also enable the government to fully redesign service delivery by leverag- ing the power of citizens as co-creators. Mobile presents the government with a unique opportu- nity to drive efficiency and productivity and—at the same time—create vast improvements in the services it provides citizens. Our analysis shows that if mobile adoption rates in government were to double to 70 percent, additional value generated (in terms of government output) could exceed $50 billion annually. This report examines three key areas where mobile acts as an enabler of productivity for the gov- ernment and its citizens: • The mobile government worker. Mobile technology not only helps front-line workers do more with less in the face of shrinking workforces and tightly stretched budgets, but also allows them to do their jobs better. No longer constrained by location or time, field workers—human services caseworkers, emergency responders, and law enforcement officers—can operate as truly mobile workers and remain productive on the go. In Florida, more than 2,300 foster care caseworkers use camera-enabled smartphones and laptops to remotely capture time- and-location-stamped images, notes, and observations that immediately upload to the state’s online database. This way, they spend less time on paperwork and can better manage their workloads. According to our analysis, mobile adoption could result in a 45 percent increase in caseworkers’ productive time. • Citizen services 2.0. Mobile technology offers great promise in making interaction with government easier, requiring less of citizens’ time, money, and effort. Myriad mobile applica- tions—from apps that provide basic information on public services to sophisticated sensor- and GPS-enabled, real-time, “thinking” apps—have opened fresh channels of exchange between citi- zens and the government. The City of New York’s NYC311 mobile application lets users report2
  5. 5. Boosting Public Sector Productivity by Going Mobile civic problems—street potholes, damaged street signs, graffiti, and other quality-of-life issues— at the tap of a button. The city also has a telephone service for 311 complaints. Our estimates indicate that even if half of these complaints were to shift to the mobile app medium, citizens would collectively save 513,888 hours of their own time—equivalent to $11.3 million a year. • Co-creation and co-production: Citizens as the solution. Mobile technology allows gov- ernance to shift from one-way service delivery to a more collaborative, co-designed, and co- created model. As citizens come to play a more active role rather than being passive recipients, public service delivery can be transformed. Greater emphasis on creating solutions with citizens rather than just for them improves not just service delivery, but also the way the government approaches a problem. In San Jose, the Pulse Point mobile app—via sophisticated location-based services—alerts qualified citizens in a public place of the need for CPR. With the help of technol- ogy and citizen rescuers, governments can deliver effective emergency response without devot- ing significant new resources.Making mobile the standard The effectiveness of mobile in the public sector will depend largely on how it is implemented.These seven steps can help the public sector capture productivity benefits from mobile: 1. Rethink business processes 2. Define the problem you are trying to solve 3. Adopt a “Mobile First” approach 4. Focus on user experience 5. Iterative design: Prototype, test, prototype again 6. Make mobile a source of security, not a threat 7. Define a governance structure Government agencies aren’t the only organizations struggling to adapt to mobile technology.Many private companies struggle with this as well. But if mobile is a challenge, it is also an opportu-nity: a chance for the public sector to start closing the productivity gap, reassess its business prac-tices, boost its efficiency, and renegotiate its relationship with the public it serves. Used right, mobilecan transform government’s capabilities. 3
  6. 6. Gov on the Go Introduction I n the past 25 years, the productivity of America’s private sector has risen by more than 50 percent, buoyed by new technologies, however, government must adopt it differently than it did past disruptive technologies. This change in approach can help governments globalization, advanced manufacturing pro- avoid investments that fail to produce com- cesses, and a deeper understanding of individ- mensurate productivity improvements. ual and organizational psychology. The public One example of the potential of mobile sector’s productivity, by contrast, actually fell comes from Nike. The company has worked during the same period, despite the availability to strengthen customer engagement after the of many of the same advances.1 initial transaction, creating a long-lasting Desktop PCs—and perhaps even desks— customer experience. To do so, it has intro- may soon become passé, with laptops, tablets, duced a range of Nike+ products that support and smartphones becoming the norm in its customers’ athletic activities through mobile business. Mobile devices and mobile-infused devices and social media. A combination of workplaces are the latest in a long list of tech- sensors embedded in the shoe, a mobile device nologies transforming private business models (such as a smartphone or iPod), and the Nike+ and making firms more dynamic. They hold website opens up new avenues for value, allow- similar and perhaps even greater promise for ing runners to plan and track their runs, keep the public sector. To fully realize the produc- records of pace, weather, and terrain, and con- tivity benefits associated with mobile tech, nect easily to the larger community of runners.4
  7. 7. Boosting Public Sector Productivity by Going Mobile By taking advantage of the ubiquity of than being used to reinvent business andmobile devices and allowing users to engage work processes.5with social networks and share running experi- Such halfway measures limit government’sences and tips, Nike has made it possible for ability to get the most out of new technolo-customers to co-create a new end product. gies, widening the productivity gap betweenThe firm grew its market share by 10 percent the public and private sectors. Accordingin the first year of to US federal “this strategy, building CIO Stevena community of 1.3 VanRoekel, “Formillion participating For too long, the too long, thecustomers.2 To date, government hasNike has added $500 government has employed 20th-million to its revenues century tools tosimply by leveraging employed 20 -century th solve 21st-centuryits customer base with problems. We fellmobile technologies. 3 tools to solve 21 - st behind in making Similar opportuni- the smart invest-ties exist inside the century problems. We ments in technol-public sector. Amtrak ogy that yieldis capitalizing on this fell behind in making productivity gainsproductivity-enhanc- in the private sec-ing approach with its the smart investments tor every day.”6Mobile Conductor app. VanRoekel isTrain conductors can in technology that yield right. To reversenow enter repair work this trend, gov-orders and update productivity gains in ernment agenciesmaintenance sched- should adopt theules, train progress, the private sector every private sector’s ”and scheduled stops in practice of usingreal time. Conductors day. new technologyand staff can use to rethink andmobile devices to elec- —— Steven VanRoekel, US Federal CIO replace older, lesstronically swipe credit efficient to sell tickets. MobileOnce a passenger is ticketed, the same mobile technology offers us a chance to hit the resetapp allows staff to scan tickets so that passen- button. It can not only improve internal com-ger manifests can be instantly updated.4 munications and access to information, but Despite numerous bright spots such as also allow government to redesign its businessthis, however, the public sector as a whole has model by leveraging the potential of indi-proved less agile in using information technol- vidual citizens as co-creators. Mobile offersogy to thoroughly rethink its business. New government a unique opportunity to increaseand potentially transformative practices lose efficiency and productivity and vastly improvetheir punch when they are layered on top of its services.existing programs and requirements rather 5
  8. 8. Gov on the Go The public/private productivity gap I n the summer of 2010, then-US budget director Peter Orszag gave a speech high- lighting the growing productivity gap between This was not always true. Until 1987, Orszag noted, public and private productiv- ity were not that far apart. Between 1987 and the public and private sectors. Government too 1995, however, private-sector productivity often is inefficient and wasteful, he argued, and rose by an average of 1.5 percent a year, while Americans are rightly skeptical about its ability public sector productivity stumbled along to perform effectively. This perception is fueled at a 0.4 percent average annual growth rate.8 in no small part by “huge advances in effi- Reliable comparisons have been hard to come ciency and technology [seen] both at work and by since then, because the US Bureau of Labor in their daily lives at home,” but not in interac- Statistics (BLS) stopped tracking general public tions with government.7 sector productivity. Estimates suggest, how- ever, that private sector productivity growthFigure 1: US productivity output: Private sector vs. public sector enterprises Output per hour ($ 2005) 70.0 Public sector Private sector enterprises 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Source: Deloitte Research analysis Productivity defined as the ratio of GDP contribution to hours worked in public sector enterprises and the private sector. GDP contribution and hours worked data sourced from BEA and BLS respectively. Non-profit sector numbers are excluded from private sector productivity calculations. Graphic: Deloitte University Press | DUPress.com6
  9. 9. Boosting Public Sector Productivity by Going MobileFigure 2: UK annual productivity growth: Public vs. private sector Annual productivity growth rate (%) Public sector Private sector 4 3 Private sector 2 1 Public sector 0 -1 -2 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Source: Dale Bassett, “Public Sector Productivity: Briefing Note”, Reform, April, 2010 <> Graphic: Deloitte University Press | DUPress.comhas accelerated, while the public sector has While management innovations in thefallen further behind.9 The US private sector private sector and bureaucratic inflexibility inproduces $62.7 per hour worked, for example, government no doubt play a role in the pro-while government enterprises produce only ductivity gap, technology is almost certainly$34.5 (figure 1).10 This represents a net 13 the most important distinguishing element.percent reduction in productivity over the Steven VanRoekel cites the difference in howpast 25 years. This is in stark contrast to the private and public sectors deploy IT asthe simultaneous 50 percent rise in private the largest single factor behind the produc-sector productivity. tivity gap between the private sector and This gap exists outside the United States the government.14as well. The UK Office for National Statistics Simply stated, the private sector gener-estimates that between 1997 and 2007, pub- ally absorbs technological improvements andlic sector productivity fell by an average 0.3 captures and capitalizes on the associatedpercent per year, while private-sector produc- productivity benefits more effectively. In fact,tivity rose by 2.3 percent annually (figure 2).11 information technology adoption has beenAcross Europe, the private sector’s productivity responsible for about one-third of the growthrose almost three times as fast as the public in labor productivity in the private sector sincesector’s between 1990 and 2000.12 Meanwhile, the 1960s, peaking at 59 percent from 1995-according to the Organization for Economic 2000.15 Government—too often constrainedCooperation and Development, average by bureaucracy, regulation, and the burden ofgovernment production costs for 34 nations updating legacy systems—has found it difficultrose from 20.9 percent to 23.3 percent of GDP to keep pace with technological change.between 2000 and 2009.13 Mobile technology offers an opportunity to break this pattern. 7
  10. 10. Gov on the Go Mobile tech and productivity: The evidenceThe White House’s DigitalGovernment Strategy M obile devices allow employees to work from any location and remain produc- tive even while on the go. In a recent ForresterThe integrated approach for government-wide mobile Consulting survey of 305 IT decision-makersadoption outlined in the White House Digital Government at companies that use mobile applications,Strategy challenges the compartmentalized approach the 76 percent cited increased employee respon-government historically followed. This shift in strategy takes siveness and decision-making speed as anadvantage of mobile technology’s unique advantages, and observed benefit, while 47 percent believe theycould contribute to its successful adoption in government. have increased productivity.16A presidential memorandum on building a 21st-century According to a 2008 Intel internal study, adigital government directs each major federal agency to wireless-connected notebook provided moremake two key customer services available on mobile devices than 5 percent in employee time savingsby May 2013, and to make “applicable” government compared to a desktop PC. Intel estimated thatinformation open and machine-readable by default. Thestrategy is based on four overarching principles: its transition to mobile computing delivered a return on investment of $26 million (three-• An information-centric approach: A move from year net present value).17 Considering the managing documents to managing open data. advances in mobile technology since 2008, a similar study today would likely yield even• A shared platform approach: Greater collaboration more compelling results. within and across agencies to reduce costs, streamline development, and ensure consistent standards. In the public sector, a MeriTalk study estimates that if the addition of smartphones• A customer-centric approach: Allowing customers to enables workers to be just 10 percent more shape, share, and consume information whenever and productive, the federal government could however they want. achieve a $2.6 billion productivity gain by• Security and privacy: Ensuring the safe and secure 2013.18 This additional productivity could be delivery and use of digital services to protect information used, in appropriate cases, to fill the void left and privacy. by retiring workers. Take the example of theWhile the Digital Government Strategy primarily addresses small subset of federal government field work-technology within the purview of the federal CIO and federal ers,19 where the case for mobile adoption isCTO­ the strategy’s sponsors—to be effective it must be — strong.20 Here, if a mobile-related increase inmatched by changes in areas such as acquisition policy and productivity were used to offset retirements, itworkforce training, among others. could shrink the pool of planned new hires by8
  11. 11. Boosting Public Sector Productivity by Going MobileFigure 3: Annual productivity and GDP growth from mobile, by country (%) Annual contribution from mobile to PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH (%) Annual contribution from mobile to GDP GROWTH (%) Germany Norway United Kingdom Denmark Korea (Rep. of) Australia France Japan United States Canada Mexico 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 Source: Harald Gruber and Pantelis Koutroumpis, “Mobile Telecommunications and the Impact on Economic Development,” CEPR, October 2010 <> Graphic: Deloitte University Press | DUPress.commore than 10,000. The total salary and pension by reducing the weight of the paper materialsavings from this productivity increase could from the aircraft. It has also led to a 90 percentexceed $25 billion.21 reduction in staff hours required to build and Academic studies corroborate the link maintain charts and maps, along with a whop-between mobile tech and productivity. A study ping productivity increase of 22,000 staff-hoursby the Center for Economic per year. Moreover, safetyPolicy Research found that a has improved by reducingnation’s mobile penetration the need to manage paper in Mobile the cockpit, which impairedcorrelates closely to its produc-tivity growth (figure 3). 22 Savings: From situational awareness.23 Some government agen- New Hire to Air Force Maj. Gen. Robertcies are already realizing some Retirement E. Wheeler points out the dis-of the potential of mobile If mobile-generated tinct productivity benefit:technology. The Air Force productivity reduced So we save money [and] wehas purchased 2,725 iPads to new US federal increase the security, but government hiresbe used as electronic “flight the big power down there by even 10,000bags” by the Air Force Mobile is jumping the productiv- over a decade, theCommand. The iPad elimi- ity curve so we can do many corresponding lifetimenates $1.7 million in printing more things faster and actu- salary and pension ally provide more time forcosts for a paper manual, an savings could exceed our people to think—to doadditional $3.2 million per $25 billion. those things that they need toyear for maps and charts, get done and to make thoseand $770,000 per year in fuel right decisions.24 9
  12. 12. Gov on the Go Government: A late adopter industrial sector except media and retail in From the telephone to computerization to 2012 (see figure 4).26 “balanced scorecard” performance manage- Still, it appears that the pace of mobile ment, government, with the notable exception adoption by government is accelerating. A of the military, typically has been a late adopter 2012 MeriTalk government CIO and IT man- of new technologies and business models. ager survey shows significant growth in federal Nevertheless, it does eventually adopt them. mobile adoption. In 2013, mobile device usage Public sector adoption of mobile solutions is expected to rise by 8 percent for smart- appears to be following the same trend. As the phones and 12 percent for tablets. In all, the Air Force example demonstrates, some govern- public sector’s enterprise spending on mobile ments are already leveraging mobile solutions. is expected to grow by a compound annual According to the United Nations, 25 countries growth rate of 4.48 percent through 2015.27 have developed separate mobile government Our analysis shows that if mobile adoption websites and 24 provide the option of making rates were to double to 70 percent, additional payments via mobile phone.25 Even so, public value generated (in terms of government out- investment in productivity-boosting mobile put) could exceed $70 billion annually.28 technologies as a whole has fallen behind the With mobile adoption on the rise, how can private sector’s. government fully reap the benefits of its invest- The public sector spent a lower share of ment? This is our next topic. its IT budget on mobile than every majorFigure 4: Global mobile spend by sector (as a percentage of IT spend) EDUCATION UTILITIES WHOLESALE TRADE TRANSPORTATION HEALTHCARE INSURANCE MANUFACTURING AND NATURAL RESOURCES 19.3% BANKING AND SECURITIES 17.2% GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATIONS, 15.2% MEDIA & SERVICES 13.1% 12.7% RETAIL 12.1% 12.0% 11.4% 10.7% 9.2% 8.4% Source: Gartner, Forecast: Enterprise IT Spending by Vertical Industry Market, Worldwide, 2010-2016, 4Q12 Update, January 2013; Calculations by Deloitte Research Graphic: Deloitte University Press | DUPress.com10
  13. 13. Boosting Public Sector Productivity by Going MobileHarnessing mobile1. The mobile To illustrate the benefits of mobile technol-government worker ogy for government employees, we examine There’s no question that many public three different types of workers who spendofficials recognize the benefits of mobile. much of their time in the field: human servicesA 2011 survey of state government CIOs caseworkers, emergency responders, and lawby the National Association of State Chief enforcement officers. Information Officers (NASCIO) found that 58 Five ways mobile can percent of them consider mobile devices and apps improve the productivity either essential or a of government workers high priority for 1. Reduce time spent on data entry A mobile government. Public employee 2. Enable better situational awareness for workers are even frontline employees can help save more gung-ho. 0.9 tons of As NASCIO puts 3. Enable work from any location greenhouse it, “Even when 4. Improve accuracy and reduce the effort gas emissions mobile devices involved in performing tasks annually29 and apps are a 5. Enhance collaboration and data sharing priority, states among employees/agencies struggle to keep up with state employee pressures to allow them Health and human services to use personal mobile (HHS) caseworkers devices.”30 Workers recognize that mobile technol- Freed to focus onogy allows them to do their jobs better. As the what mattersCenter for Digital Government writes, Caseworkers per- Far from being an expense, mobile equip- form critical tasks Productivity ment and telework is in many cases more with tools that are Increase in than paying for itself by increasing the often barely ade- Caseworkers amount and quality of work employees quate. Some juggle can do in the field, reducing government Mobile adoption can increase as many as 80 task process time from weeks to days or caseworkers’ productive time clients each month. by 45 percent. hours, shortening response time to cus- tomers, cutting travel time, decreasing They spend most equipment expenses, and eliminating of their days making occupancy costs.31 home or court visits, and some struggle to keep 11
  14. 14. Gov on the GoFigure 5: The mobile-equipped caseworker HOW MOBILE TECHNOLOGY CAN IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY AND JOB SATISFACTION AMONG CASEWORKERS Efficient mobile tools IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY UP TO 45 PERCENT. This enables more time to be devoted directly to casework, increasing job satisfaction and reducing turnover. Meet Gina, a caseworker. See how she accomplishes more every day with mobile technology. WITHOUT MOBILE WITH MOBILE CASE DOCUMENTATION Without the aid of mobile technology, caseworkers spend Gina used to manually enter her Gina now adds entries directly to 50-80 percent of working hours on handwritten notes into the database her web-based case management administrative tasks. through her computer in the office. system through her mobile device, from any location. DATA ACCESS & COLLABORATION Without the aid of mobile technology, the A significant amount of Gina’s amount of time caseworkers spend in transit Now Gina can contribute to time used to be spent in transit to attend in-person meetings reduces time meetings via videoconference for in-office meetings. spent serving clients in the field. from the field. CASEWORKER SAFETY If Gina is working in a situation GPS technology makes it easy for with elevated risk, she must take Time in the field brings heightened Gina to discreetly activate a panic extra precautions, since she is risks when caseworkers are button in a high-risk situation, disconnected from headquarters. disconnected from headquarters. sharing her exact location. PRODUCTIVITY & SATISFACTION Social caseworkers experience high Most caseworkers manage a case turnover rates up to 67 percent, greatly Gina finds herself with a great load of 40-50 clients. The majority reducing continuity on cases. deal more time to visit clients of a caseworker’s time is spent and perform the work that away from them due to so many she finds most rewarding. administrative responsibilities. If 74,256 more caseworkers use mobile devices in their work like Gina, they could provide 57 MILLION HOURS of additional social services annually. Source: GAO, HHS Could Play a Greater Role in Helping Child Welfare Agencies Recruit and Retain Staff, <> ABC News, “Experts: Losing Foster Kids Is Easy,” June 5, 2012, <> AT&T, “Our Kids of Miami-Dade Case Study,” <> Graphic: Deloitte University Press | DUPress.com12
  15. 15. Boosting Public Sector Productivity by Going Mobiletrack of a multitude of intake forms, handwrit-ten field notes, and client birth certificates and In developing nations, simpledrivers’ licenses—all containing data they must text apps can save lives.enter manually into the system. Bloodbank SMS. This mobile app allows medical workers Mobile solutions can make their jobs sim- at Kenyan district hospitals to provide information aboutpler, allowing them to operate as truly mobile their remaining blood supplies directly to their centralizedworkers. With laptops or tablets, smartphones, blood bank. They simply text a free message to the serviceGPS navigation, and wireless access to files, citing the amounts of each blood type remaining. If blood levels at a local hospital drop below a critical threshold,caseworkers can be far more productive in the the system automatically sends SMS alerts to the centralfield (figure 5). blood bank, keeping it updated about where blood is Florida has distributed camera-enabled needed most.35smartphones and laptops to more than 2,300foster-care caseworkers. They can use them to Mobile Demographic Surveillance System. Kenya’s medical field workers also can conduct surveys viaremotely capture time- and location-stamped mobile phone and remotely transmit the data back to theimages and immediately upload them to the hospital’s database. Shifting the system from paper-basedstate’s online database and to enter notes and surveys to mobile phones allows field workers to avoid theobservations directly, reducing time spent on time-consuming and potentially error-prone process ofpaperwork and helping them better manage data transcription.36their workloads.32 The adoption of mobile casemanagement tools in Florida’s Miami-DadeCounty led to a 30 percent increase in home weather, wilderness firefighting, and satellitevisits, timelier reporting, and better compli- imagery all enhance firefighters’ situationalance with state requirements.33 awareness, leading to better decisions when In a similar vein, nearly 2,000 Swedish lives are at stake.37homecare workers use smartphones to docu- Inspections are a vital component of ament the status of more than 30,000 elderly firefighter’s job and a critical factor in fire pre-patients in Stockholm. With the instantaneous vention. Before the use of mobile technology,digitization of case information, Stockholm’s fire inspectors would take paper notes duringcity government can more easily offer services inspections and later enter them manually intoto its elderly citizens, improving service deliv- a database.ery as well as efficiency.34 “It was a time-consuming and costly process, because reports could go back andEmergency responders forth several times for a simple spelling or data error, and every revision meant anotherEnhancing situational awareness, piece of paper,” says Glenn Wallace, a platoonspeeding inspections chief in the fire department in Mt. Lebanon, Pennsylvania. “Re-inspections that should Firefighters must be fast and agile in the have taken place within 30 days of the originalfield. California’s Novato Fire Department inspections were taking up to 70 days becauseDistrict uses tablets to provide real-time data of the back-and-forth paper shuffling.”to incident commanders. Mobile applica- By reengineering the time-consumingtions related to mapping, hazardous materials, review process through the use of tablet PCs, Since the implementation of the Telework Enhancement Act of 2010, federal agencies have become conscious of the substantial benefits associated with mobile-enabled telework. 13
  16. 16. Gov on the Go the department has saved 300 hours a year on administration, improved inspection turn- During the February 2010 around times, and boosted inspection volume snowstorms, when most of by 50 percent. This in turn has cut the number the federal government was of chimney fires.38 essentially shut down, an estimated 35 percent of federal Law enforcement officers employees worked from home. More aware, more effective, more in control the time needed to obtain information from a Mobile technology also helps law enforce- dispatcher.40 Assuming that half of the 636,410 ment officers improve their productivity in law enforcement officers in the United States the field. Officers can use mobile devices to lack mobile data access, adopting this technol- access the federal Criminal Justice Information ogy could help them save more than 50 million System; update incident reports in real time; hours, equivalent to $1.3 billion annually.41 view images of missing children and suspect Faster decision-making. Mobile surveil- fingerprints or photos; run drivers’ license lance applications allow officers to access live checks; access case records, incident reports, camera feeds on smartphones, tablets, and and call histories during field investigations; other mobile devices. In Albuquerque, New stream video traffic from dashboard‐mounted Mexico, for example, police use mobile devices cameras; and issue e-tickets, among many to view live images and remotely control other tasks. Mobile access to critical data cameras mounted on mobile surveillance can save officers’ time—and their lives—by units. These can be deployed to time-sensitive, improving situational awareness and helping critical situations such as negotiations with them more easily identify potentially danger- hostage-takers or other SWAT emergencies. ous suspects. By viewing police records on The system allows experienced officers to stay their mobile devices, they can match a suspect on top of events and provide appropriate guid- to his or her picture and view information on ance instantly, regardless of their location.42 prior offenses. Contrast these new abilities with the Mobile data access for effective response. burden faced by officers who still must write In Australia, the City of Sydney’s Rangers use out paper tickets, take handwritten notes, and iPads to fight disabled parking fraud. While spend hours in the office on paperwork instead making on-street checks, of patrolling the streets. The they can access the contrast highlights an state government endemic problem: database of the Mobile the technology gap Australian Disability savings for law among different gov- Parking Scheme to enforcement ernments. Disparities identify vehicles using Mobile data access can help officers in the adoption of cards that have been save 30 minutes every day. new technologies lost, stolen, destroyed, among agencies, or revoked. In 39 Assuming that half of the 636,410 states, and munici- officers in the United States lack Baltimore, mobile palities can limit access to this technology, adopting data access saves it could save them more than 50 their overall ability to each officer an million hours or $1.3 billion achieve public sector estimated 30 minutes in money terms. productivity gains. per day by eliminating14
  17. 17. Boosting Public Sector Productivity by Going MobileFigure 6. Telework savings and government TELEWORK SAVINGS = $5,400,000,000 According to the 2012 Federal Telework Report, only 7% of US federal government employees telework. YET APPROXIMATELY 32% OF THE FEDERAL WORKFORCE IS ELIGIBLE TO TELEWORK. IF ALL ELIGIBLE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TELEWORKED JUST HALF OF THE TIME, THERE WOULD BE... 30-40% increase in overall productivity 40 minutes of additional productivity generated for every 60 minutes saved on commuting 10 days saved per teleworker on average every year PRODUCTIVITY GAINS ($2.9 BILLION) 1176 employees spared traffic injuries and deaths every year REDUCED OFFICE COSTS ($1.5 BILLION) $136 million REDUCED ABSENTEEISM ($0.570 BILLION) saved in accident costs REDUCED TURNOVER ($0.383 BILLION) $250 million collectively saved in gas costs IN TOTAL SAVINGS { $362 saved per teleworker each year } Source: Deloitte analysis Graphic: Deloitte University Press | 15
  18. 18. Gov on the Go A large federal agency used a forecasting tool to assess the impact of having approximately half of its 2,800 staff work remotely an average of four work days per pay period. Simply harnessing that level of mobile work could enable them to grow the organization at zero impact to footprint thanks to better facility utilization. An added benefit: eliminating more than 1,000 tons of carbon from reduced commuting. How mobile helps governments around the world Augmented reality apps for Engaging citizens to help fight crime urban planning In Finland, augmented reality (AR) planning Mobile can be an effective medium for govern- tools are allowing city officials and residents to, ment to reach out to citizens and seek their via smartphone or tablet, visualize a geometri- participation. For instance, the London cally accurate impression of a finished structure Metropolitan Police crowdsourced the on the actual development site. This is helping identities of 2,880 suspects from last year’s public planners and city councils make better riots using a smartphone application. The decisions. The VTT Technical Research Centre police asked citizens to download the Face of Finland developed the AR application, which Watch ID app and help identify the persons was used to present Helsinki offcials with a through images taken from CCTV footage. If virtual sketch of a proposed tower block and an image is known to them, citizens can enter hotel, Kämp Tower, on the project site. This the name or address of the person, which is could be viewed via a mobile device. VTT is sent to the police immediately and confiden- working on a version of this software aimed at tially. Societal goals are met—and, also, the public and that could include a voting citizens are engaged as a solution to shared function for people to register their opinions problems. on a project. Source: “Augmented Reality Adds a New Dimension to Planning Source: “London Riots: Metropolitan Police Use Facewatch ID App to Decisions,” Guardian, May 18, 2012, Identify Suspects,” Metro News Reporter, June 12, 2012, police-use-facewatch-id-app-to-identifysuspects# ixzz2ADDeLH4L. Graphic: Deloitte University Press | DUPress.com16
  19. 19. Boosting Public Sector Productivity by Going Mobile2. Citizen services 2.0 shows which blocks have open spots and While citizen satisfaction with government which are full, saving users time, mileage, andrises and falls—according to the American stress. A privately developed app, Parkmobile,Customer Satisfaction Index, satisfaction with allows drivers to pay for parking via mobilethe federal government rose in 2011 after phone in cities across the United States, aa two-year decline43—one trend has held: quicker and more convenient option thanCustomer satisfaction with e-government conventional means.has risen steadily, currently scoring 75.2 on a Improve results. The Manchester, New100-point scale.44 Hampshire police department has worked This satisfaction is driven by widespread with New Hampshire-based Ping4 to establishand growing adoption of e-services. In “hyperlocal” areas—a process called “geo-Australia, for instance, the share of citizens fencing”—that gives users with the proper appusing mobile devices to interact with govern- a text alert when they enter the area. Thesement doubled in just two years, and 35 percent alerts can provide anything from offers fromof them used a mobile app at least monthly. Of local merchants to critical announcementsthose surveyed, citizens who used government about a lost child or a gunman on the loose.e-services were consistently more satisfied with The department has used the system to remindoutcomes than those who contacted the federal customers who park in a downtown lot pronegovernment via older methods such as mail to auto break-ins to lock their doors, cuttingor telephone; only in-person contact ranked the incidence of theft by 40 percent.50higher than electronic service.45 Make information accessible. Citizens Reduce productivity losses. Many rely on government for critical information.Americans face an everyday predicament: find- Mobile apps and mobile-enabled websitesing a parking spot. The frustrating experience make it much simpler for citizens to obtainof endlessly circling the block searching for an information and instructions when they needempty space costs drivers—and society as a them. Two examples from the United Stateswhole—more than one might imagine. Drivers are the IRS’s popular IRS2GO app for tax-filinglooking for a parking spot in one district of instructions and theLos Angeles drove an estimated 950,000 miles TSA’s My TSA appa year, equivalent to four trips to the moon.46 for flight andAccording to San Francisco officials, drivers travel infor- Savingssearching for parking spots generate 30 percent mation, from Mobileof all downtown congestion.47 On average, including Parking AppsAmericans waste 3.5 to 14 minutes a day security The average American wastes 3.5looking for parking, or up to 85 hours a year.48 rules, real- to 14 minutes a day looking forWith more than 210 million licensed drivers time delay parking, or up to 85 hours a the country, this amounts to 17.8 billion updates, and With more than 210 millionhours annually.49 wait times. licensed drivers in the country, Mobile technology may hold the answer to In the this amounts to 17.8 billionthe problem. San Francisco is leading the way United hours lost annually.with a $20 million parking program known as Kingdom, Mobile parking appsSFpark. The city has placed sensors in 7,000 the National can help citizens save thismetered parking spots and 12,250 spots in Health Services’ time, worth aboutcity garages. As spaces open up, the sensors “Choose Well” $391 billion tocommunicate wirelessly with computers that mobile app the economy.immediately disseminate the information to provides citizensmobile app users. The app’s color-coded map with information 17
  20. 20. Gov on the Go on a range of health services, including phar- quality-of-life issues. The GPS function avail- macists, general practitioners, optometrists, able on most smartphones simplifies the entry dentists, minor injury units, and emergency of address information. The city receives more departments. It helps patients choose the most than 20 million 311 phone calls every year.54 appropriate care based on severity and indi- If even half of these complaints were to shift cates options nearest to them on a map. This to the mobile app, callers would save 513,888 reduces pressure on emergency departments hours of their own time, equivalent to $11.3 and reduces treatment time.51 million per year. Furthermore, since the aver- Similarly, a number of Australian states age 311 call costs the city $5 in administrative have created mobile health apps to help costs, mobile submission of these calls could patients and caregivers make better-informed trim as much as $50 million from its budget.55 decisions. New South Wales’ mobile site This approach can be even more effective provides critical information such as clos- when it is combined with mobile use by city est hospital location, best travel routes and workers. In 2009, Boston created Citizens estimated drive times, number of waiting Connect, an app allowing citizens to report patients, number of beds, and estimated wait nuisances and problems via their smartphones. times.52 Victoria’s citizens use the Better Health In 2012, the city followed up with City Worker, Channel app to receive a quick diagnosis, call a a program that puts smartphones in the hands nurse hotline, or of its public works employees and alerts them find a practitioner to trouble spots reported by Bostonians. in their area.53 Now workers can resolve these problems Potential Achieve even faster.56 Savings from more for less Improve citizen engagement. The city 311 apps by leveraging of Brampton, Canada uses a custom mobile citizen efforts. app to track the number of people who attend New York City receives more than 20 million Governments can city events. City officials can use the real-time phone calls for harness the poten- data generated by the app to identify which 311 complaints. tial of mobile parts of the city have the lowest participation, technology to so they can address citizen engagement in If half of these crowdsource underrepresented areas.57 complaints were to shift to the mobile information, Reduce friction between government and app medium, the improving their business. Salt Lake City’s building inspection city would save services while sav- department has made it possible for its inspec- $50 million in call ing taxpayer dol- tors to send inspection results—and required center costs. lars. Cities depend changes—directly to customers’ smartphones. on citizens to help This reduces the time needed for administra- them locate and tive processing and allows contractors to make resolve every- necessary changes quickly, or move on to the day complaints next phase of construction without delay. such as graffiti Enhance customer experience. Mobile or potholes. But citizens often find the task of technology is helping governments identify reporting these issues burdensome. Many cities customer service gaps or limitations and across the United States are turning to simpler reduce them. Beneficiaries of the Supplemental and more economical options via mobile apps. Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP), the New York’s NYC311 mobile application, for federal program once known as “food stamps,” instance, allows its users to report street pot- can now use SnapFresh, a text-message and holes, damaged street signs, graffiti, and other mobile web app that helps aid recipients use18
  21. 21. Boosting Public Sector Productivity by Going Mobilea website or their cellphone to find places to individuals on programs such as SNAP,nearby that accept SNAP benefits. SnapFresh Medicaid, or SSI. In the past three years, thealso attempts to help recipients make healthier program has gained 12 million participants.59food choices by providing information about In Denmark, citizens no longer need tothe type of store in the results, such as whether stick physical stamps on letters. They cana location is a full grocery store or a corner simply send a text message to receive a postageconvenience store. code that can be put on the envelope in place While SnapFresh was created by a non- of a stamp. This convenient system cuts out theprofit called Code for America, govern- post office queue by adding the cost of postagement agencies are also developing mobile to the user’s cell phone bill.60apps along similar lines to address customerservice gaps. For example, the Social Security 3. Co-creation and co-Administration created a mobile wage report-ing app for Supplemental Security Income production: Citizens(SSI) recipients. Along with being convenient as the solutionfor users, the app encourages consistentmonthly wage reporting and helps prevent Mobile technology allows government toimproper payments.58 Other programs, such shift from a one-way service delivery approachas the Federal Communication Commission’s to a more collaborative, co-designed, and co-Lifeline Program, help to ensure that the poor created model. The involvement of citizens canhave access to mobile technology, providing transform public service delivery.subsidized mobile phones and subscriptions 19
  22. 22. Gov on the Go Co-creation is an approach to public ser- it received $10 million worth of innovative vices design focused on creating new solutions ideas for just $20,000 in prize money when it with people, rather than for them. Mobile tech- used ChallengePost, a crowdsourcing portal, nology can expand the available options for to seek ideas for mobile apps to improve city public policy and service design. Governments transport.64 One winner, Roadify, uses a base can use it to communicate with citizens across of transit schedules, service delays, and other geographic or organizational boundaries and official information, then layers on crowd- foster interactions that result in new ideas sourced comments on real-time conditions, and solutions.61 along with Tweets and other information, to Co-production, similarly, involves identify- help transit riders know moment by moment ing and mobilizing citizen resources, delivering what their commute will look like. Boston’s services with rather than for service users.62 MBTA system showcases user-designed apps Mobile technologies have emerged as powerful, that help smooth out Bostonians’ daily com- effective enablers of co-production.63 mutes. Instead of designing an app, MBTA outsourced the design process to its citizens, Co-creation giving residents access to its public transporta- The growth of mobile and associated tion system data via the MassDOT Developers technology has encouraged young developers web portal.65 to develop innovative solutions for challenges Build solutions that can be shared. The faced by the government. nonprofit Code for America connects devel- Many agencies understand this. The US opers with local governments to encourage Centers for Disease Control and Prevention the development of applications to solve civic (CDC) problems. The resulting applications are open sponsored source and can be adopted by any city. And a “Flu App again, Bostonians are catalyzing the effort. The City of New York Challenge” Residents there built an app that allows its estimates it received $10 to encourage users to “adopt” fire hydrants and volunteer million worth of innovation mobile app to clear snow away from them after winter and ideas for just $20,000 developers storms. Citizens use the app to report when in prize money when it to create an they have cleared the snow. The city tracks par- used Challenge Post, a application ticipation using GIS, allowing it to better direct crowdsourcing portal, to using pub- limited city manpower. seek mobile app ideas to licly available This novel idea is being shared. The City of improve city transport. flu data. The Honolulu’s IT director, Forest Frizzell, found winning app, the Adopt-a-Hydrant project on Code for “Flu-Ville!”, America’s public code repository. He decided uses a gaming model to increase user engage- to customize the app and use it to encourage ment. Flu-Ville! taps the CDC’s influenza Honolulu residents to maintain tsunami sirens activity report, which reports the amount of on the beach. Now citizens with a smart- flu activity in each state, and lets players build phone or a web browser can check the sirens, their own city and manage outbreaks of the ensure that they have batteries, and record flu. Through such events, agencies can engage their findings.66 citizens and reap a host of creative ideas. Every city in America has an army in wait- The value and potential of such ideas is ing of concerned citizens, eager and willing far greater than the prize money paid out. to do their part for a safer and better city. For instance, the City of New York estimates20
  23. 23. Boosting Public Sector Productivity by Going MobileFigure 7: Mobile transit apps for easier commuting MOBILE TRANSIT APPS FOR EASIER COMMUTING Where can Is there How I catch room on long will my train? the bus? the bus take? NEXT BUS ARRIVING IN CHICAGO TRANSIT 10 MINS. AUGMENTED REALITY (CTAR) APP The app overlays your phone’s camera image with real-time information on which TEXT train/bus is arriving where and when. MY BUS FEATURES: This app lets users know when their bus will arrive via text message using DDOT’s real-time bus tracking information. TIRAMISU FEATURES: Tiramisu is a crowdsourced app that lets users track buses in real time and provide other users with dynamic information about the location of a bus and its vacancy. FEATURES: Current location: Next stop: Seat vacancy: BENNETT AVE. CARTER ST., ETA: 3 MINS THE BUS IS HALF FULL APP FEATURES VACANT AUGMENTED ESTIMATED LOCATION ROUTES TEXT CROWD- MULTI-MODE SEATS REALITY TIME OF MESSAGE SOURCED ARRIVAL ENABLED Graphic: Deloitte University Press | 21
  24. 24. Gov on the Go Technology is the spark that makes it possible transportation options and temporary restric- for them to translate that will into action. tions on bridge and tunnel crossings by flock- ing to the Internet. Several car-sharing and Co-production ridesharing services, including Carpingo and Search and rescue. Mobile technology Ridepost, waived fees.70 Other New Yorkers left can also change the way in which government the driving to others entirely, using websites approaches a problem such as emergency like Craigslist to find rides in and around the response. As noted earlier, the Manchester, city. According to a story on Mashable, com- New Hampshire, police department has rec- muters even tapped into their “social networks ognized this potential with its “geo-fencing” to fulfill the three-passenger minimum for cars capability. entering Manhattan issued by Mayor Michael “If we’re working at a [sports] game and Bloomberg.”71 This move allowed citizens to get someone tells us their son Johnny’s lost, we can around while still complying with the govern- put it out and do a geo-thing right around the ment’s temporary restrictions on bridge and stadium, and instead of having three officers tunnel crossings. looking for him ... we’ll have 6,000 [people],” Generate real-time traffic reports. The Captain Nick Willard told reporters.67 mobile navigation app Waze uses live feedback Turning a car into a bus route. Traffic from its driver network to generate real-time management is another fertile venue for traffic reports, and adjusts its route recom- co-production. Mobile technology makes it mendations accordingly. Simply by avoiding possible for drivers and transit riders to do congested areas, mobile-enabled drivers are co- quickly what government can only do indi- creating a better travel experience. rectly: change their own travel behavior. New Provide first aid. San Jose, California transit apps, many of them created by ordinary residents can help save lives by using the Pulse citizens, provide real-time information on dif- Point mobile app. The application allows mem- ferent public transport options as well as routes bers of the public to provide life-saving assis- and wait times (see figure 7). More sophis- tance to victims of sudden cardiac arrest. App ticated programs aim to add in ridesharing, users who have indicated they are trained in car-sharing, and bike-sharing options. CPR can be notified if someone nearby is hav- A small “deprivation study” by Latitude ing a cardiac emergency. The app uses sophis- showed that access to real-time mobile infor- ticated location-based services to alert citizens mation can raise public willingness to use in a public place of the need for CPR and also other forms of transit. Fifteen of 18 partici- directs citizen rescuers to the exact location pants felt they could continue to go car-free if of the nearest publicly available defibrillator. they had easy access to information on transit The app is being used through a partnership options.68 Having this information at their between the San Jose Fire Department and El fingertips allows citizens to make better trans- Camino Hospital, and will be made available to port decisions, such as increasing ridesharing, additional communities in Santa Clara County without requiring new infrastructure (figure over the next year. 8). If the number of ridesharers were to double, Apps such as Pulse Point, which encourage the US government would save $9.8 million qualified citizens to sign up and participate, each day on infrastructure maintenance costs.69 will result in faster and more effective emer- The growing ability of ridesharing companies gency response without devoting significant to use mobile apps to pair drivers and riders new resources. Their widespread use could will almost certainly boost these numbers. also help public health officials reduce the In the wake of Hurricane Sandy, nearly 1,000 deaths per day caused by sudden New Yorkers adapted to limited public cardiac arrest.7222
  25. 25. Boosting Public Sector Productivity by Going Mobile Real-time mobile apps make ride-sharing easier.Figure 8. Benefits of ridesharing ANNUAL SAVINGS FROM RIDESHARING Currently, there are If twice as many commuters 13.5 million used ridesharing in the United States, commuters that rideshare the savings would be... in the United States. $114 BILLION THE GDP OF $55 BANGLADESH BILLION Rideshare commuters Annual savings in driving costs* $7.4 BILLION THE EPA’S BUDGET FOR $3.5 FY’08 BILLION Government Annual savings in infrastructure and maintencance costs 748 MILLION THE COLLECTIVE HOURS AVERAGE 374 LIFESPAN OF MILLION 1000 PEOPLE HOURS All commuters Annual savings in travel time due to reduced congestion *Including fuel, maintenance, tires, insurance, license and registration fees, depreciation, and finance costs. Source: Deloitte analysis Graphic: Deloitte University Press | 23
  26. 26. Gov on the Go Implementation: Putting mobile to work T he enormous potential of mobile technol- ogy is clear. But e-government and other, earlier technologies also had great potential; particular cause can be modified for a host of other situations. For instance, Street Bump’s algorithm might be tweaked to report where yet governments generally failed to capture cars often speed through intersections and the promised productivity gains. These steps to predict where crosswalk paint has faded, can help mobile tech avoid the fate of earlier lights are burnt out, or stop signs are obscured government technology adoption. by overgrowth.75 Rethink business processes Define the problem To realize a big productivity impact from you wish to solve mobile tech, governments will have to change Productive organizations don’t “go mobile” the work. Mobile can reach its potential when for its own sake. They have a compelling busi- public agencies use it to redesign their busi- ness objective that mobile solutions can fur- ness processes and eliminate steps altogether. ther. Government agencies should analyze how Simply switching from paper-based processes mobile can address their specific challenges. to digitized ones is helpful, but more is pos- When Michigan’s Department of Natural sible. Boston, for instance, has developed a Resources launched its Mobile Fish app for Street Bump app that uses driver smartphones’ last-minute fishing licenses, it was solving a accelerometers to identify potholes and auto- problem—the delay in recouping its money matically report their precise location via GPS. when licenses are purchased from third-party The city hopes to save money and eliminate the vendors. The agency is partially funded by user need for engineers to painstakingly survey its fees and cannot afford to let these fees linger in 806 miles of roadway.73 The $80,000 develop- other people’s hands. Mobile Fish has made the ment cost was less than half of what the city licensing process quicker and more convenient spends on this task every year.74 By redesign- for both government and citizens.76 ing its business approach to include citizens, The same standard should hold true for governments can streamline operations and internal applications: They should achieve cut costs. visible benefits and enable users to work more Boston has made the app available to other cheaply, more quickly, and with less effort, or cities, but there are other ways of building help them overcome limitations of time, space, on its potential; technology deployed for a and location.24
  27. 27. Boosting Public Sector Productivity by Going MobileAdopt a “mobile first” approach with limited bandwidth or intermittent con- A mobile first strategy means making nectivity and sometimes in harsh environ-mobile tech a priority instead of an after- ments. All of this requires careful attention tothought, to fully capitalize on the medium’s user experience and design. Involving citizensgrowth and capabilities. It means leading with and front-line workers in the design processmobile apps and products, rather than treat- could provide valuable end-user insights anding them as enhancements or add-ons. As one result in more effective applications.analyst explains, “Focusing on mobile provides Applications for citizens require particularan opportunity to skate to where the puck is attention to user needs. Factors such as easegoing.”77 of use, interface, appeal, and functionality will This year, when Environmental Protection play key roles in determining an application’sAgency CIO Malcolm Jackson announced an success. The approach should be to designagency-wide mobile first policy, he emphasized apps that help users navigate key life events orthat mobile access is rapidly becoming the large populations of regular users and are builtprimary way in which people seek government around specific experiences.information. “I’ll tell you why we are doing For mobile workforce solutions, smoothit—a lot of people cannot afford personal com- implementation requires close attention toputers or Internet service,” he says. “But they assessing and prioritizing user requirements,can afford smartphones, and they do not leave identifying potential challenges and their solu-home without them.”78 The policy also applies tions, and estimating—and explaining—theto the agency’s development of internal solu- benefits to be realized.tions; after mobile deployment, new solutionsare expected to be re-imagined and imple- Iterative design: Prototype,mented on desktop and notebook computers. A mobile-first policy should not apply only test, prototype againto new applications, however. Realizing sig- For years, the “waterfall” developmentnificant productivity benefits from mobile tech model dominated the world of softwareoften will require an infrastructure designed to development. This process flowed steadilyreplace rather than duplicate existing processes downward, from requirements to design toand technologies. implementation to testing, and finally ending It’s also important to understand that at maintenance. It worked well enough for aresponsive design is the foundation of a time, but it had a major drawback: Changeswinning mobile strategy. As a speaker at after the initial deployment often proved cost-DigitalGov University’s webinar on mobile- prohibitive. Everything had to be accountedfirst approaches pointed out, “Another para- for in advance.digm shift is when we talk about mobile first, Ultimately, developers realized that thisit’s not just about phones anymore. It could be posed a critical limitation, simply becauseyour refrigerator I’m talking about, and those people rarely get a design right on the firstare things we need to accommodate.”79 try. To overcome this, developers shifted to a development model that allows for constantFocus on user experience evolution through recurrent testing and evalu- ation, a process called agile development. User experience is critical to the effective Agile development is about rapid delivery,deployment of mobile apps. Mobile apps are regular adaptation, and unyielding attentionused differently from traditional computer to design and technical excellence. It explic-applications—they are used while moving or itly assumes that we rarely get the designstanding (rather than sitting), often in areas right the first time. If this is true of software 25