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AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
AC4D design library project planning
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AC4D design library project planning

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Austin Center for Design is an …

Austin Center for Design is an
educational institution in Austin, Texas,
teaching Interaction Design and Social Entrepreneurship
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  • 1. Design Research: Project Planning Lauren Serota Professor, Austin Center for Design
  • 2. This deck is part of a series - Preparing for Design Research: Research Methods I.  Project Conception II.  Project Planning III.  Skills & Tools
  • 3. This deck is part of a series - Preparing for Design Research: I.  Project Conception II.  Project Planning I.  Focus-Setting II.  Recruiting Participants III.  Research Plan & Discussion Guide III.  Skills & Tools
  • 4. Focus-Setting
  • 5. Research Focus A point of view that defines what you aim to learn in your research. Directs the selection of participants and research plan creation Helps manage limited interview time Directs questioning towards a goal Creates understanding Keeps the conversation from becoming too broad
  • 6. A research focus strikes a special balance it should neither be too broad, nor too narrow. Too broad a focus will yield data that is too varied; Too narrow a focus will yield data that misses a larger context.
  • 7. If our Success Criteria is to answer the question: “What Methods Research is the customer journey for someone experiencing a chronic illness, and how might we play a role?” We can use following research focus: Understand the healthcare journey for customers experiencing a chronic illness. Identify current barriers and successes that play a role in their healthcare ecosystem.
  • 8. It s based on: 1.  2.  3.  4.  The amount of time you have The amount of money you have How much you already know Your success criteria
  • 9. ACTIVITY: Let’s take 10 minutes and, in our groups, set the focus for our guerilla research – which we’ll conduct tomorrow morning. Also, let’s establish the context of our research. Topics: security food area copier / breakfast area guest parking garage
  • 10. Recruiting Participants
  • 11. Finding the right people is critical to the outcome of your research. Research Methods It is difficult, and requires a “whatever it takes” attitude. (Remember, these are just people. They are everywhere, you simply have to find the right ones.)
  • 12. Before recruiting participants, we must know from whom we Research Methods want to learn. Who do we want to talk to, and which criteria defines them? Do we want a breadth of people, or to focus on one type of person? Where do we want to do our research?
  • 13. We must also have a first blush of how we want Methods Researchto go about the research. How many people do we want to talk to? How much time do we spend with each person? How much should we compensate each participant?
  • 14. A few artifacts to get in order before recruiting: Research Methods approach/methodology (where, how long, etc) -General Research -Participant Criteria -Screener -Compensation Amount
  • 15. Participant criteria is just that – key attributes that Research Methods make your prospective participants unique. Some examples: -Age -Location -Family Status -Occupation -Hobbies/Lifestyle -Household Income -Familiarity with Technology -Ownership of ____________ -Awareness of ____________ -Etc…..
  • 16. Participant criteria list example: In this example, Shopping Behavior is a key criteria. This particular customer is based off of the client’s segmentation, which has specific “personas” defined.
  • 17. ACTIVITY: Let’s take 5 minutes in our groups and define Participant criteria.
  • 18. A Screener is a literal script for a recruiter to use to qualify Research Methods a recruit. It documents, in detail the criteria that are important to your recruit. A “choose your own adventure,” so to speak.
  • 19. Screener example: Screeners start out broad – to narrow down potential participants based on more general characteristics early on. Each screener question is critical to the success of a recruit.
  • 20. Compensation amount and type per participant depend on a few things: Research Methods -How they were recruited -How long the session will be -The nature of the interview For example: A nurse being observed may not be able to receive monetary compensation if recruited through her employer. She may be allowed to accept a gift card or certificate. For consumer research, we typically compensate around $100/hour of the research session.
  • 21. Once you know exactly who your participants Research Methods are, you can begin recruiting! There are a few different recruiting methods available, each with different implications, pros and cons.
  • 22. Friend & Family Recruit Good for: When a topic is common enough to recruit friends of friends. Smaller sample sizes. When quality control of recruits is critical (e.g. Early Adopter research). Research Methods Professional Recruit Client-Assisted Recruit Great for most common consumer research. When recruiting in other cities/countries or when a recruit is complex. B2B situations, where you need to research your clients’ clients, partners or vendors. Lead time required: T-2 weeks to fielding T-2 weeks to fielding (if screener complete and all material in order) T-4 weeks to fielding (may be more, depending on client relationships) Channels used: Social Media (Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin), Ads (Craigslist, etc), Personal outreach. Professional Recruiting Vendor with a participant database (Example vendors: Ipsos, Fieldworks, etc). PM, Sales Manager, Coordinator on the client side. Pros: •  Research team can be highly involved in the screening of participants, yielding a highquality recruit. •  No professional recruiting cost (though hours required) •  Fairly “hands-off,” the heavy lifting is done by the vendor. •  Multiple markets can be managed by one vendor. •  Unparalleled access to the right users in otherwise unreachable positions (think medicine, legislature, law). •  Often able to spend more time with each participant. •  Instant rapport, can refer you to others in their org. •  Not always a “representative” sample due to proximity to the research team. •  Requires heavy management and monitoring of channels from the team. •  Quality control of recruits: oversight and regular review of recruits needed to ensure recruits are on target. •  Challenging recruits (specific criteria) can push timelines. •  Not good for any “early adopter” research. •  Complete dependency on client assistance. •  The team is considered part of the client, which often means certain lines of questioning are too political or off-limits. •  Participant compliance dependent on a good relationship with the client coordinator. (Aggressive) Cons/ Challenges:
  • 23. Friend & Family Recruit Good for: When a topic is common enough to recruit friends of friends. Smaller sample sizes. When quality control of recruits is critical (e.g. Early Adopter research). Professional Recruit Client-Assisted Recruit Great for most common consumer research. When recruiting in other cities/countries or when a recruit is complex. B2B situations, where you need to research your clients’ clients, partners or vendors. T-2 weeks to fielding (if screener complete and all material in order) T-4 weeks to fielding (may be more, depending on client relationships) Lead time required: T-2 weeks to fielding Channels used: Social Media (Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin), Ads (Craigslist, etc), Personal outreach. Pros: •  Research team can be highly involved in the screening of participants, yielding a highquality recruit. •  No professional recruiting cost (though hours required) •  Fairly “hands-off,” the heavy lifting is done by the vendor. •  Multiple markets can be managed by one vendor. •  Unparalleled access to the right users in otherwise unreachable positions (think medicine, legislature, law). •  Often able to spend more time with each participant. •  Instant rapport, can refer you to others in their org. •  Not always a “representative” sample due to proximity to the research team. •  Requires heavy management and monitoring of channels from the team. •  Quality control of recruits: oversight and regular review of recruits needed to ensure recruits are on target. •  Challenging recruits (specific criteria) can push timelines. •  Not good for any “early adopter” research. •  Complete dependency on client assistance. •  The team is considered part of the client, which often means certain lines of questioning are too political or off-limits. •  Participant compliance dependent on a good relationship with the client coordinator. (Aggressive) Cons/ Challenges: For your group projects, you PM, be Professional Recruiting Vendor with a will Sales Manager, Coordinator on the participant database (Example client side. vendors: Ipsos, Fieldworks,this one. etc). doing
  • 24. So, how do we start? Research Methods When your recruiting artifacts are in order… 1.  Approach your users - in person. Discussing the project with them face-to-face is always the most successful way to recruit them. After you’ve tried that… 2.  Write up an easy-to-digest blurb to post on emails and social networks. This should include who you are looking for, why you need them, and a clear call to action/contact person. 3.  Call & send emails to your network Personal friends, family, anyone who may be able to help. 4.  Post to Social Networks, Intranet boards, etc.
  • 25. Research Plans & Discussion Guides
  • 26. Research planning is design. Research Planning It’s highly iterative, and you can only make educated guesses on what will happen in-field.
  • 27. In a research session certain things have to happen before others – similar to baking a layer cake. Anticipating the “arc” of the session will ensure a successful experience.
  • 28. Scaffolding: Gradually easing the participant into more difficult or conceptual topics & questions. Research Planning: Research Plans & Discussion Guides
  • 29. When conducting research, remember: ! Things will never go the way you expect. Think on your feet and stick to your focus.
  • 30. Research Plan A short document that describes your approach, methods, activities, interview structure, interview length and participants - relating each back to the objectives/focus of the research. Research Planning: Research Plans & Discussion Guides
  • 31. ACTIVITY: Let’s take 10 minutes and outline a Research Plan.
  • 32. ACTIVITY: Let’s take 10 minutes and outline a Research Plan. 1.  (5 minutes) As a group, write down a few key questions you have. Start with 5-6, but reduce to 2-3. e.g. “What could be improved in the security line?” 2.  (5 minutes) What do you need to observe/do in order to answer those questions? In what order? Use your focus and participant criteria from the last activities.
  • 33. Discussion Guide A document that describes, in detail, the questions and activities you will utilize during the interview (similar to a script, but not). Research Planning: Research Plans & Discussion Guides
  • 34. Study your discussion guide well, and use it if you feel the research is going off course. DO NOT use it as a script. -why not?
  • 35. In Contextual Inquiries, your Discussion Guide is your to-do list.
  • 36. In activity-based or structured sessions, there can be time-based components to your guide, and reference to materials/tools used for specific activities.
  • 37. When creating the discussion guide: Ask your teammates the questions you have – rephrase them to be sure they are easy to answer and open-ended. Research Planning: Research Plans & Discussion Guides
  • 38. Question Generation Session To get from your research plan to your discussion guide: Research Planning: Research Plans & Discussion Guides 1.  Hold a session with the full team (1-2 hours). 2.  Review the focus and the research plan. 3.  Spend the first 30 minutes letting everyone capture the questions they have pertaining to the focus. 4.  Rewrite them in a manner that a participant can answer (may require multiple questions). 5.  Organize these questions by topic or a best guess at the inquiry order, and put them in the discussion guide.
  • 39. Understanding Mental Models
  • 40. What we should understand about our focus area based on our Contextual Inquiries: Research Planning -  -  -  -  -  -  Current behaviors and why they happen Any workarounds or considered solutions Perceptions - opinions and complaints Processes that exist (used and unused) Language used Mental models*
  • 41. There are three types of models that describe systems (as articulated by Alan Cooper): Research Planning: Understanding Mental Models Implementation Model How something works Manifest Model How something presents itself to the user Mental Model How the user thinks the thing works
  • 42. Research Planning: Understanding Mental Models Implementation Model: The way the engineer must build the machine or software.
  • 43. Implementation Model for a lock and key: (illustration taken from The New Way Things Work by David Macaulay)
  • 44. Implementation Model for a login screen: (illustration stolen from Jon Kolko)
  • 45. Research Planning: Understanding Mental Models Mental Model: The way somebody thinks a process or machine works. What is your mental model for a lock and key? …for a login screen?
  • 46. Research Planning: Understanding Mental Models Manifest Model: The way the product presents itself to the user.
  • 47. Manifest Model for a lock and key:
  • 48. Manifest Model for a login screen:
  • 49. Research Planning: Understanding Mental Models (illustration taken from About Face by Alan Cooper)
  • 50. User Interfaces that conform to Research Planning: Understanding Mental Models the implementation model are almost always bad.
  • 51. Research Planning: Understanding Mental Models As designers, we have little control over the implementation model (unless we’re developing the product, which we might be), and very little control over the mental model. Good News! As designers, we have almost complete control over the manifest model.
  • 52. Research Planning: Understanding Mental Models Good manifest models are born from an understanding of the implementation and mental models.
  • 53. Lauren Serota Professor, Austin Center for Design lserota@ac4d.com Download our free book, Wicked Problems: Problems Worth Solving, at http://www.wickedproblems.com

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