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Antibiotics
 

Antibiotics

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    Antibiotics Antibiotics Presentation Transcript

    • Antibiotics nursingstudents.ning.com
    • Antibiotics
      • disrupts proteins or enzymes within a bacterium.
        • bacteriostatic – prevents multiplication
        • bactericidal – kills bacteria
      • Goal : to reduce the number of bacteria  immune system can deal with infection.
    • Culture & Sensitivity test
      • Identify the causative bacteria & the antibiotic which it is most sensitive
      • Gram- positive bacteria
        • cell wall retains stain or resist decolorization by alcohol
        • MC in respiratory & soft tissue infections
      • Gram – negative bacteria
          • cell wall loses stain or decolorized by alcohol
          • MC in GI & GU tract infections
      • Aerobic bacteria vs Anaerobic bacteria
      • Broad – spectrum Antibiotic
        • used for both gram – positive & gram negative bacteria
      • Narrow – spectrum antibiotics
        • used for either gram – positive or gram – negative bacteria
          • Synergistic effect  combination of antibiotics produce greater effects
          • ex. amoxicillin + clavulanic acid ( Augmentin)
          • ampicillin + sulbactam (Unasyn)
          • Prophylaxis  prevention of potential infection.
    • Antibiotic resistance
      • bacteria mutate that they become resistant to certain antibiotics.
      • common in nosocomial infections
      • cause: indiscriminate antibiotic use
    • Cross – resistance
      • resistance that occurs between antibacterials with similar actions.
    • General adverse reactions to antibacterials
        • allergy / hypersensitivity reactions
        • superinfections
        • organ toxicity
      • Classes
      • of
      • Antibiotics
      • Aminoglycosides
    • Drugs
        • gentamicin (Garamycin) M.C.
        • amikacin
        • neomycin
        • tobramycin
        • streptomycin
        • Kanamycin
          • “ M.C.” most common
    • Indications
      • Treatment of serious infections
        • Gm (-) infections {Kleb, enterobacter, E. coli. Proteus, Pseudomonas, Serratia- ( KEEPPS) }
        • Methicillin-resistant staph aureus (MRSA)
    • Action
      • inhibits protein synthesis of gram (–) negative bacteria (bactericidal)
    • Monitor for:
      • nausea & anorexia
      • ototoxicity
      • nephrotoxicity
      • neurotoxicity
      • BM depression & superinfections
      • Cephalosporins
    • Drug
      • cefaclor (Ceclor)
    • Indications
      • Treatment of respiratory
      • dermatological
      • urinary tract
      • middle ear infections
    • Action
      • inhibits cell wall synthesis of wide-range of bacteria (bactericidal )
    • Monitor for:
      • GI upsets & diarrhea
      • Pseudomembranous colitis
      • headache, dizziness
      • nephrotoxicity
      • superinfections & bone marrow suppression
      • hypersensitivity reactions
      • Generations
      • of
      • Cephalosporin
    • 1st generation
      • Drugs
      • cephalexin (Keflex)
      • cefazolin (Zolicef)
      • Indication
      • same as gram – positive bacteria affected by Pen G & gram – negative bacteria ( Proteus mirabilis, E. coli, & Klebsiella pneumoniae) PEcK
    • 2nd generation
      • Drugs
      • cefaclor
      • cefuroxime ( Zinacef)
      • Cefoxitin
      • Indications
      • same as 1 st gen plus Haemophilus influenzae, Enterobacter aerogenes &
      • Neisseria (HENPEcK)
      • Less effective against gram – positive bacteria
    • 3rd generation
      • Drugs
      • ceftazidime
      • ceftriaxone (Rocephin)
      • Ceftizoxime
      • Indication
      • more potent against gram- negative bacilli as well as Serratia marcescens
      • (HENPEcKS)
    • 4th generation
      • Drugs
      • cefepime
      • Ceftditoren
      • Indication
      • for gram – negative & gram – positive organisms including P. aeroginosa
      • Fluoroquinolones
    • Drugs
      • ciprofloxacin (Cipro) M.C.
      • levofloxacin
      • norfloxacin
      • ofloxacin
      • gatifloxacin
    • Indications
      • Treatment of :
        • respiratory infections
        • skin infections
        • urinary tract infections
        • eye infections
        • ear infections
        • bone & joint infections
      • Treatment after anthrax exposure
      • typhoid fever
    • Action
      • inhibit synthesis of bacterial RNA & DNA in wide spectrum of gram – negative bacteria
    • Monitor for:
      • headache, dizziness
      • GI upsets
      • BM depression  Contraindicated in children < 18 yo
      • risk of photosensitivity
      • Macrolides
    • Drugs
      • erythromycin M.C.
      • azithromycin (Zithromax)
      • clarithromycin
    • Indications
      • Treatment of respiratory, skin, urinary tract & GI infections
      • Good alternative if allergic to penicillins
    • Action
      • inhibit protein synthesis (bacteriostatic or bactericidal)
    • Monitor for:
      • nausea & vomiting
      • diarrhea
      • risk for pseudomonas colitis
      • hepatotoxicity
      • ototoxicty
    • Indications
      • similar to macrolides but more toxic. Treatment of serious infections.
    • Monitor for:
      • severe pseudomembranous colitis
      • BM depression
      • pain
      • Monobactam Antibiotic
    • Drug
      • aztreonam
    • Indications
      • Treatment of lower respiratory, skin, urinary tract, intra-abdomina & gynecological
      • infections caused by gram- negative bacteria including septicemia
      • Alternative to pxs allergic to penicillins or cephalosporins.
    • Action
      • inhibit cell wall synthesis of gram- negative enterobacteria
    • Monitor for:
      • mild GI problems
      • liver toxicity
      • pain
      • Penicillins & Penicillinase Resistant Antibiotics
    • Drugs
      • amoxicillin M.C.
      • Natural Penicillins
        • penicillin G
        • penicillin V
      • extended- spectrum penicillin
        • amoxicillin
        • ampicillin
      • penicillinase – resistant antibiotics
        • cloxacillin
        • nafcillin
        • oxacillin
    • Indications
      • Treatment for broad spectrum respiratory & urinary tract infections
    • Action
      • inhibit cell wall synthesis (bactericidal)
    • Monitor for:
      • GI effects
      • superinfections
      • hypersensitivity reactions
      • Sulfonamides
    • Drugs
      • sulfasalazine M.C.
      • sulfadiazine
      • cotrimoxazole
    • Indications
      • Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis
    • Action
      • blocks cellular metabolism of PABA for folic acid synthesis of susceptible gram- positive & gram-negative baceria (bacteriostatic)
    • Monitor for:
      • hepatotoxicity
      • nephrotoxicity
      • Stevens- Johnson syndrome
      • CNS effects & BM depression
      • Tetracyclines
    • Drugs
      • tetracycline M.C.
      • doxyclcine
      • minocycline
    • Indications
      • Treatment of various infections, acne
    • Action
      • inhibit protein synthesis
    • Monitor for:
      • damage teeth & bones
      • GI effects
      • BM suppression, photosensitivity & superinfections
      • make oral contraceptives ineffective
      • Antituberculosis drugs
    • Drugs
      • 1st line drugs
        • isoniazid (INH)
          • rifampin
          • ethionamide
          • rifapentine
      • 2nd line drugs
          • ethambutol
          • pyrazinamide
      • 3rd line drugs
          • capreomycin
          • cycloserine
    • Indication
      • Treatment & prophylaxis of tuberculosis
    • Monitor for:
      • discoloration of body fluids
      • hepatotoxicity
      • peripheral neuritis
    • Leprostatic drugs
      • dapsone
      • clofazimine
      • thalidomide
    • To Prevent Drug- resistant strains of bacteria!!!
      • use antibiotics cautiously
      • complete full course of therapy
      • avoid saving antibiotics for self-medication
      • END
      • nursingstudents.ning.com