Settlers A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established permanent residence there, often to colonize the area.
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus was an explorer, colonizer, and navigator, born in the Republic of Genoa, in northwestern Italy. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that led to general European awareness of the American continents in the Western Hemisphere. The term “Discover of the Americas” is wrong due to the fact that Leif Ericson landed on Vinland (a part of North America) 500 before Columbus did. Columbus never realized that he discovered a new continent.
Hispaniola It is the first place where Christopher Columbus settled in the New World. From this place the entire continent was colonized. French, English and Nederland pirates created bases on deserted parts of the island. Nowadays it is it divided in two nations, Haiti and Dominican Republic
Santo Domingo Is the capital and the largest city of Dominican Republic. It is located on the Hispaniola Island. During the colonization, the city became a major center of operations for the settlers, from this point they conquered the Mexica and Mayan Empires.
Hernan Cortes Remembered as the conqueror of the Aztec Empire. He was a part of the expedition to conquer Cuba. A indigenous woman called DoñaMaría was his lover, interpreter and guide. Some people consider Doña María or Malinche as a traitor to the Aztec Empire.
Moctezuma Was the governor of the Mexican city of Tenochtitlan, its domains expanded towards Texcoco and Tlatelolco. He though that Cortes was Quetzalcoatl, the Aztec supreme God. There is a legend that says that before the arrival of the Spaniards, Moctezuma witnessed ten warnings of this event; they include a comet, the sinking of a part of Tenochtitlan and a lighting that stroked a temple.
Aztec/Mexica Empire AKA: “Aztec Triple Alliance”, it begun with the unification of the three most powerful city-states of the region: Tenochtitlan, Texcoco and Tlacopan. The rulers of annexed cities were usually left in power as long as they agreed to pay semi-annual tribute to the alliance or provided military support in wars with enemy states Their most venerated god was Quetzalcoatl. They were politeistic. The term Aztec is new, it wouldn’t have been recognized by the Mexica Empire. Aztec means people from “Aztlan”
Francisco Pizarro Born on March 16, 1478. He participated with the discovery of the Pacific Ocean. After founding the city of Piura he sets off to Cajamarca to chase and kill Atahualpa. He authorized the robbery of Cuzco. Founded Lima and died in hands of people loyal to Diego de Almagro.
Atahualpa He is considered to be the last Inca Emperor. Many chronists describe him as a someone with the power and the will to efficiently manage the Inca Empire. Atahualpa threw a Bible to the ground, it didn’t had any special meaning to him, given by Vicente de Valverde; this created indignation among the Spaniards and caused his capture and the murder of 20.000 Incan warriors that were with him. Some people claim that he had a good relationship with Pizarro and that the conqueror cried during his death. He might have been allowed to keep administrating the Empire while he was imprisoned. His body mysteriously disappeared after he was buried, the location of his body is unknown.
Inca Empire Was the most powerful Empire in South America. It occupied the territories of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina. It reached its highest cultural, scientific and technological point under the regime of Huayna Cápac. The Empire was divided in four provinces or suyus: Antisuyo, Collasuyo, Chinchasuyo and Contisuyo. It was also called Tawantinsuyo, literally translated as The Four Regions.
Maya Empire It is known as the only Meso-American Empire to have developed a full written language. They were the most advanced civilization in the areas of arts, science, astronomical and mathematical systems. Maya influence can be detected from Honduras, Guatemala, Northern El Salvador and to as far as central Mexico, more than 1,000 km from the Maya area. The end of their Classic Period ended with the mysterious collapse of their society. One of their most famous objects is the Dresden Codex, the oldest known recording of history on the continent.
Smallpox Smallpox is a disease caused by the Variola major virus. Some experts say that over the centuries it has killed more people than all other infectious diseases combined. Two research labs still house small amounts of the virus. During the Spanish colonization, the disease was brought to America and wiped out 90% of the Incan population in the next years.
Columbian Exchange It was one of the most significant events concerning ecology, agriculture, and culture in all of human history. It was the massive exchange of products, ideas, knowledge, diseases and every aspect of America with the Old Continent and vice versa. The Columbian Exchange affected every other cultures on the planet.