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Role of frce for removing gender disparity in access to education in pakistan
 

Role of frce for removing gender disparity in access to education in pakistan

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    Role of frce for removing gender disparity in access to education in pakistan Role of frce for removing gender disparity in access to education in pakistan Document Transcript

    • Role of FRCE for removing Gender Disparity in Access to Education in PakistanFoundation for Research & Community EmpowermentB-26 Midland Bungalow near Sonhari book landNear Naseem Nagar Qasimabad Hyderabad Sindh PakistanFacebook..http://www.facebook.com/frce.ngo.5, Twitter https://twitter.com/All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of FRCE.
    • Role of FRCE for removing Gender Disparity in Access to Education in PakistanIntroductionPakistan situated in the north-western part of the South Asian subcontinent, obtainedindependence from the British on August 14, 1947 after the sub-division of the Indiansubcontinent. It is a landmass of diversified relief with vast plains in the Indus basin, a rockyexpanse of plateaus in the Southwest and majestic mountains in the north with beautiful valleys,snow-covered peaks and glaciers. Pakistan extends from 24o to 37o latitude and from 61o to 75oE longitude. On its east and Southeast lies India, to the north and Northwest is Afghanistan, tothe west is Iran and in the south, the Arabian Sea. It has a common frontier with China on theboarder of its Gilgit Agency. According to Census Report of Pakistan. Total estimatedpopulation of Pakistan for 2010 is over 173 million. About two third or 64%people live in ruralareas. The ratio of men to women in the Pakistan population is skewed in favor of men, with108males per 100 females.1 this figure indicates gender inequality in society, because it reflectseither high rate of premature deaths of females compared to males, or a cultural preference formale children, or both.Reasons for Gender Disparity in Access to Education in Pakistan  Poverty and absence of free and compulsory education for allUp to March 2004, primary education in Pakistan was not free. Parents had to pay school feesand bear expenditure on the purchase of textbooks etc. These expenditures or direct costs keptmany girls and boys from the poor families away from the school. yet there are about 5 millionschool aged children who are not enrolled in primary schools. Poverty is linked closely with loweducation levels. When girls do not become educated due to lack of funds for education in theirhousehold, a vicious circle is perpetuated. Because of lack of education, women cannot earn anincome and their household does not maximize its income-earning potential, so the householdincome remains low and therefore the household continues to be unable to afford to educategirls.All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of FRCE.
    • Role of FRCE for removing Gender Disparity in Access to Education in Pakistan  Cultural norms restricting freedom of movement of girls and womenCultural norms in many parts of Pakistan require that girls and women either stay within thehouse or must ask permission to leave the house. If permitted to leave, women must always beaccompanied by a male household member or other women and children.  Cultural preference for male childrenIn Pakistan, bearing sons increases the status of a family, but daughters are considered a liabilitybecause daughters are less economically valuable (they are generally not permitted to join theworkforce and earn an income, as this might put them in situations that would risk the family’shonour) and they are expected to one day marry and leave the family. Hence, while educatingboys is seen as a good investment, educating girls is seen as a monetary loss. Parents aretherefore much more likely to educate their sons than their daughters.  Shortage of schoolsIn Pakistan, parents generally prefer schools to be sex-segregated but there is a shortage of girls’schools, especially in rural areas. Furthermore, not only must girls often have their own school, itis important for girls’ schools to be easily accessible, as girls are not permitted to travel longdistances to school. Hence, when there are few girls’ schools or schools are not easily accessible;many girls are not able to access education.  Shortage of female teachersAnother important factor is the shortage of female teachers, especially in rural areas. Accordingto cultural norms, girls should be taught by female teachers, so when there are insufficientfemale teachers, many parents do not enrol their girls in school. Rural parents strongly prefer tohave girls educated by women, but the legacy of low investment in girls’ education means fewAll rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of FRCE.
    • Role of FRCE for removing Gender Disparity in Access to Education in Pakistanlocal women have appropriate qualifications. It is also difficult to attract qualified femaleteachers to rural areas from other parts of the country  Low education budgetHistorically, Pakistan has been allocating insufficient financial resources for education.Although, Pakistan repeatedly committed to raise its education budget up to 4% of GDP, but onaverage its spending has remained around 2% of GDP during last 20 years. Scarcity of resourceshampered the efforts of education departments to open more schools, provide missing facilitiesin schools, and offer incentives to girls from poor families. Hence, low education budget isanother inhibiting factor which has deprived children from marginalized groups to acquire basiceducation, particularly girls from rural areas and poor segments of the society have sufferedmost.  Conflict & tribal disputeOngoing conflict between various groups in parts of Pakistan has compounded the issuesaffecting girls’ access to education. When there is poor security, parents are even less willing fortheir girls to attend school. In addition, schools, which are already scarce, are often destroyed bythe fighting in conflict zones, and in some areas girls’ schools are deliberately destroyed, whichfurther restricts girls’ opportunities to access education. Although Goverment. of Pakistan withthe support of international community is now re-constructing destroyed schools, but the processof re-building is taking time and meanwhile girls have been deprived of their fundamental rightto education. Furthermore, insecure areas are less attractive to female teachers than other areas ofthe country, thus leading to fewer girls being educated in such areas.  Gender division of labourAll rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of FRCE.
    • Role of FRCE for removing Gender Disparity in Access to Education in PakistanIn Pakistan, as in many other countries in the world, there is a clear division of gender roles interms of labour, with women being responsible for housework and men responsible forsupporting the family productively, through agricultural work or wage employment outside ofthe home. Given that women are expected to be responsible for housework, and are often notpermitted to work outside of the home, there is little incentive to educate girls and women as theeducation they would receive is not perceived as being useful in the home.All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of FRCE.
    • Role of FRCE for removing Gender Disparity in Access to Education in PakistanWhich steps are to be taken by FRCE for removing Gender Disparity inAccess to Education in its catchment areas?  Advocacy Campaign on the importance of educationFRCE conducts a campaign in catchment areas ( Rural area of Hyderabad, Jamshoro,Matriari,Tando AllahYar, Tando Muhammad Khan, Mirpur khas, Tharparkar and Umerkot to highlightthe importance of education For both girls and boys, and encourage parents to send theirchildren, especially girls, to school.  Bill in Parliament about Education free and compulsory for both boys’ and girls’FRCE believes that if education were free and compulsory, more parents would send their girlsto school. For that reason FRCE team want to mobilize legislators at provincial and federal levelso that They may get bill of education free and compulsory for both boys and girls passed Andthe Government should ensure that not only are school fees covered, but that girls from low-income families receive free text books, uniforms, transport and lunch. This strategy has beensuccessful in other counties of the region. For example, people of Sri Lanka have been enjoyingfree education over the last 50 years. As a result, Sri Lanka has seen remarkable advancements inhuman development, in spite of internal conflict and upheaval.  Build free of cost schools in catchment areas and train Government teachersFRCE want to establish schools with Partners in in its catchment areas (Rural area of Hyderabad,Jamshoro,Matriari, Tando AllahYar, Tando Muhammad Khan, Mirpur khas, Tharparkar andUmerkot) where free of cost educational services with high standard will be provided to poor andmarginalized communities. Despite FRCE want to build capacity of Government teachersthrough capacity building programs. Message of FRCE for you Please join struggle of FRCE for making peaceful & Prosperous PakistanAll rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of FRCE.