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Human computation and participatory systems


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Slide of the Coopera(c)tion Course at Politecnico di Milano

Slide of the Coopera(c)tion Course at Politecnico di Milano

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  • 1. Piero Fraternali Politecnico di Milano, Italy
  • 2. The evolution of the net
  • 3. The mobile web How many of us use a mobile terminal?
  • 4. The social web
  • 5. What do people do online?
  • 6. Cosa succede in un minuto su internet
  • 7. How can we make good use of all this? Maybe helping computers help people
  • 8. Problems computers cannot solve
  • 9. When computers were human Gaspard De Prony, 1794, hires hires hairdressers (unemployed after French revolution; knew only addition and subtraction) to create logarithmic and trigonometric tables. He managed the process by splitting the work into very detailed workflows. (Hairdressers better than mathematicians in arithmetic!)
  • 10. Human computation Normally the user queries the computers What about the computer querying the user? ...or a "crowd "of users?
  • 11. Early example: CAPTCHA • Stands for “Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart” • Luis von Ahn et al. coined the term in 2000 • A Program that can tell whether a user is a human or a computer • Humans and machines have complementary skills
  • 12. The disciplines of HC
  • 13. Forms of HC: crowdsourcing • Crowdsourcing is a distributed model that assigns tasks traditionally undertaken by employees or contractors to an undefined crowd – Split the task into micro-tasks – Assign them to performers in the crowd – Collect partial results into the final one
  • 14. Paid Crowdsourcing: Amazon Mechanical Turk
  • 15. Forms of HC: GWAPS • Games with a Purpose (GWAPs) – Exploiting the billions of hours that people spend online playing with computer games to solve complex problems that involve human intelligence [vA06,LvA09]. – Useful tasks are embedded in a playful experience where human judgment is exploited consciously or unconsciously
  • 16. Types of Games [Luis von Ahn and Laura Dabbish, CACM 2008] Three generic game structures • Output agreement: – Type same output • Input agreement: – Decide if having same input • Inversion problem: – P1 generates output from input – P2 looks at P1-output and guesses P1-input
  • 17. Output Agreement: ESP Game • Players look at common input • Need to agree on output
  • 18. Input Agreement: TagATune • Sometimes difficult to type identical output (e.g., “describe this song”) • Show same or different input, let users describe, ask players if they have same input
  • 19. Inversion Problem: Peekaboom • • • • Non-symmetric players Input: Image with word Player 1 slowly reveals pic Player 2 tries to guess word
  • 20. Linguistic games
  • 21. Life science games • Combinatorial problems with intractable solutions spaces, in which humans can help the heuristic core in pruning – Protein folding: Proteins fold from long chains into small balls, each in a very specific shape – Shape is the lower-energy setting, which the most stable – Fold shape is very important to understand interactions with out molecules – Extremely expensive computationally! (too many degrees of freedom) • A Mason-Pfizer monkey virus retroviral protease was modeled by FoldIT gamers in just three weeks
  • 22. Forms of HC: social mobilization • Social Mobilization – Problems with time constraints, where the efficiency of task spreading and of solution finding is essential – An example of the problem and of the techniques employed to face it is the Darpa Network Challenge [PRP+10] – The solution comes from the nature of the reward mechanism and social ties of humans
  • 23. HC & public resource management • Objectives – – – – Collect and validate data Extract information from data Involve people in resource usage planning and management Change people’s behavior • Approaches – Passive: mine information from existing user’s activity traces – Active: engage people in ad hoc tasks • Ultimate goals – Obtain “better data” for predictive models, planning and management tool: more accurate, at finer time/space resolution, in real time … – Take “better decisions”: more participative, less conflicting, capable of promoting social change
  • 24. Extracting: population dynamics from twitter data • Problem: obtaining impact of population on territory at high temporal resolution • Can be used to detect events, estimate water consumption bursts, waste production, etc • Solution: using low cost geo-localized data sources (e.g., tweets) together with structured and high cost sources (e.g., mobile phone traces)
  • 25. Predicting: snow fall with Flickr images • Problem: predicting the incidence of natural phenomena using user generated content • Solution: using Flickr photos tagged with “snow” to estimate snow fall (precision 100% with 7 snow photos) – H Zhang, M Korayem, DJ Crandall, G LeBuhn: Mining photo-sharing websites to study ecological phenomena. WWW 2012
  • 26. Involving: social deliberation tools for participatory planning • Problem: letting a large crowd of citizens propose solutions or deliberate on proposals about public goods • Solution: large scale deliberation and idea management tools –, MIT’s Deliberatorium …
  • 27. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) + Crowd • GeoWeb 2.0: the tools, infrastructures and services for the management of GIS over the Web • Volunteered Geo Information (VGI): the vision of humans as sensors that voluntarily create, assemble and disseminate Web geo data. • Participatory GIS (PGIS): points to the social role of GIS to promote the goals of NGOs and groups, especially in developing countries • Public PGIS: the practice of exploiting GIS to support public participation into decision-making processes, especially in developed countries
  • 28. Citizens' territory managment
  • 29. Monitoring waterways: CreekWatch • Problem: obtain simple yet useful parameters on water shed conditions in a vast territory at low cost • Solution: geo localized mobile+Web application – Developed at IBM Research Almaden, 4000+ users, 25 countries – The city of San Jose, CA, uses it to prioritize pollution cleanup efforts • Collected data are found to have good quality
  • 30. Other community-based PGIS Participatory zoning project by the Ahorani people, Tiputini Ecuador
  • 31. Urban games • "Urban gaming" or "Street Games" are typically multi-player location-based games played out on city streets and built up urban environments [Wikipedia • • • • • • • • • Find points of interest Social analysis Security analysis Healthcare Traffic analysis Environment analysis Collect hidden stories Behavioral analysis …
  • 32. U-GWAPS Examples • Critical City Upload – Encourage people to make new journeys, use public transportation in a different way, explore new areas – Extra bonus points for missions, team work, discover mysteries, etc. • Ecopath – track user's locations of green activities (riding a bike or recycling trash), connecting these sites to define "paths" of sustainability. – users compete with friends over territory defined by their paths, thus adding a social gaming context to their actions as they make environmentally responsible choices
  • 33. Open problems • Humans, like machines, can make errors – Cognitive bias, fatigue • Unlike machines humans can cheat – Classification of attacks – Spammer detection • Quality of output improvement techniques are in use • Voting schemes • Workers quality modeling and vote weighing (requires ground truth or machine learning models and iterative / selective labeling of data) • Micro-flows, worker’s pre-task testing • Task to worker assignment, active learning
  • 34. Example of ongoing projects Politecnico di Milano
  • 35. CUbRIK Project • FP7 Integrating Project • Goals: – Advance the architecture of multimedia search – Exploit the human contribution in problem solving & social innovation – Promote open-source components – Start up a search business ecosystem • 36
  • 36. Click-workers + expert crowd for digital humanities research
  • 37. GWAP for image object extraction
  • 38. PeakWatch • Exploiting User Generated Content for Mountain Peak Detection • Peaks automatically identified from Flickr photos and digital terrain model • Snow and water availability prediction 46° 0’ 48.51” N 7° 48’ 6.62” E
  • 39. PoliCrowd: a Web 3D PGIS – Born to promote tourism and cultural heritage – Interaction with user mobile devices for uploading Points Of interest (POIs) – POIs three-dimensional visualization on World Wind virtual globe – User collaborative contribution in POIs characterization – Creating, saving and sharing customized maps with the community – Winner at the NASA World Wind EU Challenge 2013
  • 40. Step 1: find a POI & take a picture of it
  • 41. Step 2: report the details
  • 42. Step 3: view your report in 2d
  • 43. .. and in 3d
  • 44. Step 4: enrich with multimedia material
  • 45. Step 6: add layers and share your projects
  • 46. The CrowdSearcher crowd engagement framework • Post tasks to the crowd of your choice • Gather & analyze results
  • 47. Human task design: Tips on workplaces from friends
  • 48. Human task execution with Facebook, Twitter, Doodle ..
  • 49. Urbanopoly • Buy venues, earn money and collect information about your city by playing with the neighborhood around you in Urbanopoly. • Venues are real places selected from OpenStreetMap: shops, restaurants, monuments, etc.; visit them and discover if they are free. If the venue is free and you have enough money, you can buy it; otherwise, if the venue is owned by another player, you spin the wheel to see what's your destiny.
  • 50. Web sites • • • • • • •
  • 51. References • Managing Crowdsourced Human Computation, Panos Ipeirotis, New York University Praveen Paritosh, Google • [LvA09] Edith Law and Luis von Ahn. Input-agreement: a new mechanism for collecting data using human computation games. In Proc. CHI 2009, 2009. • [vA06] Luis von Ahn. Games with a purpose. Computer, 39:92{94, 2006. • [vAMM+08] Luis von Ahn, Ben Maurer, Colin McMillen, David Abraham, and Manuel Blum. recaptcha: Human-based character recognition via web security measures. Science, 321(5895):1465~1468, 2008.[
  • 52. References • Galen Pickard, Iyad Rahwan, Wei Pan, Manuel Cebrian, Riley Crane, Anmol Madan, and Alex Pentland. Time critical social mobilization: The darpa network challenge winning strategy. CoRR, abs/1008.3172, 2010. • Trant J., Exploring the potential for social tagging and folksonomy in art museums: proof of concept. New Rev. Hypermed. Multimed. 12(1), 83–105 • Firas Khatib et al, Crystal structure of a monomeric retroviral protease solved by protein folding game players, NATURE, 2011 • S. Kim, C. Robson, T. Zimmerman, J. Pierce, and E. M. Haber. Creek watch: pairing usefulness and usability for successful citizen science. In Proceedings of the 29th Int Conf on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pages 2125–2134, New York, NY, 2011.