Fraser&stutchbury geolocatorsymposiumeou2011latvia

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  • 1. L. Elliot
    New Discoveries in Bird Migration Using Geolocators : Questions & Challenges
    Kevin Fraser & Bridget Stutchbury
  • 2.
  • 3. L. Elliot
    MarieRead
    Migratory Songbird Declines
    Wood Thrush
    Bobolink
  • 4. Geolocators
    1.5g
  • 5. Key Questions
    Seasonal carry-over effects (life history tradeoffs)
    Connectivity between breeding and wintering populations (songbird declines, demographics)
    Migration strategy (phenotypic plasticity)
  • 6. Key Questions
    Seasonal carry-over effects (life history tradeoffs)
    Connectivity between breeding and wintering populations (songbird declines, demographics)
    Migration strategy (phenotypic plasticity)
  • 7. (4) Challenges
  • 8. 2. Migratory Connectivity
    High Connectivity
    Low Connectivity
  • 9. Where does a single breeding population over-winter?
    n = 23
    Stanley et al., in prep.
  • 10. Where does a single wintering population come from?
    n = 15
    n = 1
    Belize
    Costa Rica
  • 11. High Connectivity & Demographics
    Stanley et al., in prep.
  • 12. Stopover Connectivity
    Spring Migration
    Fall Migration
  • 13. Connectivity in Purple Martins
    38 geos retrieved to date, 237 deployed 2011
  • 14. 31 Aug
    25 Apr
    5 Sept – 1 Oct
    20 Apr
    13 Oct
    12 Apr
  • 15. 31 Aug
    25 Apr
    5 Sept – 1 Oct
    20 Apr
    13 Oct
    12 Apr
    Fall:
    304 km/d
    Spring:
    577 km/d
  • 16. Low Breeding-Wintering Connectivity
  • 17. male
    female
  • 18. Implications for Demographics
    Purple Martin
    Wood Thrush
    High Connectivity
    Low Connectivity
  • 19. 3. Programmed vs PlasticMigration Strategy
    Rigid migration schedules imply genetically
    controlled, or programmed, migration
    Conklin et al. 2010
  • 20. Geographic Variation in Migration Route
    Purple Martin
  • 21. But Fall Departure Date DoesPredict Winter Arrival Date
  • 22. 3 Populations Similar Fall Migration Pace
    Zone 1
    Zone 2
    Zone 3
  • 23. Male and female pace similar
    Bill Dalton
  • 24. L. Elliot
    Fast vs Slow Fall Migration Strategy
    Wood
    Thrush
  • 25. Plasticity in Wood Thrush
    Relocate mid-summer
    Rapid Fall Migration
    Long Spring Stop
    Long Fall Stop
    Spring Circum-Gulf
    Late Breeding Arrival
  • 26. Plasticity in Wood Thrush
    1801-85920
    07-08
    08-09
    09-10
    Relocate mid-summer
    Rapid Fall Migration
    Long Spring Stop
    Long Fall Stop
    Spring Circum-Gulf
    Late Breeding Arrival
  • 27. L. Elliot
    Omnivore
    Winter territory
    6-8000 km annual journey
    1 hemisphere
    • High connectivity
    • 28. Fall departure date does not predict arrival date
    • 29. High plasticity
    Aerial insectivore
    Winter flocks
    12-14 000 km annual journey
    2 hemispheres
    • Low connectivity
    • 30. Fall departure date does predict winter arrival
    • 31. Programmed?
  • Rigid control of (very) long-distance migration strategy
    12 - 14 000 km
    VERSUS
    6 - 8 000 km
    > 30 000 km
  • 32. 4. Challenges
    Influence on behaviour?
    Retrieval = sample size
    Habitat shading
    Data only for survivors
    Equinox and latitude
  • 33. 4. Challenges
    Influence on behaviour?
    Retrieval = sample size
    Habitat shading
    Data only for survivors
    Equinox and latitude
  • 34. Influence on behaviour?
    Typical return rates = 50-60%
    2008 = 10%
    Bill Dalton
  • 35. Influence on behaviour?
    Typical return rates = 50-60%
    2008 = 10%
    Reduced load by 30%
    2009 = 15%
  • 36. Influence on behaviour?
    Typical return rates = 50-60%
    2008 = 10%
    Reduced load by 30%
    2009 = 15%
    Reduced stalk length (20 mm to 5-8mm, 15° angle)
    2010 = 50%
  • 37. Influence on behaviour?
    Typical return rates = 50-60%
    2008 = 10%
    Reduced load by 30%
    2009 = 15%
    Reduced stalk length (20 mm to 5-8mm, 15° angle)
    2010 = 50%
    Geo stalks create drag during flight (Bowlin et al. 2010) - Not an issue for Wood Thrush
  • 38. Sample Size
    Low return rates – particularly for naïve migrants
    Solution – colonially nesting purple martins
    26% return rate
  • 39. Sample Size
    Combine with stable-isotope analyses – do geolocator coordinates match isotope assignments?
  • 40. Habitat Shading – Geo design
    Short stalk = most days unuseable
    Longer stalk = better resolution
    *WOTH – stalk length did not influence return rates
  • 41. L. Elliot
    Summary
    Geolocators provide new insights into connectivity and migration strategy
    Contrast WOTH & PUMA
    Can reduce challenges by effective study and geo design
  • 42. Questions?
    Kevin Fraser:
    fraserkev@gmail.com
    Postdoc at Stutchbury lab:
    http://www.yorku.ca/bstutch/
    Bill Dalton