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Vegetable Oil andBiofuel IndustryReporter: Franz Ryan R. Ybañez BSChE- 4
I. Introduction A. What are Biofuels? B. Biofuel HistoryII. Feed stocks for Biofuel A. Cellulosic Biomass B. Sugar and Starchy Crops C. Oil Containing or Oil Producing PlantsIII. Solid Biofuel A. Solid Biofuel Handling a) Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF)IV. Gaseous Biofuel A. Anaerobic Digestion a) Production of Biogas b) Production of Biomethane B. Application of Gaseous Biofuel
V. Liquid Biofuel A. Bioethanol a) Production of BioEthanol i. Pre-Processing ii. Fermentation iii. Distillation iv. Dehydration B. Vegetable Oil/ Plant Oil a) Fuel-Related Characteristics of Plant Oils/Vegetable Oils b) Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) c) Plant Oil-Diesel Blend C. Biodiesel a) Crops for Biodiesel i. Coconut ii. Jatropha Curcas b) Production of Methyl Ester/Biodiesel i. Transesterification
VI. Philippine Setting A. Biofuels Legislation and Standards in the Philippines a) R.A. 9367 “Biofuels Act of 2006” B. Biofuel Industry in the Philippines a) San Carlos Bioenergy Inc.VII. Environmental and Social ImpactsVIII.The Future of BiofuelsIX. References
The easiest available fuels on the planet. Fuels are very clean and environment friendly. Renewable source of energy unlike any other resources such as petroleum, coal and nuclear fuels.
Biofuels are all types solid, gaseous and liquid fuels that can be derived from organic matter that is taken from or produced by plants andanimals or indirectly from organicindustrial, commercial, domestic, oragricultural wastes primarilyused as fuel for automobiles,thermal and power generation.
Solid Biofuel Wood Charcoal Bagasse Liquid Biofuel Bioethanol Plant or Vegetable oil Biodiesel Biomethanol Green diesel Gaseous Biofuel Biogas Methane Gas Producer Gas
B.C.E. (Before Common Era)4000 Sumerians discover the process of fermentation.10 th century Assyrians use biogas for heating bathing water.C.E. (Common Era)17th century Helmont observes that organic matter emits flammable gases.1808 Davy discovers methane as the end product of anaerobic digestion.Mid-1800s Transesterification of plant oils is used to distill glycerin during soap production.1858-1864 French biologist Antoine Bechamp experiments with fermentation and concludes that ferments are living organisms.1864 French chemist Louis Pastuer describes the process of fermentation scientifically.1880s First successful internal combustion engine using producer gas is produced.1895 Biogas is used to fuel street lamps in Exeter, Great Britain.1896 Henry Ford’s Model A designed to run on ethanol1920s-1930s Attempts to promote ethanol motor fuel are made. Anaerobic bacteria responsible for methane production are identified.1940s First U.S. ethanol plant opens.
Ford Model A Car(1896) which used pure ethanol
What type of engine wherein a bioethanol is used?a) Bioethanol engineb) Otto-cycle enginesc) Diesel-cycle enginesd) Rankine-cycle engines
Dr. Rudolph Diesel, aGerman engineer who filedthe patent for acompression ignition (CI)engine in 1894. Hethen successfully operateda prototype engine in 1897.
The diesel engine was named after Dr. Rudolph Diesel, a German engineer who filed the patent for a compression ignition (CI) engine in 1894. Then in 1900 the diesel engine was first demonstrated to run using what kind of plant/vegetable oil?a. Coconut oilb. Jatropa oilc. Canola oild. Peanut oil
1939-1945 Extensive use of biogas to replace gasoline occurs.1979 Commercial alcohol-blended fuels are marketed1984 Number of ethanol plants peaks at 163 in the United States, producing over 2.2 billion liters of ethanol during the year.1988 Ethanol is used for first time as an oxygenate to lower pollution caused by burning gasoline.1990 Ethanol plants begin to switch from coal to natural gas and to adopt other cost-reducing technologies.1997-2002 Three million U.S. cars and light trucks that could run on E85, a blend of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline, are produced but few gas stations sell the fuel. Concerns about climate change cause leading alternative energies such as biofuel, solar and wind to expand by 20 to 30 percent yearly.2003 California becomes the first to start replacing the oxygenate MTBE with ethanol. Several other states start switching soon afterward.2004 The U.S. ethanol industry makes 225,000 barrels per day in August, an all-time record. Oil companies invest in alcohol fuel.2006 Indy Racing League switches to a 10 percent ethanol, and 90 percent methanol fuel mixture.
It is made up of very complex sugar polymers that are not usually used as a source of food. It includes wide range of heterogeneous solid materials: Agricultural Residues (e.g. rice straw, corn husks etc.) Forestry wastes (e.g. Chips and sawdust from lumber mills) Municipal solid wastes (e.g. paper products) Processing and other Industrial waste (e.g. slops) Energy crops grown for fuel purposes (e.g. trees and grasses) Its main components are cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin.
Plants that can store through photosynthesis the energy from the sun by converting it into simple sugars or complex sugars (starches). Example: sugar cane, sugar beets, corn, cassava and sweet potato These biomass products are mainly used as human or animal food. These products are increasingly being used for the production of biofuels, particularly ethanol as gasoline substitute or blend.
Plants that produce oils, in particular fixed oils, which can be processed to produce biofuels that can be used as diesel substitute or blend. Most of these oils such as soybean oil, coconut oil and palm oil have been used mainly for human or animal food are being processed for the production of biodiesel.
Solid BiofuelFuel which is particularly derivedfrom grass, sawdust, charcoal,agricultural waste, wood, driedmanure and many more which areburned to emit steam that canbe used to generate electricity.
When raw biomassis already in asuitable form (suchas firewood), it canburn directly in astove or furnace toprovide heat orraise steam.
When raw biomassis in aninconvenient form(such as sawdust,wood chips, grass,urban waste wood,agriculturalresidues), thetypical process is todensify thebiomass.
A coarse or fine powdered solid fuel from municipal solid wastes, agricultural wastes and residues and other cellulosic feed stocks after undergoing physical-chemical processes. Presently, two types of refuse-derived fuels are being developed: coarse solid fuel and fine powdered supplementary fuel. There are many developers of the coarse solid fuel systems and a number of power plants run on RDF or mixed RDF and coal.
Gaseous Biofuel Gas produced by the process of anaerobicdigestion of organic material by anaerobes(anaerobic bacteria) typically used as a fuel sourcefor local heat and electrical power generation . It can be produced either from biodegradablewaste materials or by the use of energy cropsfed into anaerobic digesters to supplement gasyields.
A biochemical process whereby organic biomass sources are broken down via microorganisms in a low-oxygen environment producing biogas as a natural byproduct of the reaction. CO CO 2 2 CH4 CH4 Used for industrial or domestic purposes to manage CO CO waste and/or to release energy. 2 2 CH4Widely used as a renewable energy source because the process produces a methane and carbon dioxide rich biogas suitable for energy O 2 O production, helping to replace fossil fuels. The O 2 2 nutrient-rich digestate which is also O O 2 O 2 produced can be used as fertilizer. O O 2 2 2 O2
AnaerobicBiogas DigesterA device for optimizing theanaerobic digestion of Covered Lagoonbiomass and/or animalmanure, often used torecover biogas for energyproduction. Commercial Continuous Flowdigester types includecomplete mix, continuousflow (horizontal or plug-flow, multiple-tank, andvertical tank) and coveredlagoon. Complete Mix
Biogas A naturally occurring gas formed as a byproduct of the breakdown of organic materials in a low-oxygen (e.g. anaerobic) environment. Produced after the anaerobic digestion of the organic materials. A less clean form of biogas is the landfill gas which is produced by the use of naturally occurring anaerobic digesters. Its major components are methane (typically 60 – 70%) and carbon dioxide (typically 30 – 40%).
Biomethane Biogas which has been upgraded or “sweetened” via process to remove the bulk of the carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen sulfide and other impurities from raw biogas (digester gas).
It involves upgrading, or “cleaning-up”, raw biogas to a higher quality gas. The resulting biomethane will have a higher content of methane and a higher energy content making it essentially identical to conventional natural gas.The primary tasks in the biogas upgrading process (“sweetening”): • Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) removal • Carbon dioxide (CO2) removal • Water (H2O) removal • Removal of other contaminants (e.g. particles, halogenated hydrocarbons, ammonia, nitrogen, oxygen and organic silicon compounds) • Odorization
Production of Biomethane Schematic diagram of biogas and biomethane production and utilization (Part 1)
Schematic diagram of biomethanedistribution and utilization (Part 2)
The most important/basic substrate used in the biogas plant in the video.a) Waste waterb) Liquid manurec) Leachated) Brine
What type of anaerobic digester/fermenter was used in the biogas plant in the video?a) Covered lagoonb) Plug-flowc) Multiple tankd) Complete mix
How many days it takes to complete the gas formation process?a) 40 daysb) 50 daysc) 60 daysd) 70 days
In case of overproduction of biogas, what equipment was used to burn the excess biogas?a) Kilnb) Gas Burnerc) Gas flared) Combustion engine
Liquid Biofuel Liquid fuels such as alcohol, ether, and oil can be derived from the chemical energy released by plants and plant-derived substances in photosynthesis.It is used very efficiently in the internal combustion enginesthat power automobilesIt is also environmentally significant because it reducesgreenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change.
What is Bioethanol? Bioethanol (or ethyl alcohol, C2H6O) is analternative, renewable fuel mainly produced bysugar fermentation process, which is used inspark-ignition internal combustion engines(Otto cycle) It is one type of alcohol that has manyproperties quite similar to those of gasoline.These similarities make ethanol a highlyattractive fuel for use as a gasoline substitute oras an alternative fuel for blending.
Production of ethanol from three different feedstocks
Pre-Processing ofDifferent Feedstocks Ethanol can be produced by the fermentation of carbohydrates from three various feed stocks: a) sugar-bearing feed stocks b) starchy feed stocks c) cellulosic feed stocks
Pre-Processing of Sugarcane Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane
Production of Ethanol from Starchy feed stocks• There are basically twosubcategories of starch crops: grains (e.g., corn, sorghum, wheat, and barley) and tubers (e.g., potatoes and sweetpotatoes).
Production of Ethanol from corn using the Wet Mill Process Corn Pre-Processing by Wet Milling Process
Pre-Processing of Cellulosic Feed stocks Production of Ethanol from cellulosic feedstocks Acid Hydrolysis Cellulosic Cooking
It is the natural metabolic process that produces energy by breaking down carbohydrates (like sugars) in the absence of oxygen. It is catalyzed by the action of enzymes present in microorganisms like yeasts (single-celled fungi of Saccharomyces cerevisae species) Ethanol and carbon dioxide are produced as the sugar (glucose) is consumed.C6H12O6 2 CH3CH2OH + 2 CO2
The two distinct types of plant oils:(a)Fixed oils such as coconut and castor oils, which do not readily evaporate on exposure to air(b) Essential oils such as citronella and cinnamon oils, which readily evaporate or volatilize on exposure to air.
Fuel-Related Characteristics of Plant Oils/Vegetable Oils The physical and chemical characteristics of plant oils that affect their suitability as fuels: Heating value Pour point or Melt Point Cloud point Flash point Iodine value Viscosity Density Cetane number Other characteristics that do not have direct bearing on the actual performance of the engine, but are similarly important for environmental and other reasons: Ash Percentage Potassium Percentage Sulfur Percentage.
SVO was the fuel of choice when the diesel engine was invented and first demonstrated. The downside is that straight vegetable oil(SVO) is much more viscous (thicker) thanconventional diesel fuel or biodiesel, and itdoesnt burn the same in the engine that it candamage engines.
Majority of the studies conductedon the use of straight vegetableoils show that in short-term trials,straight plant oils give satisfactoryengine performance and power outputoften equal to or even slightly betterthan conventional diesel fuel. In long term trials, however, straightplant oils cause various engine problemssuch as coking of injector nozzles,sticking piston rings, crankcaseoil dilution, lubricating oil contamination, and other operational problems.
The various studies on the use of plant oil-diesel fuel blends indicate that they can be used in diesel engines for short periods with nosignificant decline in performanceprovided that the concentration of theplant oil in the blend is less than 20%.Long-term engine performance tests show that plantoil concentrations higher than 20% can have adverseeffect on the engine due to accumulation of carbondeposits, fuel line clogging, and lubricating oil contamination.
It is the fatty acid methyl ester or mono-alkyl esters derived from vegetable (plant) oils or animal fats and other biomass-derived oils that meet certain quality specifications. Produced from the reaction of vegetable oil with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst to yield mono- alkyl esters and glycerine, which is then removed. It is a form of biofuel made from soybean, corn, etc. extracts that is an excellent substitute for petroleum diesel fuel.
A tall stately palm, 20-25 metershigh, with a stout wavy stem,surmounted by a crown of longarching, handsome, pinnate leaves. The kernel (endocarp) yieldsa valuable fatty oil. In the freshstate the kernels are shredded and made into desiccated coconut,largely exported for use in confectionery.
The husk (pericarp) when retted forabout 3 weeks in water yields coir fiber,which is made into mats, brushes,matting, string and ropes. Copra of commerce, the source ofcoconut oil, consists of the dried kernels.It is prepared by breaking the nut in two;the two cup-shaped halves, being easilyseparated from the shell, are thendried in the sun or in speciallyconstructed low houses or kilns,over smoke and heat from smolderingfires made with the husks and shells.Copra contains about 65% of oil.
1. Seeds contain more than 30% oil which can be processed into Jatropha Methyl Ester (JME)2. Can be planted in idle lands not suitable for other crops3. Can flower and bear fruits as early as four months after planting if planted by cuttings and six months if planted by seedlings4. A perennial shrub
5. Can be integrated in agricultural systems as hedges or alley crop6. Can be planted as pioneer crop in association with climax species in community-based forest management areas7. Can generate employment being labor intensive in the establishment and harvesting operations, thus, generating additional income for rural areas.
Jatropha plantation in Same Jatropha April 2004 plantation in June 2005
Planting materials in a Jatropha Nursery Development Project at PampangaAgricultural College, Magalang, Pampanga, Philippines
The chemical conversion to achieved mono-alkyl esters from plant oils. During this process, an alcohol (such as methanol) reacts with the triglyceride oils contained in plant oils, animal fats or recycled greases to form fatty acid alkyl esters (biodiesel) and glycerin. The reaction requires heat and a strong base catalyst such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.
Simplified process flow diagram for biodiesel productionTransesterification Dilute Acid EsterificationMethanol Recovery Biodiesel refining PhasePhase separator for the separator for the separation of 2x 4-stage ion-exchange the Multistage mixer for system separation offrom methyl ester glycerine watery phase from transesterification to BiodieselGlycerine for the Purification of Biodiesel Refining RME
“The Biofuels Act of 2006” is also known as _________.a. R.A. 6739b. R.A 3679c. R.A. 9367d. R.A. 7693
Biodiesel ProducersSENBEL FINE CHEMICALS COMPANY, INC.PURE ESSENCE INTERNATIONAL, INC.Annual Rated TECHNOLOGIESCHEMREZ 70,000,000Capacity (liters)Annual Rated Brgy. Cotta, Lucena City 60,000,000Annual Rated Head Office:Capacity (liters)Location 75,000,000Capacity (liters) 20/F Richville Corporate Tower 1107 Alabang-Zapote Road, Madrigal Business Park Alabang, Muntinlupa City PhilippinesLocation 4 Avis St., Bagong Ilog, Pasig City Metro Manila, Philippines Tel. Nos.: (632) 850-6877; 809-6101; 809-6102Contact Fax no.: (632) 809-6116Location Tel.Industria St. Bagumbayan 10 65 Nos.: (632)671-77-07 to Quezon Email: firstname.lastname@example.org City 1110 Metro Manila, PhilippinesWebsite Fax no.: (632) 671-7872 http://www.senbel.com.ph.comContact Mobile No.: Senbel Fine(632) 637-6099 Inc. is a manufacturer and exporter of high quality fine chemicals Fax no.: Chemicals Company,Contact Email: email@example.com derived from coconut and other vegetable oils. These products serve as vital and raw materials for Email: firstname.lastname@example.org cosmetics, household and laundry care industries. Its plant facilities are located at the center ofWebsite http://www.pure-essence.biz/site/biodiesel.html coconut oil milling and trading activities in the Philippines. This makes production very efficient resulting to products of high standard at competitive prices. Senbel Fine Chemicals Company, Inc.Website http://www.chemrez.com focuses its efforts into satisfying the needs of its local and multinational customers. Each quality Pure Essence International, Inc. started operations in 1995. Since then, the product can be tailor-fit to match the clients specifications. Senbel Fine Chemicals Company, Inc.Profile is a young and aggressive firm managed by a dynamic management teamoil blends, as of company has been producing soap noodles from different with long years well experience in the oleochemicals and surfactants industry. derived from vegetable oilsmost Chemrez offers clean-burning fuel enhancers The company has global reach to as quality bath soaps.Profile major markets in the Asia-Pacific, Europe, North Americacollectively many of is made possible including biodiesel. Our fuel enhancers treat an the Middle East. This the problems by its excellent network of distributors and customers worldwide as anew production line to As part of the expansion effort, the company set up a result of its long years ofProfile that other additives address individually. They clean, lubricate and oxygenate association. Senbel has delivered significant quantities of its products and continues to serve an produce Coco Methyl Ester (CME or BioDiesel). Additional products from CME the fuels resulting to efficient combustion, longer mileage and cleaner increasing number of satisfied customers. With all these at hand, the company is poised to serve as a reliable partner to a Methyl roster of customers, bridging their path towards success. are: Soap Noodles, growing Ester Sulfonates, Amides and Betaines. emission.
SAN CARLOS BIOENERGY INC. Annual Rated 30,000,000 Capacity (liters) San Carlos Ecozone Brgy. Palampas & Punao San Location Carlos City, Negros Occidental Tel. Nos.: (632) 752-0050 to 51 Contact Fax no.: (632) 892-9238 Email: email@example.com Website http://www.pure-essence.biz/site/biodiesel.html San Carlos Bioenergy Inc. is a company incorporated in May 2005 to construct, own, and operate an integrated ethanol distillery and power cogeneration plant located in the San Carlos Agro- Industrial Economic Zone on the eastern coast of Negros Occidental - the first in the Philippines and the Southeast Asian region. The plant has the Profile capacity to mill 1,500 TCD of sugarcane to produce 30M liters of ethanol annually and approximately 8MW of power. SCBI is scheduled to deliver the countrys first locally-produced fuel grade ethanol in time for the January 2009 mandate of a 5% ethanol-blend in gasoline as provided by the Biofuels Law.
The plant’s six maincomponents:a) Cane mill (crushing capacity: 1,500 tons/day)b) Fuel ethanol distillery (producing 125,000 liters per day of ethanol) bc) Cogeneration Plant a (capacity :8 MW) cd) Carbon Dioxide Recovery e Plant (50 tons per day)e) Anaerobic Digestion Plantf) Integrated Waste Water f Treatment Plant
The energy obtained from biomass does not add to global warming. Using biofuels as an additive to petroleum-based transportation fuels reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Both bioethanol and biodiesel are used as fuel oxygenates to improve combustion characteristics.
Greater energy security, promotion of exports and rural development Generates revenue, employment and safer living conditions.
Benefits of Using of Anaerobic Digestion Process
Impact of biofuel expansion on food prices and its effects on food security. (Food VS Fuel) Impacts of biofuels to the use of land for monocultivation. Land-use change and biodiversity losses.
The recent scientific advances and technological developments in agriculture, biology and chemistry provide win-win possible solutions to the food-versus- energy dilemma. These include the development of genetically-improved crops for energy and food production, the production of affordable specialized enzymes, and the ability to artificially simulate natural biological processes such as photosynthesis. Nevertheless, a lot of work still needs to be done to reduce costs, mitigate environmental impacts and biodiversity losses, and minimize the pressure on scarce land resources, particularly on existing productive, arable lands.
Algae are the fastest growers ofthe plant kingdom that canproduce and store inside the celllarge amounts of carbohydratesand up to 50% by weight of oil astriglycerides. The conversion of algae oil intobiodiesel is a similar process as forplant oils based on esterification ofthe triglycerides after extraction,but the cost of producing algae oilis relatively high at present. Numerous studies are beingundertaken worldwide inuniversities and research centers todetermine optimum conditions forthe production of oil from micro-algae.