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  • What is a Biofuel?Biofuel is any fuel that is derived from organic matter. It is a renewable source of energy unlike any other resources such as petroleum, coal and nuclear fuels. One advantage of Biofuel in comparison to most other fuel types is its biodegradability, and thus rendering it relatively harmless to the environment if spilled. It is made from biomass and primarily used for motive, thermal and power generation, with quality specifications in accordance with the Philippine National Standards (PNS).
  • These engines are basically classified into two types,depending on how the combustion is started: spark ignition Otto-cycle engines, for whichthe preferred biofuel is bioethanol; and Diesel-cycle engines, in which ignition is achievedby compression and good performance is attained with biodiesel.Actually, pioneers of the automotive industry developed engines for biofuels: HenryFord for bioethanol and Rudolf Diesel for peanut oil.
  • Dr. Rudolph Diesel, a German engineer who filed the patent for a compression ignition (CI) engine in 1894. Hethen successfully operated a prototype engine in 1897. Then in 1900 the diesel engine was first demonstrated to run on peanut oil during the world fair in Paris by the Otto Company at the request of the French Government.
  • Feedstock- a raw material used in the industrial manufacture of a product. Different Biomass for FuelBiomasses are used to make bio fuels and they come in different kinds; one such kind is the solid biomass which is particularly derived form grass, sawdust, charcoal, agricultural waste, wood, dried manure and many more. These biomasses are burned to emit steam that can be used to generate electricity. Another kind is liquid biomass which is derived mostly from vegetable oils, animal fat and recycled grease and can be used as an additive to other fuels; and is also called biodiesel which helps to reduce carbon monoxide emissions. And lastly is the biogas which is derived from the breakdown of organic materials and can be used for cooking, heating and many more.These biomasses that are made into biofuels are very helpful in helping reduce the pollution caused by using conventional fuel for car, pollution generated by power plants to generate electricity and other kinds of pollutions caused when not using biofuels.
  • It comprises 40-60 wt.% of cellulose, 20-40 wt% hemicellose and 10-24% lignin depending on the source of biomass. As a highly complex carbon-containing biomass, it contains a lot of energy and can be burned to produce steam and electricity for use in the biomass-to-ethanol manufacturing process./* cellulosic biomass are mainly used as solid biofuels*/* Cellulose- a complex sugar polymer, or a polysaccharide, and is made from the six-carbon sugar called glucose. Because of its crystalline structure, it is resistant to hydrolysis (the chemical reaction that enables the production of simple, fermentable sugars from a polysaccharide). * Hemicellulose- also a complex polysaccharide that is made from a variety of five carbon and six-carbon sugars. Although it is relatively easier to hydrolyze into simple sugars compared to cellulose, the sugars that are produced, however, are not easily fermented to ethanol. * Lignin - provides structural integrity and strength in plants. It remains as the residual material after the sugars in the biomass have been converted to ethanol.
  • Sugar and starches (carbohydrates) are produced through photosynthesis by plants and contain only molecules of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, usually in the ratio 1:2:1 * However, because of the need to find alternative sources of energy other than fossil fuels, these products areincreasingly being used for the production of biofuels, particularly ethanol as gasoline substitute or blend.*Sugar (a.k.a sucrose or table sugar)- water-soluble carbohydrates that have relatively low molecular weight and usually characterized with having a sweet taste. *Carbohydrates, on the other hand, are a group of organic compounds that include sugars, starches, celluloses and gums. They provide a major source of energy in the diet of humans and animals. *Simple sugars are called monosaccharides. More complex sugars comprise between two and ten monosaccharides that are linked together. Thus dissacharides are those that contain two monosaccharides,trisaccharides are those that contain three and so on.
  • When raw biomass is already in a suitable form (such as firewood), it can burn directly in a stove or furnace to provide heat or raise steam..
  • This process includes grinding the raw biomass to an appropriate particulate size (known as hogfuel), which depending on the densification type can be from 1 to 3 cm (1 in), which is then concentrated into a fuel product. The current types of processes are wood pellet, cube, or puck. The pellet process is most common in Europe and is typically a pure wood product. The other types of densification are larger in size compared to a pellet and are compatible with a broad range of input feedstocks. The resulting densified fuel is easier to transport and feed into thermal generation systems such as boilers.When raw biomass is in an inconvenient form (such as sawdust, wood chips, grass, urban waste wood, agricultural residues), the typical process is to densify the biomass.
  • The process of preparing coarse solid fuel includes a combination of shredding, magnetic separation, and air classification to remove the non-combustible fraction. Some systems pass the material through trommel screens for additional contaminant removal. A simplified process flow diagram for the production of RDF includes the separation of the non-combustible components through size reduction followed by screening, mixing with an additive, press molding and drying.The coarse products are then briquetted, with or without a suitable binder, for easier handling.
  • A gas produced from bacteria in the process of bio-degradation of organic material under anaerobic conditions. (absence of oxygen)
  • 2.2.1 Types of Anaerobic Digesters The following is a brief description of the major types of anaerobic digesters currently used: • Covered Lagoon – This is the simplest and least expensive type of anaerobic digester. It is intended to be used on large volume, liquid manure lagoons with less than 2% solids, typically on a dairy or swine farm. It consists of a non-porous, plastic cover over a manure lagoon with a built-in biogas collection system. The cover traps gas produced during the decomposition of the manure. Covered lagoons are sometimes installed for odor control purposes (in which case the captured biogas may be flared) but with additional equipment, the recovered biogas can be used to provide heat and electric power to the farm. • Complete Mix – This type of anaerobic digester is more expensive than a covered lagoon and is intended for manure with 2 – 10% solids. It consists of either above- or below-ground tanks with a built-in mixing and biogas collection system. The mixing system, which may be either mechanical or gas-based, helps to increase the efficiency of the digestion process as well as accelerate it. Likewise a built-in heating system also increases the efficiency of the digestion process. Typically 10 – 15% of the biogas output is used to provide heating for the digester and electricity for other biogas plant processes. • Plug-Flow – This type of anaerobic digester is intended for ruminant animal manure (cows) with 11 – 14% solids and is therefore not appropriate for manure collected via a flush system. The design is similar to the complete mix digester but without the mixing system. Plug-flow digesters are cheaper to construct and operate than complete mix digesters but are also less efficient. • Multiple-Tank (2-Stage) – This type of anaerobic digester is similar to the complete mix digester design except that digestion occurs sequentially in two phases. The first phase is a higher temperature (thermophilic) phase at 55ºC followed by a second, lower temperature (mesophilic) phase at 35ºC. While laboratory tests of this design show promise for increased digester efficiency, there is very little data on field-scale systems yet.
  • most common biomass feedstocks used to produce biogas: • Sewage • Organic fraction of municipal solid waste (e.g. in landfills) • Manure (e.g. dairy, pig, cattle) • Forestry wastes • Agricultural wastes • “Energy crops” (e.g. clover grass, corn) • Industrial food processing wastes
  • A gas mainly composed of methane (60%) and carbon dioxideA less clean form of biogas is the landfill gas which is produced by the use of naturally occurring anaerobic digesters. but these gases can be a severe threat if escapes into the atmosphere.Biogas – A naturally occurring gas formed as a byproduct of the breakdown of organic materials in a low-oxygen (e.g. anaerobic) environment. In its raw state, the major components of biogas are methane (typically 60 – 70%) and carbon dioxide (typically 30 – 40%). Additional smaller components of biogas include hydrogen sulfide (typically 50 – 2000 ppm), water vapor (saturated), oxygen and various trace hydrocarbons. Due to its low methane content (and therefore lower heating value) compared to NG, biogas is considered a low quality gas which is only suitable for use in Biogas: Biogas is mainly produced after the anaerobic digestion of the organic materials. Biogas can also be produced with the biodegradation of waste materials which are fed into anaerobic digesters which yields biogas. The residue or the by product can be easily used as manure or fertilizers for agricultural use. The biogas produced is very rich in methane which can be easily recovered through the use of mechanical biological treatment systems. A less clean form of biogas is the landfill gas which is produced by the use of naturally occurring anaerobic digesters, but the main threat is that these gases can be a severe threat if escapes into the atmosphere.
  • 1. Solidwastes that are gathered by dump trucks are brought into the intake pit or MRF were the waste are sorted and screened. Inorganic waste are separated from the organic waste. Then it will under screening and size reduction to further separate the large solid materials. It will then be stored in the intermediate storage before going into the fermenter/anearobic digester. After several days of storage in the fermenter, 3 by products are formed. First is the solid part/phase that can be used as compost. The liquid product is used as liquid fertilizer. And the main product which is the biogas is used as fuel for automobiles, used in power genration etc.
  • Biomethane – Biogas which has been upgraded or “sweetened” via a process to remove the bulk of the carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen sulfide and other impurities from raw biogas (digester gas). The primary purpose of upgrading biogas to biomethane is to use the biomethane as an energy source in applications that require pipeline quality or vehicle-fuel quality gas, such as transportation. From a functional point of view, biomethane is extremely similar to NG except that it comes from renewable sources. (Note that the term “biomethane” has not yet come into popular usage; thus the term “biogas” is often used when referring to both the raw and upgraded forms of biogas/biomethane.)
  • BIOMETHANE PRODUCTIONRemoval of hydrogen sulfide (H2S)Hydrogen sulfide is a contaminant present in biogas produced during the digestion process. The H2S content of theraw biogas may vary from 50 to 3000 ppm (parts per million) or higher. H2S should be removed from the gas stream early in the treatment process because of its corrosive nature. In addition, the release of the compound into the atmosphere is carefully regulated as it is extremely toxic and it contributes to air pollution. Pipeline gas and vehicle fuel standardsrequire an H2S content of less than 16 ppm. Some of the technologies used to reduce theH2S content to acceptable levels are:• In-situ (undisturbed) reduction of H2S within the digester vessel by adding metal ions (e.g. iron chloride) to form insoluble metal sulfides or creation of elementary sulfur through oxidation • Removal of H2S with metal oxides (e.g. iron oxide and zinc oxide) • Oxidation with air• Adsorption of H2S on activated carbonRemoval of carbon dioxide (CO2)Reducing the relative amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the biogas is the main task of the biogas upgrading process. Raw biogas contains typically 60 – 70% methane and 30 – 40% carbon dioxide and biomethane contains 97 – 99% methane and 1 – 3% carbon dioxide.The following are the most common methods used to decrease the CO2 content and increase the methane content of biogas:• Membrane separation In membrane separation, the biogas is directed to a very thin (<1 mm) physical membrane where the rates of CO2and H2S diffusion through the membrane are very high relative to the rate of methane diffusion. As a result, most of the methane is retained on one side of the membrane and most of the CO2and H2S passes through to the other side. • Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) PSA is a method for separating CO2from methane via adsorption/desorption of CO2on zeolites or activated carbon at different pressure levels. The system consists of multiple vessels filled with adsorption material. During the adsorption phase, biogas is fed into the bottom of a vessel. As it travels to the top of the vessel, CO2, O2and N2are adsorbed on the surface of the adsorption material, resulting in pressure buildup and >97% methane content of the gas leaving the top of the vessel. • Water scrubbing (with and without regeneration) In water scrubbing systems, biogas is fed into the bottom of a tall vertical column and water is fed into the top of the column, thereby creating a gas-liquid counter flow. Under pressure, CO2is dissolved in the water flowing through the column. Thus the gas leaving the top of the column has a high methane content and the water leaving the bottom of the column has a high dissolved CO2 content.Water RemovalRaw biogas is saturated with water vapor. Since water is potentially damaging to natural gas pipeline equipment and engines,pipeline and vehicle fuel requirements regarding water content and dewpoint are very strict.The following are some of the most common methods usedfor removing water from biogas (sometimes referred to as drying the biogas):• Refrigeration• Adsorption• AbsorptionRefrigeration is a common method used in many systems. Adsorption drying requires regeneration of the adsorbing (drying) agent. H2O can also be absorbed, e.g. with glycol, triethylene glycol or hygroscopic salts.
  • Depending on the technology used, some of the biogas upgrading steps may be performed simultaneously or as separate steps in the process. In addition, there may be further processing required depending on the composition of the raw biogas, the final form of theBiomethane (e.g. low pressure gas, compressed, liquefied) and its intended usage.Removal of Other ContaminantsIn addition to H2S, H2O and CO2, there may be other trace contaminants present in the biogas which are potentially harmful to equipment and/or people and must therefore be removed or reduced to acceptable levels. These additional contaminants include particles, halogenated hydrocarbons, ammonia, nitrogen, oxygen and organic silicon compounds (e.g. siloxanes). A number of effective, commercially available technologies exist to reduce or eliminate these contaminants including filters, membranes, activated carbon and other absorption media.OdorizationOdorization is normally accomplished by introducing sulfur containing compounds such as tetrahydrotiophen or mercaptans into the gas via a controlled dosing process.
  • Feedstock suitable for use in ethanol production via fermentation must contain sugars, starches, or cellulose that may readily be convertible to fermentable sugars. Feedstocks can be classified roughly into three groups: those containing predominantly sugars, starches, or cellulose.
  • Ethanol is one type of alcohol that has many properties quite similar to those of gasoline. These similarities make ethanol a highly attractive fuel for use as a gasoline substitute or as an alternative fuel for blending. Ethanol can be produced by the fermentation of carbohydrates from various feedstocks. The feedstocks fall under three main categories: (a) sugarbearingfeedstocks such as sugar cane; (b) starchy feedstocks such as cassavaor corn; and (c) cellulosic feedstocks such as wood and agricultural residues such as bagasse.
  • The densities of ethanol and gasoline are almost identical although the energy content of ethanol is about 30% lower. On the other hand, since ethanol contains molecular oxygen that promotes more complete combustion, the difference in energy content does not become a major concern at low level of alcohol blends in gasoline.Octane rating is a measure of a fuel’s resistance to self-ignition and detonation. There are to main ratings, the Motor (MON) and Research (RON) methods, which permits to infer how engines fed with a particular fuel will behave in high load or steady load conditions, respectively.Ethanol is an excellent anti-detonating additive, and significantly improves the octane rating of the base gasoline.Steam pressure determines the level of evaporative emissions and the possibility of steam forming in fuel lines, a problem which is minimized today with the use of fuel pumps inside the tank of most modern vehicles. It is interesting to note that, althoughthe steam pressure of pure gasoline is higher than that of pure ethanol the addition of ethanol to gasoline raises the steam pressure of the blend.The addition of ethanol tends to shift the distillation curve, especially its first half, affecting the so-called T50 temperature — 50% of the mass evaporated — although the initial and final distillation temperatures are not significantly affected. In this regard, the addition of ethanol has limited impact on engine behaviour..
  • GlossaryBagasse – Used as a biofuel. Bagasse is the fibrous residue remaining after crushing sugarcane or sorghum stalks.Biodiesel – Vegetable or animal based diesel fuel. It is a form of renewable energy.Bioethanol – Produced from agricultural feedstocks by the sugar fermentation process. It is a form of renewable energy.Cellulosic bioethanol – Biofuel produced from non-edible parts of plants, wood or grasses.Denatured alcohol – also known as methylated spirits. It is mainly used as a household solvent and as a fuel for many different industrial uses. It is undrinkable.Diesel No.2 – Diesel road fuel.ETBE – Ethyl tert-butyl ether is a gasoline additive used to raise the octane number of gasoline. It is far less polluting that MTBE.Ethanol – Also known as ethyl alcohol. Involves the fermentation of sugar from nonrenewable sources.Fischer-Tropsch process – a process that converts gas to liquids. It produces a petroleum substitute.Gasoline (US term) – Petroleum-derived liquid used mainly as road fuel.Glycerol – A byproduct of biodiesel.Hydrous bioethanol versus anhydrous bioethanol – Anhydrous alcohol is purer than hydrous bioethanol and is free from water. This ethanol may be used in fuel blends. Hydrous alcohol contains water.MTBE – Methyl tert-butyl ether is a gasoline additive used to raise the octane number of gasoline although it is major pollutant and is banned in many places.Petrol (UK term) – Petroleum-derived liquid used mainly as road fuel.Ratoon – Stubble crop.Syngas/synfuel – Synthetic liquid fuel that can be made from biomass.The various mixes, e.g. B2, B5, E8, E10, E20, E25, E85 – B means biodiesel, E means bioethanol and the number represents the percentage of the relevant biofuel within the mix. It may also be referred to in a ratio form e.g 10:90 ratio is E10 fuel.Vinasse – byproduct of sugar fermentation process.
  • Ethanol can be produced by the fermentation of carbohydrates from various feedstocks. The feedstocks fall under three main categories: sugarbearingfeedstocks such as sugar cane; (b) starchy feedstocks such as cassava or corn; and (c) cellulosic feedstocks such as wood and agricultural residues such as bagasse.Depending on the type and nature of feedstock, the pre-processing steps or operations may differ but there are basically three processes that are common for all three types of feedstocks: fermentation of the sugars into ethanol; (b) distillation to separate the aqueous ethanol (95%) from the fermented mash; and (c) dehydration to produce anhydrous ethanol (>99.5%) suitable for blending with gasoline.The sugar extracted from cane or sweet sorghum can be directly fermented with little or no alteration, but the starches present in grains must be converted into sugars. Starch itself is nothing more than a long chain of individual glucose molecules, which must be broken apart or hydrolyzed with enzymes.
  • In the case of starchy and cellulosic feedstocks, pretreatment through saccharification or hydrolysis is required in order to convertthem to sugars that can be fermented by yeast into ethanol.
  • Preparation is basically a crushing and extraction of the sugars which the yeast can immediately use. But sugar crops must be dealt with fairly quickly before their high sugar and water content causes spoilage. Because of the danger of such spoilage, the storage of sugar crops is not practical.The crop residue, called bagasse, is usedto provide heat.After it is cut sugarcane is promptly transported to the mill to avoid saccharose losses.The initial processing stages for bioethanol are basically the same as for sugar production. Once in the mill sugarcane is generally washed (only the whole stalk sugarcane) and sent to the preparation and extraction phases. Extraction is made by roll-mills that separate the sugarcane juice containing saccharose from the bagasse, which is sent to the mill’s power plant to be used as fuel. Produced in the mill or diffuser, the juice containing sugars can be then used in sugar or bioethanol production.The juice is initially screened and chemically treated for coagulation, flocculation and precipitation of impurities, which are eliminated through decanting. The filter cake, used as fertilizer, is generated by recovering sugar out of the decanted slurry by meansof rotary vacuum filters. The treated juice is then concentrated in multiple-effect evaporators and crystallized. The molasses does not return to the sugar manufacturing process but can be used as an input for bioethanol production through fermentation, because it still contains some saccharose and a high amount of reducing sugars (such as glucose and fructose, resulting from saccharose decomposition).After treatment the juice is evaporated to balance its sugars concentration and, in some cases, it is mixed to molasses, generating sugarcane mash, a sugary solution which is ready to be fermented. The mash is sent to fermentation reactors, where yeasts are added to it (single-celled fungi of Saccharomycescerevisae species) and fermented for a period ranging from 8 to 12 hours, generating wine (fermented mash, with ethanol concentration from 7% to 10%). In distillation bioethanol is initially recovered in hydrated form. Nearly 96° GL (percent in volume) corresponds to around 6% of water in weight, producing vinasse or stillage as residue, generally at a ratio of 10 to 13 litres per litre of hydrated bioethanol produced. In this process, other liquid fractions are also separated, producing second generation alcohols and fusel oil. Hydrated bioethanol can be stored as final product or may be sent to the dehydration column. Nevertheless, as it is an azeotropic mixture, its components cannot be separated by distillation only. The most commonly-used technology is dehydration with addition of cyclohexane, forming a ternary azeotropic mixture, with boiling point lower than that of anhydrous bioethanol. In the dehydration column, cyclohexane is added on top, and the anhydrous bioethanol is removed from the bottom, with nearly 99.7° GL or 0.4% of water in weight. The ternary mixture removed from the top is condensed and decanted, while the part with high water content is sent to the cyclohexane recovery column.Bioethanol dehydration also can be made by adsorption with molecular sieves or by means of extractive distillation with monoethyleneglycol (MEG), which stand out as providers of lower energy consumption, as well as by their higher costs. Due to increasing requirements bioethanol producers have been choosing molecular sieves, since they allow producing anhydrous bioethanol free from contaminants.
  • In starch crops, most of the six-carbon sugar units are linked together in long, branched chains (called starch). Yeast cannot use these chains to produce ethanol. The starch chains must be broken down into individual six- carbon units or groups of two units. The starch conversion processis relatively simple because the bonds in the starch chain can be broken in an inexpensive manner by the use of heat and enzymes, or by a mild acid solution.
  • For the production of ethanol from corn, there are two main processes incommercial use: dry milling and wet milling. In the dry milling process the entirecorn kernel is ground into flour, which is referred to as “meal.” The meal is thenmade into slurry by adding water. Enzymes are added to the mash to convertstarch to dextrose, which is a simple sugar. Ammonia is added to control thepH and to provide nutrient for the yeast, which is added later. The mixture isprocessed at high temperatures to reduce the bacteria levels and transferred andcooled in fermentation tanks. This is where the yeast is added and conversionfrom sugar to ethanol and carbon dioxide takes place.The entire process takes between 40 to 50 hours, during which time thefermenting mash is kept cool and agitated in order to facilitate yeast activity. Afterthe process is complete, everything is transferred to distillation columns where theethanol is removed from the stillage. The ethanol is dehydrated to about 99.5%using a molecular sieve system. A denaturant such as gasoline is added to theanhydrous ethanol to render the product not suitable for drinking. The remainingstillage undergoes a series of processes to produce feed for livestock. The carbondioxide released from the process is collected and processed to produce industrialor food grade product.
  • The process of wet milling takes the corn grain and steeps it in a dilute combination of sulfuric acid and water for 24 to 48 hours in order to separate the grain into many components. The slurry mix then goes through a series of grinders to separate out the corn germ. Corn oil is a by-product of this process and is extracted and sold. The remaining components of fiber, gluten and starch are segregated out using screen, hydroclonic and centrifugal separators. The gluten protein is dried and filtered to make a corn gluten meals coproduct, which is used as a feed ingredient for poultry broilers. The steeping liquor produced is concentrated and dried with the fiber and sold as corn gluten feed to the livestock industry. The heavy steep water is also sold as a feed ingredient. The starch and remaining water can then be processed one of three ways: (a) fermented into ethanol through a similar process as dry milling; (b) dried and sold as modified corn starch; or (c) made into corn syrup. The production of ethanol from corn using the wet mill process has become the technology of choice since it provides more product diversity and flexibilityAcid hydrolysis of starch is accomplished by directly contacting starch with dilute acid to break the polymer bonds. This process hydrolyzes the starch very rapidly at cooking temperatures and reduces the time needed for cooking. Since the resulting pH is lower than desired for fermentation, it may be increased after fermentation is complete by neutralizing some of the acid with either powdered limestone or ammonium hydroxide. It also may be desirable to add a small amount of glucoamylase enzyme after pH correction in order to convert the remaining dextrins.
  • Pre-Processing of Cellulosic Feed stocks To produce ethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, several pre-treatment steps are necessary to convert cellulose into simple sugars that can be converted into alcohol using the conventional yeast fermentation process. The first step is mechanical preparation through size reduction to make the material easier to handle and more susceptible to the subsequent pre-treatment steps. This is followed by acid pre-treatment. In this step, the hemicellulose fraction of the biomass is broken down into simple sugars. A chemical reaction called hydrolysis occurs when dilute sulfuric acid is mixed with the biomass feedstock. In this hydrolysis reaction, the complex chains of sugars that make up the hemicellulose are broken, releasing simple sugars. The complex hemicelluloses sugars are converted to a mix of soluble five-carbon sugars, xylose and arabinose, and soluble six-carbon sugars, mannose and galactose. A small portion of the cellulose is also converted to glucose. The next step is cellulose hydrolysis. In this step, the remaining cellulose is hydrolyzed to glucose. In this enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, cellulase enzymes are used to break the chains of sugars that make up the cellulose, releasing glucose. Cellulose hydrolysis is also called cellulose saccharification because it produces sugars. The yeast feeds on the sugars and as the sugars are consumed, ethanol and carbon dioxide are produced. The hemicellulose fraction of biomass is rich in five-carbon sugars, which are also called pentoses. Xylose is the most prevalent pentose released by the hemicellulose hydrolysis reaction.  As glucose is converted to ethanol by yeast fermentation similar to those used in the first two types of feedstocks, the pentose (mainly xylose) is subjected to a different type of fermentation. In pentose fermentation, Zymomonasmobilisor other genetically engineered bacteria are used instead of yeast. Hydrous ethanol is recovered from the fermented mash through distillation and anhydrous ethanol is produced after dehydration. Lignin and other byproducts of the biomass-to-ethanol process can be used to produce the electricity required for the ethanol production process. Burning lignin actually creates more energy than needed and selling electricity to outside users improves the economic viability of the process.
  • Itis necessary to begin fermentation is by mixing the activated yeast and the cooled, pH-adjusted mash in the fermentation tank. Aside from the considerations of pH, the most important thing during the fermentation is temperature control. When the fermentation begins, carbon dioxide gas will be given off. At the height of fermentation, the mash will literally "boil" from the carbon dioxide produced. The reaction also produces some heat. The optimum temperature for the fermentation process is between 70-85 deg F., and it is desirable not to let the temperature go much above 90-95 deg F. Conversion of sugars to alcohol and C02 will be completed in three to five days, depending on the temperature of the mixture and the type of yeast used. You can tell when the mash is done by watching the "cap" of solids on top of the solution. During fermentation, the rising C02 keeps the solids in constant motion, but when the bubbling stops, the solids fall to the bottom. At this time, you're ready to separate the solids from the liquids and begin distillation. Yeast plants can propagate in a solution with or without air, so agitate only enough to saturate the wort with air and then let it stand still. If the mash is continually agitated, the yeast will reproduce faster and make less waste: carbon dioxide and alcohol. But if the solution becomes anaerobic (without air) the yeast slows down reproduction and makes more alcohol and carbon dioxide.Yeast also produces enzymes of its own to convert complex sugars. Since sugar conversion and alcohol conversion can take place simultaneously, the amylase enzymes and the yeast work in cooperation to convert the dextrins to glucose and fructose and then to alcohol and C02.
  • Continuous fermentation. The advantage of continuous fermentation of clarified beer is the ability to use high concentrations of yeast (this is possible because the yeast does not leave the fermenter). The high concentration of yeast results in rapid fermentation and, correspondingly, a smaller fermenter can be used. However, infection with undesired micro-organisms can be troublesome because large volumes of mash can be ruined before the problem becomes apparent.
  • Batch fermentation. Fermentation time periods similar to those possible with continuous processes can be attained by using high concentrations of yeast in batch fermentation. The high yeast concentrations are economically feasible when the yeast is recycled. Batch fermentations of unclarified mash are routinely accomplished in less than 30 hours. High conversion efficiency is attained as sugar is converted to 10%-alcohol beer without yeast recycle. Further reductions in fermentation require very large quantities of yeast. The increases attained in ethanol production must be weighed against the additional costs of the equipment and time to culture large yeast populations for inoculation.Fermentation is a chemical process and produces heat. In concentrated or particularly large mashes, the temperature can actually rise to levels dangerous to yeast. Since the ideal temperature for yeast is around 85 deg F, it's best to maintain that temperature by either utilizing cooling coils.
  • Ethanol is therefore recovered through distillation but only hydrous ethanol of about 95-96% can be produced through steam distillation of the fermented mash due to the formation of water-ethanol azeotrope. The product ethanol is withdrawn from the top of the distillation column while the spent fermented mash called distillery slops is withdrawn from the bottom and sent for further treatment before final disposal or reuse. To make ethanol fully miscible with gasoline, it is necessary to further remove the residual water to produce anhydrous ethanol with a concentration of at least 99.5%. To attain this concentration, the hydrous ethanol has to undergo a suitable dehydration process or operation. 
  • There are at least three widely-used dehydration processes to further remove water from the azeotropic ethanol-water solution. The first process that was used in many of the earlier ethanol plants is the so-called azeotropic distillation or ternary distillation process (as opposed to a binary or two component distillation process). It consists of introducing a third component, benzene or cyclohexane, to the azeotropic solution which forms a heterogeneous azeotropic mixture in vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium. When this mixture is distilled, anhydrous ethanol is produced at the bottom of the distillation column. Another early method is called extractive distillation, which consists of adding a ternary component that increases the relative volatility of ethanol. In this case, anhydrous alcohol is produced and withdrawn at the top of the distillation column. Because distillation processes are energy intensive, a third method has been developed and accepted in majority of modern ethanol plants. This process uses molecular sieves to remove water from ethanol. In this process, ethanol vapor under pressure passes through a bed of molecular sieve beads. The pores of the beads are such that they allow the absorption of water but not ethanol. Two beds are normally used in parallel to allow the regeneration of one bed while the other is in use. This dehydration technology can save significant amounts of energy (up to 840 kJ/l) compared to conventional azeotropic or extractive distillation processes.
  • Fixed oils are usually extracted by crushing and pressure, by boiling, or by chemical solvents. On the other hand, essential oils are almost always extracted by distillation, many of them from flowers such as ilang-ilang oil and sampaguita oil. Some fixed oils that are liquid at relatively high temperature become solid in ambient and lower temperatures. These fixed oils from plants are the oils of interest as possible replacement for diesel fuel or as diesel fuel extenders while essential oils are of interest as components in the production of perfumes and other cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Soybean oil, coconut oil and palm oil are the most widely used plant oils, followed by rapeseed oil, sunflower seed oil, peanut or groundnut oil, cottonseed oil, and olive oil.
  • Heating Value, Heat of Combustion. Heating Value or Heat of Combustion is the amount of heating energy released by the combustion of a unit value of fuels. One of the most important determinants of heating value is moisture content. Air dried biomass typically has about 15-20% moisture, whereas the moisture content for oven-dried biomass is negligible.Melt Point or Pour Point. Melt or pour point refers to the temperature at which the oil in solid form starts to melt or pour. In cases where the temperatures fall below the melt point, the entire fuel system including all fuel lines and fuel tank will need to be heated.Cloud Point (CP). The temperature at which an oil starts to solidify. While operating an engine at temperatures below an oil’s cloud point, heating will be necessary in order to avoid waxing of the fuel.Flash Point (FP). The flash point temperature of fuel is the minimum temperature at which the fuel will ignite (flash) on application of an ignition source. Flash point varies inversely with the fuel’s volatility. Minimum flash point temperatures are required for proper safety and handling of fuel.Iodine Value (IV). The amount of iodine, measured in grams, absorbed by 100ml of a given oil. The degree of saturation is indicated by the Iodine Value of the oil. Plant oils with low iodine value are generally more combustible and more efficient fuels than oils with high iodine value.Viscosity. Viscosity refers to the thickness of the oil, and is determined by measuring the amount of time taken for a given measure of oil to pass through an orifice of a specified size. Viscosity is one of the critical parameters in the use of plant oils as fuel since it affects injector lubrication and fuel atomization.Density. The weight per unit volume. Oils that are denser contain more energy. For example, gasoline and diesel fuels give comparable energy by weight, but diesel is denser and hence gives more energy per liter.Cetane Number (CN). A relative measure of the interval between the beginning of injection and autoignition of the fuel. The higher the cetane number, the shorter the delay interval and the greater its combustibility.Ash Percentage. Ash is a measure of the amount of metals contained in the fuel. High concentrations of ash can cause injector tip plugging, combustion deposits and injection system wear. The ash content is important for the heating value, as heating value decreases with increasing ash content.Sulfur Percentage. The percentage, by weight, of sulfur in the fuel. Sulfur content is limited by law to very small percentages for diesel fuel used in on-road applications.Potassium Percentage. The percentage, by weight, of potassium in the fuel
  • The use of pure or straight plant oil as fuel in diesel engines is an old idea. In fact it was the fuel of choice when the diesel engine was invented and first demonstrated.
  • The use of pure or straight plant oil as fuel in diesel engines is an old idea. In fact it was the fuel of choice when the diesel engine was invented and first demonstrated.
  • Degumming is suggested as a way to improve the characteristics of plant oils in low level blends. The use of suitable additives has also been suggested to overcome many of the problems associated with the use of higher concentrations of plant oil in the fuel blends.
  • What is biodiesel?Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that is domestic, non-toxic, biodegradable, clean burning, and renewable. It can completelyreplace petroleum diesel, or be mixed with it in any concentration. B20, or 20% biodiesel to 80% petroleum diesel, is acommon mixture ratio in the US, as is B2 and B5. In the United States, biodiesel is made primarily from various oilseedcrops such as Soybeans or Canola oil and secondarily from waste vegetable oil (WVO), which is essentially usedrestaurant cooking oil.
  • Produced from the reaction of vegetable oil with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst to yield mono-alkyl esters and glycerine, which is then removed. The oil comes from oily crops or trees (e.g. rapeseed, sunflower, soya, palm, coconut or jatropha), but also from animal fats, tallow, and waste cooking oil. Some types of biodiesel can be used unblended or in high-proportion blends if vehicle engines are modified. A blend of 5 per cent biodiesel in regular diesel is denominated as B5. A form of biofuel made from soybean or corn extracts. Biodiesel is an excellent option for vehicles that run on gasoline as well as those that run on diesel. There are several methods available: acid-catalyzed, alkaline-catalyzed, enzyme catalyzed, or non-catalyzed
  • The Philippines is a major coconut source and the country is the largest Coconut Oil producer/exporter in the world.
  • The growing concern regarding the possible diversion of plant oils from their use as food for humans and animals to their use as fuel for compression ignition engines has sparked the search for suitable plant oils that fall outside the “food or fuel dilemma”. As population grows and per capita consumption rises, the price of traditional feedstocks such as coconut oil, palm oil and soybean oilrises sharply making their use as fuel both uneconomical and impractical. One of the consequences of this food or fuel dilemma is the growing interest in the use of oil from jatrophacurcas as feedstock for the production of biofuels. The principal reasons for this are first, jatropha oil is not suitable for human consumption, and second, the plant is found to grow fairly well in marginal soils.It is impractical because as more of these plant oils are diverted to fuel production, their price go up even more thus rendering them uneconomical for fuel use. In addition, this causes further increase in the price of many food products.
  • It is known in the Philippines as tubangbakod, tuba-tuba, kasla, tubangaso,tibangsilangan, tawa-tawa• Planted in fences for hedges, thus the term tubangbakod• Seeds are grounded and used to poison fish thus the term tuba• Leaves are used as herbal medicine for fractures• Can reach a height of up to 5 meters• 500-600 mm of rainfall limit of growth• Can grow in areas of up to 500 meters above sea level• Can grow in marginal or poor soil condition (semi-arid to tropical condition)• Bears flowers and fruits as early as 6 months and can live up to 50 years• Can bear fruit throughout the year• From seedling: flowering starts at 7 to 8 months after planting• From cuttings: flowering could be as early as four months after planting• Typically planting density of 2,500 trees per hectare (2 meters x 2 meters)• Yields 2,000-5,000 kg seeds/hectare/year depending on the quality ofjatropha seed, planting density and soil quality• 3-4 bunches per branch per fruiting season• 7-10 fruits per bunch• Average of 2.66 seeds per fruit• Average of 36 branches per tree• Average of 1,200 seeds per kilogram• 0.3-0.9 kg/tree seed production• Seeds yield 30-40% crude non-edible oil• Typically produces 0.75-2 tons biodiesel/hectare
  • The Jatropha Methyl Ester industry and market is still in its infancy here in the Philippines, but it is likely to become a major global industry sector in 5 to 10 years.
  • In the countryside where land is available and labor is plentiful and relatively cheap, jatrophacurcas may be grown and the seeds manually harvested. The fruits are sun-dried, manually dehulled, and the seed further dried under the sun. The sundried seeds are then sent to a mechanical press for the extraction of oil. The press cake is removed from the bottom of the equipment and may be used as fuel for cooking and other purposes. The crude jatropha oil is sent to a plate-and frame filter press to remove residual solids. The filtered jatropha oil is ready and suitable as feedstock in a small-scale microemulsification plant. The MHF that is produced can be used to run farm tractors, trucks, cars and jeepneys, and to operate compression ignition engines to supply electricity to the community or run irrigation pumps.The use of small scale mechanical press for the extraction of oil from jatropha seeds, combined with the microemulsification of jatropha oil to produce fuel for compression ignition engines, appears to be a viable option for wide application in many parts of most developing countries, including the Philippines. Small scale jatropha oil extraction facilities may be installed together with a microemulsification plant. The extraction process using a small mechanical press followed by filtration.
  • The process of biodiesel production involves two phases. The first phase is the extraction of crude oil from seeds and the second is the transesterification of the crude oil into biodiesel. The extraction process involves the use of machines to extract the oil from the seed. On the other hand, the transesterification of crude oil is a process that uses chemicals like methanol and catalysts such as caustic soda. This produces jatropha methyl ester (JME) as its main product and glycerin as its by-product. Ten liters of crude jatropha oil produces 8.5 liters of JME.
  • The process of biodiesel production involves two phases. The first phase is the extraction of crude oil from seeds and the second is the transesterification of the crude oil into biodiesel. The extraction process involves the use of machines to extract the oil from the seed. On the other hand, the transesterification of crude oil is a process that uses chemicals like methanol and catalysts such as caustic soda. This produces jatropha methyl ester (JME) as its main product and glycerin as its by-product. Ten liters of crude jatropha oil produces 8.5 liters of JME.Acid Esterification. The oil feedstock containing more than 4% free fatty acids is usually pretreated using an acid esterification process to increase the yield of biodiesel. These include inedible animal fats and recycledgreases. The feedstock is first filtered and then pre-processed to remove water and other contaminants such as unwanted solids. The pretreated oil is then fed to the acid esterification process. The catalyst, sulfuric acid, is dissolved in methanol and then mixed with the pretreated oil. The mixture is heated and stirred, and the free fatty acids are converted to biodiesel. Once the reaction is complete, it is dewatered and then fed to the transesterification process.Transesterification. The plant oil, which contains less than 4% free fatty acids, is first filtered and then pre-processed to remove water and other contaminants. The pretreated oil is then fed directly to the transesterification process along with any products of the acid esterification process. The catalyst, potassium hydroxide, is dissolved in methanol and then mixed with the pretreated oil. If an acid esterification process is used, then additional alkaline catalyst must be added to neutralize any excess acid remaining from that step. Once the reaction is complete, the major co-products, biodiesel and glycerin, are separated into two layers.Methanol recovery. The methanol is usually removed immediately after the biodiesel and glycerine have been separated. This is done to prevent the reaction from reversing itself. The recovered methanol is cleaned and recycled back to the beginning of the process.Biodiesel refining. Once separated from the glycerin, the biodiesel goes through a series of cleaning-up or purification steps to remove excess alcohol, residual catalyst and soaps. These consist of multistage washings with clean water. The product biodiesel is then dried and sent to storage. If required, the product biodiesel can be further refined through an additional distillation step to produce a colorless, odorless, zero-sulfur, and premium quality biodiesel.Glycerin refining. The crude glycerin from the transesterification process may be recovered or used in a fuel blend for steam production. The crude glycerin contains unreacted catalyst and soaps that must be neutralized with an acid. The water and alcohol are also removed to produce 50%-80% crude glycerin. The remaining contaminants include unreacted fats and oils. In large biodiesel plants, the glycerin can be further purified through a series of unit operations to produce a product of 99% or higher purity. This purified product is suitable for use in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.
  • Policy on biofuelsIt is hereby declared the policy of the State to reduce dependence on imported fuels with due regard to the protection of public health, the environment, and natural ecosystems consistent with the country’s sustainable economic growth that would expand opportunities for livelihood by mandating the use of biofuels as a measure to: (a) Develop and utilize indigenous renewable and sustainably-sourced clean energy sources to reduce dependence on imported oil; (b) Mitigate toxic and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; (c) Increase rural employment and income; and (d) Ensure the availability of alternative and renewable clean energy without any detriment to the natural ecosystem, biodiversity and food reserves of the country.
  • Pursuant to Section 5 of Republic Act 9367, all liquid fuels for motors and engines sold in the Philippines shall contain locally-sourced biofuels components as follows: 5.1 Bioethanol (a) Within two (2) years from the effectivity of the Act, at least five percent (5%) bioethanol shall comprise the annual total volume of gasoline fuel actually sold and distributed by each and every oil company in the country, subject to the requirement that all bioethanol blended gasoline shall contain a minimum five percent (5%) bioethanol fuel by volume: Provided, that the bioethanol blend conforms to the PNS. (b) Within four (4) years from the effectivity of the Act, the National Biofuels Board (NBB) created under Section 8 of the Act is empowered to determine the feasibility and thereafter recommend to the DOE to mandate a minimum of ten percent (10%) blend of bioethanol by volume into all gasoline fuel distributed and sold by each and every oil company in the country: Provided, that the same conforms to the PNS. 5.2 Biodiesel (a) Within three (3) months from the effectivity of the Act, a minimum of one percent (1%) biodiesel by volume shall be blended into all diesel fuels sold in the country: Provided, that the biodiesel blend conforms to the PNS. (b) Within two (2) years from the effectivity of the Act, the NBB is empowered to determine the feasibility and thereafter recommend to the DOE to mandate a minimum of two percent (2%) blend of biodiesel by volume which may be increased after taking into account considerations including, but not limited to, domestic supply and availability of locally sourced biodiesel component.
  • One environmental benefit of replacing fossil fuels with biomass-based fuels is that the energy obtained from biomass does not add to global warming. All fuel combustion, including fuels produced from biomass, releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. But, because plants use carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to grow (photosynthesis), the carbon dioxide formed during combustion is balanced by that absorbed during the annual growth of the plants used as the biomass feedstock—unlike burning fossil fuels which releases carbon dioxide captured billions of years ago.Adding oxygen results in more complete combustion, which reduces carbon monoxide emissions. This is another environmental benefit of replacing petroleum fuels with biofuels. Ethanol is typically blended with gasoline to form an E10 blend (5%-10% ethanol and 90%-95% gasoline), but it can be used in higher concentrations such as E85 or in its pure form. Biodiesel is usually blended with petroleum diesel to form a B20 blend (20% biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel), although other blend levels can be used up to B100 (pure biodiesel).
  • Low- and middle income countries have seen biofuels as a way of addressing a number of goals including greater energy security, promotion of exports and rural development.
  • Bringing additional land under cultivation would affect the environment. Soiltillage, nitrate run-off, and replacing traditional habitats with monocultures disruptecosystems and related biodiversity.
  • The production of biofuels from lignocellulose rather than sugars and starches appears to be one of the possible long-term solutions. Research and development efforts are currently focused on efficiently recovering sugars through improved hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of biomass followed by much better fermentation of sugars into alcohol. Success in this field will result in minimizing the potential conflicts between food and energy production and in maximizing environmental benefits (including greenhouse gas reductions) relative to fossil-fuel use. But such advances in production and conversion technologies must be combined with appropriate policies that will integrate biomass energy development with sustainable agricultural and forestry practices and improve crop productivity with regard to land, water and nutrient use in order to be sustainable.
  • The second generation biofuels address many of the problems and concerns associated with first generation biofuels. Since most second generation biofuels are still relatively immature technologically, there is therefore great potential for cost reductions and increased efficiency levels as the technologies develop and experience in using them accumulate. The current biofuels industry is primarily based on the productionof ethanol via the fermentation of sugars or starches and on the production of biodiesel derived from plant oils. To develop second generation biofuels, research and development work has been directed towards advanced technologies such as ethanol hydrolysis and fermentation, biodiesel enzymes, higher carbon fixation in roots, and improved oil recovery. Through advances in genetic engineering, it has become possible to develop crops that: (a) are disease-resistant, (b) viable even in degraded lands previously considered not suitable for cultivation, and (c) require much lower inputs of chemicals and water. New cutting-edge technologies are also being developed for the processing of lignocellulosic materials for the productionof both industrial chemicals and biofuels, with overall conversion efficiencies of up to 70-90 percent. For this purpose, low-cost crops and forest residues, wood process wastes, and municipal solid wastes can all be used as feedstocks.
  • Algae can be produced continuously in closed photo-reactors but oil concentration is relatively low and capital costs are high. To collect the biodiesel feedstock more cheaply would need high volumes of algae to be cultivated in large facilities at low cost, hence the interest in growing the algae in open ponds,including sewage ponds where nutrients are in abundance and the sewage is partly treated as a result. In practice a problem is contamination of the desired culture by other organisms that limit algal growth. A combination of closed and open systems is a possible option. The algae are initially grown in closed reactorsunder controlled conditions that favor continuous cell division and prevent contamination. A portion of the culture is transferred daily to an open pond where it is subjected to stress and nutrient deprivation. This stimulates cell concentration and oil production within a short residence time before contamination can occur.
  • Vegetable oil and biofuel industry [autosaved] [autosaved] [autosaved]

    1. 1. Vegetable Oil andBiofuel IndustryReporter: Franz Ryan R. Ybañez BSChE- 4
    2. 2. I. Introduction A. What are Biofuels? B. Biofuel HistoryII. Feed stocks for Biofuel A. Cellulosic Biomass B. Sugar and Starchy Crops C. Oil Containing or Oil Producing PlantsIII. Solid Biofuel A. Solid Biofuel Handling a) Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF)IV. Gaseous Biofuel A. Anaerobic Digestion a) Production of Biogas b) Production of Biomethane B. Application of Gaseous Biofuel
    3. 3. V. Liquid Biofuel A. Bioethanol a) Production of BioEthanol i. Pre-Processing ii. Fermentation iii. Distillation iv. Dehydration B. Vegetable Oil/ Plant Oil a) Fuel-Related Characteristics of Plant Oils/Vegetable Oils b) Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) c) Plant Oil-Diesel Blend C. Biodiesel a) Crops for Biodiesel i. Coconut ii. Jatropha Curcas b) Production of Methyl Ester/Biodiesel i. Transesterification
    4. 4. VI. Philippine Setting A. Biofuels Legislation and Standards in the Philippines a) R.A. 9367 “Biofuels Act of 2006” B. Biofuel Industry in the Philippines a) San Carlos Bioenergy Inc.VII. Environmental and Social ImpactsVIII.The Future of BiofuelsIX. References
    5. 5. Question No. 1
    6. 6.  The easiest available fuels on the planet. Fuels are very clean and environment friendly. Renewable source of energy unlike any other resources such as petroleum, coal and nuclear fuels.
    7. 7. Biofuels are all types solid, gaseous and liquid fuels that can be derived from organic matter that is taken from or produced by plants andanimals or indirectly from organicindustrial, commercial, domestic, oragricultural wastes primarilyused as fuel for automobiles,thermal and power generation.
    8. 8.  Solid Biofuel  Wood  Charcoal  Bagasse Liquid Biofuel  Bioethanol  Plant or Vegetable oil  Biodiesel  Biomethanol  Green diesel Gaseous Biofuel  Biogas  Methane Gas  Producer Gas
    9. 9. B.C.E. (Before Common Era)4000 Sumerians discover the process of fermentation.10 th century Assyrians use biogas for heating bathing water.C.E. (Common Era)17th century Helmont observes that organic matter emits flammable gases.1808 Davy discovers methane as the end product of anaerobic digestion.Mid-1800s Transesterification of plant oils is used to distill glycerin during soap production.1858-1864 French biologist Antoine Bechamp experiments with fermentation and concludes that ferments are living organisms.1864 French chemist Louis Pastuer describes the process of fermentation scientifically.1880s First successful internal combustion engine using producer gas is produced.1895 Biogas is used to fuel street lamps in Exeter, Great Britain.1896 Henry Ford’s Model A designed to run on ethanol1920s-1930s Attempts to promote ethanol motor fuel are made. Anaerobic bacteria responsible for methane production are identified.1940s First U.S. ethanol plant opens.
    10. 10. Ford Model A Car(1896) which used pure ethanol
    11. 11.  What type of engine wherein a bioethanol is used?a) Bioethanol engineb) Otto-cycle enginesc) Diesel-cycle enginesd) Rankine-cycle engines
    12. 12. Dr. Rudolph Diesel, aGerman engineer who filedthe patent for acompression ignition (CI)engine in 1894. Hethen successfully operateda prototype engine in 1897.
    13. 13.  The diesel engine was named after Dr. Rudolph Diesel, a German engineer who filed the patent for a compression ignition (CI) engine in 1894. Then in 1900 the diesel engine was first demonstrated to run using what kind of plant/vegetable oil?a. Coconut oilb. Jatropa oilc. Canola oild. Peanut oil
    14. 14. 1939-1945 Extensive use of biogas to replace gasoline occurs.1979 Commercial alcohol-blended fuels are marketed1984 Number of ethanol plants peaks at 163 in the United States, producing over 2.2 billion liters of ethanol during the year.1988 Ethanol is used for first time as an oxygenate to lower pollution caused by burning gasoline.1990 Ethanol plants begin to switch from coal to natural gas and to adopt other cost-reducing technologies.1997-2002 Three million U.S. cars and light trucks that could run on E85, a blend of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline, are produced but few gas stations sell the fuel. Concerns about climate change cause leading alternative energies such as biofuel, solar and wind to expand by 20 to 30 percent yearly.2003 California becomes the first to start replacing the oxygenate MTBE with ethanol. Several other states start switching soon afterward.2004 The U.S. ethanol industry makes 225,000 barrels per day in August, an all-time record. Oil companies invest in alcohol fuel.2006 Indy Racing League switches to a 10 percent ethanol, and 90 percent methanol fuel mixture.
    15. 15.  It is made up of very complex sugar polymers that are not usually used as a source of food. It includes wide range of heterogeneous solid materials:  Agricultural Residues (e.g. rice straw, corn husks etc.)  Forestry wastes (e.g. Chips and sawdust from lumber mills)  Municipal solid wastes (e.g. paper products)  Processing and other Industrial waste (e.g. slops)  Energy crops grown for fuel purposes (e.g. trees and grasses) Its main components are cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin.
    16. 16.  Plants that can store through photosynthesis the energy from the sun by converting it into simple sugars or complex sugars (starches). Example: sugar cane, sugar beets, corn, cassava and sweet potato These biomass products are mainly used as human or animal food. These products are increasingly being used for the production of biofuels, particularly ethanol as gasoline substitute or blend.
    17. 17.  Plants that produce oils, in particular fixed oils, which can be processed to produce biofuels that can be used as diesel substitute or blend. Most of these oils such as soybean oil, coconut oil and palm oil have been used mainly for human or animal food are being processed for the production of biodiesel.
    18. 18. SOLID BIOFUEL
    19. 19. Solid BiofuelFuel which is particularly derivedfrom grass, sawdust, charcoal,agricultural waste, wood, driedmanure and many more which areburned to emit steam that canbe used to generate electricity.
    20. 20. When raw biomassis already in asuitable form (suchas firewood), it canburn directly in astove or furnace toprovide heat orraise steam.
    21. 21. When raw biomassis in aninconvenient form(such as sawdust,wood chips, grass,urban waste wood,agriculturalresidues), thetypical process is todensify thebiomass.
    22. 22.  A coarse or fine powdered solid fuel from municipal solid wastes, agricultural wastes and residues and other cellulosic feed stocks after undergoing physical-chemical processes. Presently, two types of refuse-derived fuels are being developed: coarse solid fuel and fine powdered supplementary fuel. There are many developers of the coarse solid fuel systems and a number of power plants run on RDF or mixed RDF and coal.
    23. 23. (e.g. Biogas and Biomethane)
    24. 24. Gaseous Biofuel Gas produced by the process of anaerobicdigestion of organic material by anaerobes(anaerobic bacteria) typically used as a fuel sourcefor local heat and electrical power generation . It can be produced either from biodegradablewaste materials or by the use of energy cropsfed into anaerobic digesters to supplement gasyields.
    25. 25.  A biochemical process whereby organic biomass sources are broken down via microorganisms in a low-oxygen environment producing biogas as a natural byproduct of the reaction. CO CO 2 2 CH4 CH4 Used for industrial or domestic purposes to manage CO CO waste and/or to release energy. 2 2 CH4Widely used as a renewable energy source because the process produces a methane and carbon dioxide rich biogas suitable for energy O 2 O production, helping to replace fossil fuels. The O 2 2 nutrient-rich digestate which is also O O 2 O 2 produced can be used as fertilizer. O O 2 2 2 O2
    26. 26. AnaerobicBiogas DigesterA device for optimizing theanaerobic digestion of Covered Lagoonbiomass and/or animalmanure, often used torecover biogas for energyproduction. Commercial Continuous Flowdigester types includecomplete mix, continuousflow (horizontal or plug-flow, multiple-tank, andvertical tank) and coveredlagoon. Complete Mix
    27. 27.  Sewage Organic fraction of municipal solid waste (e.g. in landfills) Manure (e.g. dairy, pig, cattle) Forestry wastes Agricultural wastes “Energy crops” (e.g. clover grass, corn) Industrial food processing wastes
    28. 28. Biogas A naturally occurring gas formed as a byproduct of the breakdown of organic materials in a low-oxygen (e.g. anaerobic) environment. Produced after the anaerobic digestion of the organic materials. A less clean form of biogas is the landfill gas which is produced by the use of naturally occurring anaerobic digesters. Its major components are methane (typically 60 – 70%) and carbon dioxide (typically 30 – 40%).
    29. 29. Production of Biogas
    30. 30. Biomethane Biogas which has been upgraded or “sweetened” via process to remove the bulk of the carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen sulfide and other impurities from raw biogas (digester gas).
    31. 31.  It involves upgrading, or “cleaning-up”, raw biogas to a higher quality gas. The resulting biomethane will have a higher content of methane and a higher energy content making it essentially identical to conventional natural gas.The primary tasks in the biogas upgrading process (“sweetening”): • Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) removal • Carbon dioxide (CO2) removal • Water (H2O) removal • Removal of other contaminants (e.g. particles, halogenated hydrocarbons, ammonia, nitrogen, oxygen and organic silicon compounds) • Odorization
    32. 32. Production of Biomethane Schematic diagram of biogas and biomethane production and utilization (Part 1)
    33. 33. Schematic diagram of biomethanedistribution and utilization (Part 2)
    34. 34.  The most important/basic substrate used in the biogas plant in the video.a) Waste waterb) Liquid manurec) Leachated) Brine
    35. 35.  What type of anaerobic digester/fermenter was used in the biogas plant in the video?a) Covered lagoonb) Plug-flowc) Multiple tankd) Complete mix
    36. 36.  How many days it takes to complete the gas formation process?a) 40 daysb) 50 daysc) 60 daysd) 70 days
    37. 37.  In case of overproduction of biogas, what equipment was used to burn the excess biogas?a) Kilnb) Gas Burnerc) Gas flared) Combustion engine
    38. 38. Application of Gaseous Biofuel
    40. 40. Liquid Biofuel  Liquid fuels such as alcohol, ether, and oil can be derived from the chemical energy released by plants and plant-derived substances in photosynthesis.It is used very efficiently in the internal combustion enginesthat power automobilesIt is also environmentally significant because it reducesgreenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change.
    41. 41. Bioethanol
    42. 42. What is Bioethanol? Bioethanol (or ethyl alcohol, C2H6O) is analternative, renewable fuel mainly produced bysugar fermentation process, which is used inspark-ignition internal combustion engines(Otto cycle) It is one type of alcohol that has manyproperties quite similar to those of gasoline.These similarities make ethanol a highlyattractive fuel for use as a gasoline substitute oras an alternative fuel for blending.
    43. 43. Gasoline VS Bioethanol
    44. 44. Production ofBioethanol
    45. 45. Production of ethanol from three different feedstocks
    46. 46. Pre-Processing ofDifferent Feedstocks Ethanol can be produced by the fermentation of carbohydrates from three various feed stocks: a) sugar-bearing feed stocks b) starchy feed stocks c) cellulosic feed stocks
    47. 47. Sugar-bearing feed stocks (Sugarcane, Sweet Sorghum)
    48. 48. Pre-Processing of Sugarcane Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane
    49. 49. Production of Ethanol from Starchy feed stocks• There are basically twosubcategories of starch crops: grains (e.g., corn, sorghum, wheat, and barley) and tubers (e.g., potatoes and sweetpotatoes).
    50. 50. Production of Ethanol from corn using the Wet Mill Process Corn Pre-Processing by Wet Milling Process
    51. 51. Pre-Processing of Cellulosic Feed stocks Production of Ethanol from cellulosic feedstocks Acid Hydrolysis Cellulosic Cooking
    52. 52.  It is the natural metabolic process that produces energy by breaking down carbohydrates (like sugars) in the absence of oxygen. It is catalyzed by the action of enzymes present in microorganisms like yeasts (single-celled fungi of Saccharomyces cerevisae species) Ethanol and carbon dioxide are produced as the sugar (glucose) is consumed.C6H12O6 2 CH3CH2OH + 2 CO2
    53. 53. Continuous Fermentation
    54. 54. Batch Fermentation
    55. 55. Distillation
    56. 56. Dehydration
    58. 58. The two distinct types of plant oils:(a)Fixed oils such as coconut and castor oils, which do not readily evaporate on exposure to air(b) Essential oils such as citronella and cinnamon oils, which readily evaporate or volatilize on exposure to air.
    59. 59. Fuel-Related Characteristics of Plant Oils/Vegetable Oils The physical and chemical characteristics of plant oils that affect their suitability as fuels:  Heating value  Pour point or Melt Point  Cloud point  Flash point  Iodine value  Viscosity  Density  Cetane number Other characteristics that do not have direct bearing on the actual performance of the engine, but are similarly important for environmental and other reasons:  Ash Percentage  Potassium Percentage  Sulfur Percentage.
    60. 60. Fuel-related properties of plant oils
    61. 61.  SVO was the fuel of  choice when the diesel engine was invented and first demonstrated. The downside is that straight vegetable oil(SVO) is much more viscous (thicker) thanconventional diesel fuel or biodiesel, and itdoesnt burn the same in the engine that it candamage engines.
    62. 62.  Majority of the studies conductedon the use of straight vegetableoils show that in short-term trials,straight plant oils give satisfactoryengine performance and power outputoften equal to or even slightly betterthan conventional diesel fuel. In long term trials, however, straightplant oils cause various engine problemssuch as coking of injector nozzles,sticking piston rings, crankcaseoil dilution, lubricating oil contamination, and other operational problems.
    63. 63.  The various studies on the use of plant oil-diesel fuel blends indicate that they can be used in diesel engines for short periods with nosignificant decline in performanceprovided that the concentration of theplant oil in the blend is less than 20%.Long-term engine performance tests show that plantoil concentrations higher than 20% can have adverseeffect on the engine due to accumulation of carbondeposits, fuel line clogging, and lubricating oil contamination.
    64. 64. Biodiesel
    65. 65.  It is the fatty acid methyl ester or mono-alkyl esters derived from vegetable (plant) oils or animal fats and other biomass-derived oils that meet certain quality specifications. Produced from the reaction of vegetable oil with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst to yield mono- alkyl esters and glycerine, which is then removed. It is a form of biofuel made from soybean, corn, etc. extracts that is an excellent substitute for petroleum diesel fuel.
    66. 66. Coconut(Cocos nucifera)
    67. 67.  A tall stately palm, 20-25 metershigh, with a stout wavy stem,surmounted by a crown of longarching, handsome, pinnate leaves. The kernel (endocarp) yieldsa valuable fatty oil. In the freshstate the kernels are shredded and made into desiccated coconut,largely exported for use in confectionery.
    68. 68.  The husk (pericarp) when retted forabout 3 weeks in water yields coir fiber,which is made into mats, brushes,matting, string and ropes. Copra of commerce, the source ofcoconut oil, consists of the dried kernels.It is prepared by breaking the nut in two;the two cup-shaped halves, being easilyseparated from the shell, are thendried in the sun or in speciallyconstructed low houses or kilns,over smoke and heat from smolderingfires made with the husks and shells.Copra contains about 65% of oil.
    69. 69. Jatropha Curcas(tubang bakod, tuba-tuba, kasla, tubang aso, tibang silangan, tawa-tawa, or physic nut)
    70. 70. 1. Seeds contain more than 30% oil which can be processed into Jatropha Methyl Ester (JME)2. Can be planted in idle lands not suitable for other crops3. Can flower and bear fruits as early as four months after planting if planted by cuttings and six months if planted by seedlings4. A perennial shrub
    71. 71. 5. Can be integrated in agricultural systems as hedges or alley crop6. Can be planted as pioneer crop in association with climax species in community-based forest management areas7. Can generate employment being labor intensive in the establishment and harvesting operations, thus, generating additional income for rural areas.
    72. 72. Jatropha plantation in Same Jatropha April 2004 plantation in June 2005
    73. 73. Planting materials in a Jatropha Nursery Development Project at PampangaAgricultural College, Magalang, Pampanga, Philippines
    74. 74. Production of Biodiesel from Jatropa Curcas
    75. 75. ProductionandUse ofMethyl Ester/Biodiesel
    76. 76.  The chemical conversion to achieved mono-alkyl esters from plant oils. During this process, an alcohol (such as methanol) reacts with the triglyceride oils contained in plant oils, animal fats or recycled greases to form fatty acid alkyl esters (biodiesel) and glycerin. The reaction requires heat and a strong base catalyst such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.
    77. 77. Simplified process flow diagram for biodiesel productionTransesterification Dilute Acid EsterificationMethanol Recovery Biodiesel refining PhasePhase separator for the separator for the separation of 2x 4-stage ion-exchange the Multistage mixer for system separation offrom methyl ester glycerine watery phase from transesterification to BiodieselGlycerine for the Purification of Biodiesel Refining RME
    78. 78.  “The Biofuels Act of 2006” is also known as _________.a. R.A. 6739b. R.A 3679c. R.A. 9367d. R.A. 7693
    79. 79. Bioethanol Producers
    80. 80. Biodiesel ProducersSENBEL FINE CHEMICALS COMPANY, INC.PURE ESSENCE INTERNATIONAL, INC.Annual Rated TECHNOLOGIESCHEMREZ 70,000,000Capacity (liters)Annual Rated Brgy. Cotta, Lucena City 60,000,000Annual Rated Head Office:Capacity (liters)Location 75,000,000Capacity (liters) 20/F Richville Corporate Tower 1107 Alabang-Zapote Road, Madrigal Business Park Alabang, Muntinlupa City PhilippinesLocation 4 Avis St., Bagong Ilog, Pasig City Metro Manila, Philippines Tel. Nos.: (632) 850-6877; 809-6101; 809-6102Contact Fax no.: (632) 809-6116Location Tel.Industria St. Bagumbayan 10 65 Nos.: (632)671-77-07 to Quezon Email: City 1110 Metro Manila, PhilippinesWebsite Fax no.: (632) 671-7872 Mobile No.: Senbel Fine(632) 637-6099 Inc. is a manufacturer and exporter of high quality fine chemicals Fax no.: Chemicals Company,Contact Email: derived from coconut and other vegetable oils. These products serve as vital and raw materials for Email: cosmetics, household and laundry care industries. Its plant facilities are located at the center ofWebsite coconut oil milling and trading activities in the Philippines. This makes production very efficient resulting to products of high standard at competitive prices. Senbel Fine Chemicals Company, Inc.Website focuses its efforts into satisfying the needs of its local and multinational customers. Each quality Pure Essence International, Inc. started operations in 1995. Since then, the product can be tailor-fit to match the clients specifications. Senbel Fine Chemicals Company, Inc.Profile is a young and aggressive firm managed by a dynamic management teamoil blends, as of company has been producing soap noodles from different with long years well experience in the oleochemicals and surfactants industry. derived from vegetable oilsmost Chemrez offers clean-burning fuel enhancers The company has global reach to as quality bath soaps.Profile major markets in the Asia-Pacific, Europe, North Americacollectively many of is made possible including biodiesel. Our fuel enhancers treat an the Middle East. This the problems by its excellent network of distributors and customers worldwide as anew production line to As part of the expansion effort, the company set up a result of its long years ofProfile that other additives address individually. They clean, lubricate and oxygenate association. Senbel has delivered significant quantities of its products and continues to serve an produce Coco Methyl Ester (CME or BioDiesel). Additional products from CME the fuels resulting to efficient combustion, longer mileage and cleaner increasing number of satisfied customers. With all these at hand, the company is poised to serve as a reliable partner to a Methyl roster of customers, bridging their path towards success. are: Soap Noodles, growing Ester Sulfonates, Amides and Betaines. emission.
    81. 81. SAN CARLOS BIOENERGY INC. Annual Rated 30,000,000 Capacity (liters) San Carlos Ecozone Brgy. Palampas & Punao San Location Carlos City, Negros Occidental Tel. Nos.: (632) 752-0050 to 51 Contact Fax no.: (632) 892-9238 Email: Website San Carlos Bioenergy Inc. is a company incorporated in May 2005 to construct, own, and operate an integrated ethanol distillery and power cogeneration plant located in the San Carlos Agro- Industrial Economic Zone on the eastern coast of Negros Occidental - the first in the Philippines and the Southeast Asian region. The plant has the Profile capacity to mill 1,500 TCD of sugarcane to produce 30M liters of ethanol annually and approximately 8MW of power. SCBI is scheduled to deliver the countrys first locally-produced fuel grade ethanol in time for the January 2009 mandate of a 5% ethanol-blend in gasoline as provided by the Biofuels Law.
    82. 82. The plant’s six maincomponents:a) Cane mill (crushing capacity: 1,500 tons/day)b) Fuel ethanol distillery (producing 125,000 liters per day of ethanol) bc) Cogeneration Plant a (capacity :8 MW) cd) Carbon Dioxide Recovery e Plant (50 tons per day)e) Anaerobic Digestion Plantf) Integrated Waste Water f Treatment Plant
    83. 83. Integrated Waste Water Anaerobic DigestionCane Plant Fuel ethanol distillery mill Treatment Plant Fermentation Tanks
    84. 84.  The energy obtained from biomass does not add to global warming. Using biofuels as an additive to petroleum-based transportation fuels reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Both bioethanol and biodiesel are used as fuel oxygenates to improve combustion characteristics.
    85. 85.  Greater energy security, promotion of exports and rural development Generates revenue, employment and safer living conditions.
    86. 86. Benefits of Using of Anaerobic Digestion Process
    87. 87.  Impact of biofuel expansion on food prices and its effects on food security. (Food VS Fuel) Impacts of biofuels to the use of land for monocultivation. Land-use change and biodiversity losses.
    88. 88.  The recent scientific advances and technological developments in agriculture, biology and chemistry provide win-win possible solutions to the food-versus- energy dilemma. These include the development of genetically-improved crops for energy and food production, the production of affordable specialized enzymes, and the ability to artificially simulate natural biological processes such as photosynthesis. Nevertheless, a lot of work still needs to be done to reduce costs, mitigate environmental impacts and biodiversity losses, and minimize the pressure on scarce land resources, particularly on existing productive, arable lands.
    89. 89. Classification of second generation biofuels
    90. 90.  Algae are the fastest growers ofthe plant kingdom that canproduce and store inside the celllarge amounts of carbohydratesand up to 50% by weight of oil astriglycerides. The conversion of algae oil intobiodiesel is a similar process as forplant oils based on esterification ofthe triglycerides after extraction,but the cost of producing algae oilis relatively high at present. Numerous studies are beingundertaken worldwide inuniversities and research centers todetermine optimum conditions forthe production of oil from micro-algae.
    91. 91. -The End-