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The Constitution
The Colonial Background <ul><li>Separatists were dissatisfied with the Church of England and sought a place where they cou...
British Restrictions and Colonial Grievances <ul><li>In 1763, the British Parliament began to pass laws that treated the c...
First Continental Congress <ul><li>The focus was to restore the political structure that was in existence before the passa...
Second Continental Congress <ul><li>Established an army </li></ul><ul><li>Made Washington the general in chief and pursued...
The Declaration of Independence <ul><li>Thomas Jefferson influenced by John Locke </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Rights – Life,...
The Rise of Republicanism <ul><li>Republicanism  vs. The Republican Party </li></ul><ul><li>While republicans were opposed...
The Articles of Confederation:  Our First Form of Government <ul><li>States retained most of the power </li></ul><ul><li>C...
The Confederal Government Structure Under the Articles of Confederation Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
Accomplishments Under the Articles <ul><li>Articles established to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize the states so they coul...
Weaknesses of the Articles <ul><li>Still no central authority to resolve disputes between the states. To organize the stat...
Framers of the Constitution <ul><li>Republicans opposed any centralization  of power. </li></ul><ul><li>Federalists favore...
Politicking and Compromises <ul><li>The New Jersey Plan </li></ul><ul><li>The Virginia Plan </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Co...
Working Toward  the Final Agreement <ul><li>The Madisonian Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of powers </li></ul></ul...
Working Toward  the Final Agreement <ul><li>Electoral College </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
Checks and Balances  Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
The Final Document <ul><li>Popular sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>A republican government </li></ul><ul><li>A limited gover...
Ratification <ul><li>The Federalist Papers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An attempt to persuade the public to support the new form...
The March to the Finish <ul><li>The vote by the Virginia ratification convention was essential and somewhat close. </li></...
Ratification of the Constitution Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
Ratification  <ul><li>Federalists  </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Federalists  </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
Support for the New Constitution <ul><li>Beard’s Thesis </li></ul><ul><li>State Ratifying Conventions </li></ul><ul><li>Su...
The Bill of Rights <ul><li>A “Bill of Limits” </li></ul><ul><li>No explicit limits on state government powers </li></ul><u...
The Bill of Rights Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning  Link to the Bill of Rights Click the picture to open a file containi...
The Formal Amendment Process <ul><li>Cope with any new and unforeseen problem </li></ul><ul><li>Taken on with extreme caut...
Amending the Constitution <ul><li>Although 11,000 amendments have been considered by Congress, only 33 have been submitted...
Amending the Constitution Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
Amendments  <ul><li>The strongest theme among the amendments is the expansion of citizenship rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Exa...
Amendments to the Constitution  Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
Informal Methods  of Constitutional Change <ul><li>Congressional Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential Action </li></...
A Government Broken Free of Its Constitutional Moorings? Questions  <ul><li>Was it wise for the Supreme Court to uphold th...
A Government Broken Free of Its Constitutional Moorings? Questions <ul><li>Does this distinction reveal wisdom on the part...
Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning  Sohm, Chromosohm /Stock Connection /PictureQuest Click on the image to play an audio re...
Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning  © 2004 Michael Ventura/Folio
Questions for  Critical Thinking  <ul><li>How did the Civil War affect the Constitution? The Great Depression? </li></ul><...
Questions for  Critical Thinking  <ul><li>Why did the British place restrictions on  the colonies? </li></ul><ul><li>How w...
Questions for  Critical Thinking  <ul><li>What would have occurred if one or more of the states had rejected the Constitut...
Web Links <ul><li>Declaring Independence: Drafting the Document </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. Constitution Online </li></ul><...
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Chapter 2 constitutionx

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  • Most governmental actions that affected the people were made within the colony. Each colony was separate with its own decision-making government.
  • Although Thomas Jefferson said he was influenced by “neither book nor pamphlet,” his writings were strongly influenced by those of John Locke and others. Natural Rights Natural rights: life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness Social Contract Based on the idea of consent of the governed, and that governments had the responsibility to protect the natural rights of its citizens. If the government failed to do so, the people had the right to revolt.
  • Once independence was granted there was less pressure on the states to organize for the collective good.
  • With the creation of the Articles remained the lack of a strong central authority to resolve disputes between the states. To organize the states for the collective good, including the organization of a militia, was crucial to the development of the Constitutional Convention. Events such as Shays’ Rebellion convinced many political leaders of the need for a stronger central government.
  • Republicans opposed any centralization of power. Federalists favored a stronger government. However, there was no agreement among the Federalists concerning the structure and division of power for this new government.
  • Concentrated power in a lower house that was to choose the executive. Major weakness: representation was strictly by population, to the disadvantage of the small states.
  • The Madisonian Model Separation of Powers. The legislative, executive, and judicial powers to be independent of each other Checks and Balances. Government had considerably more power than under the Articles of Confederation. However, these men were distrustful of those who would hold this power and of the people who would select the governmental officials.
  • The electoral college meant that the president was not to be chosen by Congress, but not by a popular vote either.
  • Beard’s Thesis . Historian Charles Beard argued that the Constitution was put through by an undemocratic elite intent on the protection of property. State Ratifying Conventions . These conventions were elected by a strikingly small part of the total population. Support Was Probably Widespread . Still, the defense of property was a value that was by no means limited to the elite. The belief that the government under the Articles was dangerously weak was widespread.
  • A “Bill of Limits.” The package was assembled by Madison, who culled through almost two hundred state suggestions. No explicit limits on state government powers. Did not apply to state governments. The restrictions were only applicable to the national government until the 14th amendment incorporated some of these rights.
  • Click on the picture to get the text of the Bill of Rights.
  • Every government needs to be able to cope with any new and unforeseen problem. Any Constitutional change should, however, be taken on with extreme caution. If the process to amend the Constitution is rigorous, there should be ample time to consider the merits of such a change.
  • Recent amendments have usually been accompanied by time limits for ratification.
  • http://www.lcweb.loc.gov/exhibits/declara/declara4. html The Library of Congress presents original drafts and other documents pertaining to the Declaration of Independence. http://www.usconstitution.net This Constitution page with numerous links was originally created by a political science student as a class project. http://thomas.loc.gov A comprehensive guide to the current status in Congress of a bill, resolution, or amendment. Includes bills that are under consideration. Also includes links to the websites of members of Congress.
  • Transcript of "Chapter 2 constitutionx"

    1. 1. The Constitution
    2. 2. The Colonial Background <ul><li>Separatists were dissatisfied with the Church of England and sought a place where they could practice their religious beliefs. </li></ul><ul><li>The compact they formed set forth the idea of consent of the governed. </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning (The Granger Collection)
    3. 3. British Restrictions and Colonial Grievances <ul><li>In 1763, the British Parliament began to pass laws that treated the colonies as a unit. The major reason for these laws was to raise revenue to help pay off the war debt incurred during the French and Indian Wars (1756 – 1763). </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning (National Portrait Gallery)
    4. 4. First Continental Congress <ul><li>The focus was to restore the political structure that was in existence before the passage of legislation affecting the internal operations of each colony by Parliament. </li></ul><ul><li>Had the Crown and Parliament relented on many of their demands it is possible the Declaration of Independence would never have been issued. </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    5. 5. Second Continental Congress <ul><li>Established an army </li></ul><ul><li>Made Washington the general in chief and pursued the Revolutionary War </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning Painting by John Trumbull, 1819, Library of Congress
    6. 6. The Declaration of Independence <ul><li>Thomas Jefferson influenced by John Locke </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Rights – Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Contract - Based on the idea of consent of the governed, and that governments had the responsibility to protect the natural rights of its citizens. If the government failed to do so, the people had the right to revolt. </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning © Bettmann /Corbis © Archivo Iconografico S.A. /Corbis
    7. 7. The Rise of Republicanism <ul><li>Republicanism vs. The Republican Party </li></ul><ul><li>While republicans were opposed to rule by the British, they were also opposed to rule by any central authority. They were even skeptical of a permanent union of the states. </li></ul><ul><li>Each state was seen as the sovereign authority and the only legitimate ruling force. </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    8. 8. The Articles of Confederation: Our First Form of Government <ul><li>States retained most of the power </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens loyal to their state </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning Library of Congress
    9. 9. The Confederal Government Structure Under the Articles of Confederation Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    10. 10. Accomplishments Under the Articles <ul><li>Articles established to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize the states so they could defeat the British forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain independence from Britain </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    11. 11. Weaknesses of the Articles <ul><li>Still no central authority to resolve disputes between the states. To organize the states for the collective good, including the organization of a militia, was crucial to the development of the Constitutional Convention. </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    12. 12. Framers of the Constitution <ul><li>Republicans opposed any centralization of power. </li></ul><ul><li>Federalists favored a stronger government. </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    13. 13. Politicking and Compromises <ul><li>The New Jersey Plan </li></ul><ul><li>The Virginia Plan </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Compromise </li></ul><ul><li>The Three-Fifths Compromise </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    14. 14. Working Toward the Final Agreement <ul><li>The Madisonian Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Checks and balances </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning Library of Congress
    15. 15. Working Toward the Final Agreement <ul><li>Electoral College </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    16. 16. Checks and Balances Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    17. 17. The Final Document <ul><li>Popular sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>A republican government </li></ul><ul><li>A limited government </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of powers </li></ul><ul><li>A federal system where both the national and the state governments each had their own sphere of influence </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    18. 18. Ratification <ul><li>The Federalist Papers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An attempt to persuade the public to support the new form of government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federalist #10 and Federalist #51 provide an excellent view of James Madison’s political theory concerning human nature </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    19. 19. The March to the Finish <ul><li>The vote by the Virginia ratification convention was essential and somewhat close. </li></ul><ul><li>The New York vote was even closer and put the Constitution “over the top.” </li></ul><ul><li>At this point, North Carolina and Rhode Island had little choice but to join. </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    20. 20. Ratification of the Constitution Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    21. 21. Ratification <ul><li>Federalists </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Federalists </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    22. 22. Support for the New Constitution <ul><li>Beard’s Thesis </li></ul><ul><li>State Ratifying Conventions </li></ul><ul><li>Support Was Probably Widespread </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    23. 23. The Bill of Rights <ul><li>A “Bill of Limits” </li></ul><ul><li>No explicit limits on state government powers </li></ul><ul><li>Did not apply to state governments </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    24. 24. The Bill of Rights Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning Link to the Bill of Rights Click the picture to open a file containing the text of the Bill of Rights
    25. 25. The Formal Amendment Process <ul><li>Cope with any new and unforeseen problem </li></ul><ul><li>Taken on with extreme caution </li></ul><ul><li>Rigorous process </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    26. 26. Amending the Constitution <ul><li>Although 11,000 amendments have been considered by Congress, only 33 have been submitted to the states after being approved, and only 27 have been ratified since 1789. </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning 11,000 27
    27. 27. Amending the Constitution Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    28. 28. Amendments <ul><li>The strongest theme among the amendments is the expansion of citizenship rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Right to vote for women (Nineteenth, 1920) </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning The Granger Collection, New York
    29. 29. Amendments to the Constitution Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    30. 30. Informal Methods of Constitutional Change <ul><li>Congressional Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential Action </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial Review </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation, Custom, and Usage </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    31. 31. A Government Broken Free of Its Constitutional Moorings? Questions <ul><li>Was it wise for the Supreme Court to uphold the constitutionality of a display of the Ten Commandments on government property as part of a larger collection focusing on the nation’s legal and religious history, but to reject its constitutionality if displayed in a manner that emphasizes the religious nature of the Ten Commandments? </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    32. 32. A Government Broken Free of Its Constitutional Moorings? Questions <ul><li>Does this distinction reveal wisdom on the part of the Court or a lack of clarity? Should the court have simply said that all displays of the Ten Commandments either do or do not violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment? </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    33. 33. Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning Sohm, Chromosohm /Stock Connection /PictureQuest Click on the image to play an audio recording of a reading of the Preamble to the Constitution
    34. 34. Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning © 2004 Michael Ventura/Folio
    35. 35. Questions for Critical Thinking <ul><li>How did the Civil War affect the Constitution? The Great Depression? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the New Deal alter the Constitution? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the Constitution make the government more responsive? </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    36. 36. Questions for Critical Thinking <ul><li>Why did the British place restrictions on the colonies? </li></ul><ul><li>How was the term “people,” as used in the Declaration of Independence, defined? Did the members of the Second Continental Congress mean all people? What about the rights of women? Native Americans? Slaves? </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    37. 37. Questions for Critical Thinking <ul><li>What would have occurred if one or more of the states had rejected the Constitution? Could a single state have managed to survive outside the union of states? </li></ul><ul><li>What would Madison think about interest groups in modern society? </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    38. 38. Web Links <ul><li>Declaring Independence: Drafting the Document </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. Constitution Online </li></ul><ul><li>The Library of Congress (THOMAS) </li></ul>Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
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