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Backup_exadata_update

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Actualizacion de los ratios de Backup de Exadata.

Actualizacion de los ratios de Backup de Exadata.

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  • So if we look at the data protecdtion strategies offered by Oracle. First and foremost – for Backup & Recovery of an Oracle database running on Exadata we will use Recovery Manager or RMAN, and RMAN can be combined with a media management software such as Oracle Secure Backup to provide our Physical proection. Additionally, for protection from logical failures, Oracle has a suite of Flashback Technologies.With all the different recovery options available, Data Recovery Advisor will help identify the problem and help plan how to recover from a particular situation.In the event of Disaster Recovery, Oracle Data Guard is the recommended protection strategy.We will see how we can use these different products to architect a backup & recovery solution.
  • Before starting to code your backup scripts though, the recovery requirements must be gathered. Begin by asking these simple questions….How Quickly do you need to recover the database / application. This is your Recovery Time Objective or RTO…….
  • We know the rates that can be achieved, but lets look considerations for performance v cost.On the left we have our Exadata rack, which offers high backup & recovery rates and we can use all the smart features of the Exadata solution. Additional performance can be achieved if an Exadata Storage Expansion Rack, which in addition to storing database backups can also be used to as a Historical Archive or even an expansion of the application data.Providing High Performance with added Flexibility, we have the ZFS Storage Appliance which offers snapshot and clone solutions in addition to being a backup destination for both database and non-database files, and the StorageTek Tape Library, which offers Offsite backups and Vaulting in addition to being a backup destination similar to the ZFS.The StorageTek Tape Library backup rate is limited by the number of tape drives available. For me – I had 8 tape drives, but the storageteksolition can scale to hundreds of tape drives if required.
  • Lets focus in on RMAN nowFullBackups offer Faster Restores over Incremental Backups which are great when the amount of data that is changed between backups is less than 20% and when the backup windows are smaller.For Full Backups, there are two types – Image Copies which reside on disk storage and are approximately the same size as the database or Backup Sets that can reside on disk or tape and which are smaller as they only backup the data and not the entire data file and the backup can also be compressed.For Incremental Backups, there are two types as well, incrementally updated backups which reside on disk and offer typically a 1 -> 7 day rolling recovery window, and a combination of Full & Incremental BackupSets that can reside on disk or tape and in addition to being compressed typically offer longer retention windows required to meet legal requirements.
  • The FRA or Fast Recovery Area is deployed in an Exadata environment in the RECO disk group, and resides on the Exadata storage and will contain the archived redo logs as well as the flashback logs if flashback database is enabled.Optionally, the FRA may also contain the database backups depending upon the recovery solution that is being architectured.The FRA is configured using just two parameters and the database self manages this space. The database will purge files that are no longer required, based upon the RPO, when the space allocated comes under pressure.
  • We are now going to introduce the concept of tiered storage. Now this probably not new to you, but there are some additional tiers compared to what you are use to.Tier 1 – Our Extreme performance tier using Exadata Storage in the database machine. In additional to potentially housing the controlfiles and redo log files, the FRA will hold the archived redo logs and flashback log files and possibly database backups.Tier 2 – Still using Exadata storage but this time using the High Capacity drives. This is what we introduced previously with the BKUP disk group.The ZFS/SA makes a great 3rd tier. The ZFS/SA can be configured to house the database backups if you decide not to use an Exadata Expansion rack. The ZFS/SA also allows for the creation of dev and test environments via the use of snapshots and clones, and with the ZFS, you can still access all your data including HCC data in it’s original storage.Tier 4 & Tier 5 are our tape offerings. Tier 4 storage is using the tape library for a combination of Weekly Full backups and Daily Incremental backupsTier 5 storage is when the requirements call for a once a week backup or to meet some legal requirement. Both Tier 4 & Tier 5 offer the ability for the backup to be taken offsite for security or legal reasons.Customers often find that a combination of the tiers are required in order to meet the RTO, RPO and data retention targets, and the tiers can be combined offering a D2D2T solution.So lets look at some customer configurations and how they are using these tiers.
  • If I have a tape library with 8 tape drives that can backup at 8TB/hr, and my database is 80TB in size, then the backup will run in 10 hours.If my database doubles in size, but I still have 8 tape drives then the backup will run in 20 hours.So if I consolidate two databases, one sizes 80TB and the other sized 40TB, and I have my 8 tape drives that can backup at 8TB/hr, my options areI backup the first database starting at midnight and running until 10am, and then at 10am I backup the second database and this would run until 3pmAlternatively, I could start both backups at midnight, and allocate 5 tape drives to the 80TB database, meaning the backup would now run in 16 hours, finishing at about 4pm, and the 40TB database gets 3 tape drives, meaning the backup would run in 13.3 hours finishing around 1:20pm.Alternatively, I could start both backups at midnight, and let the 8 tape drives service the two databases (total 120TB), and while we would not know when each database would finish, both database will have finished by 3pm. In order for both databases to finish by 10am, we would need to add 4 more tape drives (total 12 tape drives or 12TB/hr), and the backup of 120TB would then finish by 10am.
  • Jeff – are we good with 1.1PB of usable space in RAID-Z?

Backup_exadata_update Backup_exadata_update Presentation Transcript

  • 1 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Oracle Exadata: Backup and Recovery of Oracle Exadata:
  • 2 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Exadata Database Machine• Extreme Performance for:– Data Warehousing– OLTP– Database Consolidation• Requires a well architected andtested backup and recovery planExadataDatabaseMachineX2-2ExadataStorageExpansionRack
  • 3 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Exadata Backup & RecoveryThe Pieces of the Puzzle• Managing the backup & recovery process Software– Recovery Manager (RMAN) manages the entire processof backing up and recovering the database– Media Management software manages the location andlife cycle of the backups and locates the backup when arestore is required• Oracle Secure Backup (OSB) or third party products• Choosing the backup destination  Hardware– Exadata storage– Non-Exadata disk storage: Oracle or third party products– Tape: Oracle or third party products
  • 4 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Exadata Database Machine BackupBackup Destinations OptionsExadataDatabaseMachineExadata StorageExpansion RackOracle SunStorageTek TapeLibraryZFS StorageApplianceFastestUp to 50 TB/hour for incrementalFlexible Economical21 TB/hour 27 TB/hour6 - 8TB/hourSnapshots & Clones5 – 6TB/hour(Dependent on # of tape drives)
  • 5 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Exadata Backup and RecoveryKey Benefits: Fast and Simple• Full Backup/Restore rates up to 27-28 TB/hour• Simple Operations– Simple RMAN commands to backup, restore or recover thedatabase• The same as any other Oracle platform– Automatically parallelized across all storage servers
  • 6 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Exadata Backup and RecoveryDatabase and Exadata Features Are Data Aware and Integrated• Data Aware– Detection of block corruptions– Auto repair and manual block repair options• Integrated and works transparently– OLTP and Data Warehouse Applications– RAC, Data Guard, Flashback technologies, ASM, Exadata– Oracle native compression capabilities• OLTP (typically 3 X compression)• Hybrid Columnar Compression (typically 10-15 X compression)
  • 7 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Oracle Data Protection StrategiesBackup & Recovery Recovery Time Objective (RTO)Physical Data Protection• Recovery Manager (RMAN)• Oracle Secure Backup (OSB)Days/HoursLogical Data Protection - Flashback Technologies Hours/MinutesRecovery Analysis - Data Recovery Advisor Minimizes time for problem identification & recoveryplanningDisaster Recovery Recovery Time Objective (RTO)Physical Data Protection - Data Guard Minutes/Seconds
  • 8 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.What are Your Recovery Requirements?• Recovery Time Objective (RTO)– How quickly do you need to recover?• Recovery Point Objective (RPO)– How much data, if any, can be lost?• Backup Retention Policy– What are the onsite, offsite and long-term retention objectives?• What is the acceptable performance– Do you need to minimize the impact of the backup?Begin by Asking Questions
  • 9 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Exadata Backup Targets• 20 – 25 TB / hour• All Exadata smartfeaturesConsiderations - Performance and Cost Trade-offsHighest Performance High Performance and Added FlexibilityCost – Varies with hardware configurationExadataStorageExadataStorageExpansionRackZFSStorageAppliance(ZFS/SA)StorageTekTapeLibrary 27 TB / hour Fastest Backup and Restore ILM Historical Archive Second DATA2 Disk Group 13 TB / hour Backups of database &non-database files Snapshots Clones 9 TB hour* Backup of database andnon-database files Offsite Backups VaultingNote*: Backup Rate limited by number of tape drives – 8 x T10000C Drives
  • 10 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.RMAN Backup Stategy OverviewFull Backups Incremental Backups-Online or offline backups-Faster restore-Higher overheads on the servers-Reduces backup window-Reduced overhead on the servers-Ideal with low-medium change rate e.g. < 20%-Enable BLOCK CHANGE TRACKING for fast incremental backups-Database must be in archived log modeImage Copy or Backup Set Incrementally Updated Backups Full / Incremental Backup StrategyImage copy:• Must be on Disk• Same size as database less temp filesBackup set:• Disk or tape• Smaller than an image copy• Can be compressed• Disk only• Recovery window: typically 1 – 7 days• Incremental forever strategy after initialcopy• Disk or tape• Typically - weekly fulls and dailyincrementals• Retention:• On-disk: days to weeks• Tape: weeks to years• Can be compressed
  • 11 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Architecting an ExadataBackup and RecoverySolution
  • 12 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Fast Recovery Area (FRA)• Unified storage location for all recovery files– Resides on Exadata Storage in an Exadata environment– Contains archived logs and flashback logs– May contain control files, online redo log files and backups• Minimize the number of initialization parameters to setwhen you create a databaseDatabase Manages the Disk Space
  • 13 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Fast Recovery AreaAll databases:Control file backupsDatabases in archived log mode:Online redo and archived logsAssign Databases to Tier(s) of StorageBased on Recovery Requirements and Available ResourcesTier 5TapeWeekly full onlyD2D2T as requiredTier 1Exadata StorageIncrementally Updated BackupsFlashback logsActive / Data GuardOptional:Offload backupsfrom production tostandbyTier 3ZFS Storage Appliance RMAN Disk BackupZFSStorageApplianceTier 2Exadata Expansion RackExadataExpansionRackTier 4TapeFull / IncrementalStorageTekTape LibraryOffsiteLocation
  • 14 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Considerations and Trade-offsStrategy Advantage DisadvantageRMAN backup compression • Reduces space consumption – 4 levels:• BASIC included in Enterprise Edition• LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH available with OracleAdvanced Compression Option (ACO)• Incurs CPU overhead on database server• Typically 1 CPU core per channelRMAN backup encryption • Secures backup prior to files leaving the database • Incurs CPU overhead on database serverIncremental backup strategy • Reduces backup window with fast incrementals • Dependency on full backup for restorationFull backup strategy • Improves recovery time (potentially) • More overhead on the serversIntegrated D2D2T • Seamless restore from disk or tape • Database server involved in both disk and tapebackup operation
  • 15 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Backup of Compressed Data• Compressed data remains compressed in the backup– This data will not benefit from further compression during thebackup (e.g. RMAN backup or tape drive compression)– Deduplication software cannot deduplicate compressed dataEffects on Sizing and ProcessesHCC DataOLTP Compressed TablesSecureFilesCompressed/Deduplicated RMAN backup compression is effective on non-compressed database files Avoid using RMAN backup compression on HCC tablespaces by separating thebackups as shown below: Restore is no different than if the backups had not been separatedCONFIGURE EXCLUDE FOR TABLESPACE historical_data;CONFIGURE COMPRESSION ALGORITHM low’;BACKUP TABLESPACE historical_data;BACKUP AS COMPRESSED BACKUPSET database;
  • 16 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Complete – Backup and RecoveryWho Better to Backup Oracle Than Oracle?Fiber ChannelSAN10GigE orInfiniBandNetworkOracle Secure BackupMedia ServersOracle Secure BackupAdmin ServerSL3000 tape library•Offsite Backups•VaultingZFS Storage Appliance•Backups of database & non-database files•Snapshots•ClonesInfiniBandNetworkStorage Expansion Rack•Fastest Backup and Restore•ILM Historical Archive•Second DATA2 Disk Group10GigE orInfiniBandNetworkEthernet
  • 17 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Create a PlanGroup Databases by RTO / RPOExadataExpansion Rack•RTO < 6 hours, RPO < 1 hour•Full / Incremental backup – 1 week retention on disk• Disk backup to ZFS Storage Appliance• Fast recovery area on Exadata•RMAN backup compression or ZFS compression RMAN Disk BackupZFSStorageApplianceFRA•RTO < 5 minutes, RPO = Near-zero data loss•Incrementally Updated Backup Strategy – 2 day recovery on disk• Fast recovery area on Exadata or Exadata Expansion Rack•Backup to tape from the standby – 7 year retention period•Backups encrypted on tape via tape drive encryptionActive Data GuardStorageTek Tape LibraryRemoteStandby•RTO > 6 hours, RPO < 1 day•Backup directly to tape – 3 monthretention period•Remember Archived Log sweepTapeBackup OffsiteLocationNote: Solutions may vary based on database size (e.g. 100 TB data warehouse)
  • 18 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Fast Recovery Area (FRA)Sizing – Depend on What Is Kept in ItNote: Fast Recovery Area is not required for backupsRecovery Files CommentsControl file and archived logbackupsEstimate total size of all archived logs generated between successivebackups on the busiest days x 2 (in case of unexpected redo spikes)Flashback logs (Redo rate x Flashback retention target time) x 2Image copy backup Size of database minus temporary filesBackup set backups (full) # of full backups x estimated sizeIncremental backups # of incremental backups x estimated sizeFurther details:http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/E11882_01/backup.112/e10642/rcmconfb.htm#i1019211
  • 19 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Utilize a Single FRA Location• Set each DB FRA location to<consolidated RECO disk group name>• Simplify backup storage management– Ensure that consolidated RECO disk group>= Sum {FRA size for each DB}• Set each database’s FRA size according to individualspace requirements– Each database has a separate subdirectory within the FRA for all its files• Upon first file creation within the FRA, an <DB_NAME> subdirectory is createdautomaticallyBackup to Exadata StorageDB 1DB 2DB1DB2RECOFRA
  • 20 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Sizing Backup Server(s)• Media servers - workload is focused on datamovement, not processing power• Assume about 2GB/s throughput via IB (TCP/IP)per media server• Administrative / Master Server requires enoughdisk space for catalog growthAdministrativeServerMedia Server(s)What if multiple databases are consolidated on Exadata?• Bandwidth, throughput and capacity remain the same whether one or moredatabases – No effect on media server sizingFor more information on sizing an Exadata tape backup environment, refer to:http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/focus-areas/availability/maa-exadata-backup-methodology-495297.pdf
  • 21 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.BackupThroughput =8 TB / hourBackupThroughput = 8 TB/ hourSchedule AccordinglyBased on Available Hardware Throughput and RequirementsOne 80 TB databaseBackup takes 15 hoursDatabase grows to 120 TBBackup takes 10 hours80 TB = 10 hours then40 TB = 5 hoursTotal backup time = 15 hoursTwo databases:1 = 80 TB and 2 = 40 TBStagger backups to runsequentiallyRun backups concurrentlyBackups complete in 15 hoursalthough unpredictable as towhen each completesTape environment - assign tapedrives to each database(Assume 8 drives at 1TB/heach): 5 to DB 1 wouldcomplete in 16 hrs and 3 drivesto DB 2 would complete in 13.3hoursTwo databases:1 = 80 TB and 2 = 40 TBBackup window = 5 hoursPurchase additional hardwareincreasing total backupthroughput to 24 TB / hour
  • 22 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Ratios• Backup & Recovery Internal to Exadata• Backup & Recovery to Storage Expansion Rack• Backup & Recovery to ZFS Storage Appliance• Backup & Recovery to StorageTek Tape Library• Backup & Recovery: the complete story
  • 23 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Backup & Recovery Internal to Exadata• Available usable space– A– A– A• Backup & Restore ratesQuarter Half FullDATA (High) 3 TB 7 TB 14 TBRECO (Normal) 5 TB 12 TB 23 TBQuarter Half FullBackup Rate 4.7 TB/hr 11.0 TB/hr 21.5 TB/hrRestore Rate 3.5 TB/hr 8.2 TB/hr 16.5 TB/hr
  • 24 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Backup & Recovery to Storage Expansion Rack• Available usable space– a– a– a– a• Backup & Restore ratesQuarter Half FullDATA (Normal) 7TB 16TB 32TBRECO (High) 2TB 4TB 8TBBKUP (Normal) 42 TB 97 TB 194 TBInfiniBandNetworkQuarter* Half* Full**Backup Rate 8.5 TB/hr 18.5 TB/hr 27.0 TB/hrRestore Rate 18.0 TB/hr 28.5 TB/hr 28.5 TB/hr * Full Exadata Rack to a Quarter, Half Storage Expansion Rack** Estimated rate Full Exadata to Full Storage Expansion Rack
  • 25 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Backup & Recovery to ZFS Storage Appliance• Available usable space• a– a– a– a• Backup & Restore ratesQuarter Half FullDATA (Normal) 7TB 16TB 32TBRECO (High) 2TB 4TB 8TBZFS /SA RAID-Z 40 TB scaling to 1.1 PBInfiniBandNetworkImage Copies Incremental Backups*Backup Rate 6.5 TB/hr 42.0 TB/hrRestore Rate 6.2 TB/hr 7.0 TB/hr*Effective Rate = Rate * Change RateBackup = 8.5 TB/hr * 20% Change = 42 TB/hr
  • 26 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Backup & Recovery to ZFS Storage Appliance• ZFS/SA 7420 can be connected to two different DBMachines fabrics via InfiniBand– Requires 8 free IB ports on each fabric– Keep primary and standby databases on different IB fabrics– Keep critical applications on different IB fabrics• ZFS/SA configured with 10GigE provides a centralizedBackup & Recovery solution for the enterpriseConsiderations
  • 27 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Backup & Recovery to ZFS Storage Appliance• Supports large amounts of usable space for backups,snapshots and clones (up to 1.1 PB)• Supports non-database and database files– Coming soon – support for Hybrid Columnar Compression (HCC)• Snapshot and cloning capabilities– Snapshots created in seconds– Coming soon - Best Practices and scripted solutionTips, Tricks and Best Practices
  • 28 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Backup & Recovery to StorageTek Tape Library• Available usable space– a– a– a• Backup & Restore ratesOracle Secure BackupMedia ServersInfiniBandNetworkFiber ChannelSANOracle Secure BackupAdmin ServerQuarter Half FullDATA (Normal) 7TB 16TB 32TBRECO (High) 2TB 4TB 8TB6 x LTO4 6 x LTO5Backup Rate 4.7 TB/hr 5.7 TB/hrRestore Rate 4.8 TB/hr 5.7 TB/hrSL3000 up to 24 drive base (up to 56 drives with expansion for LTO or Enterprise T10K and 200 to over 5000 slots)SL8500 up to 64 drive base (up to 640 drives LTO or Enterprise T10K drives and from 1500 to over 100,000 slots)
  • 29 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Backup & Recovery : the complete storyFiber ChannelSAN10GigE orInfiniBandNetworkOracle Secure BackupMedia ServersOracle Secure BackupAdmin ServerSL3000 tape library•Offsite Backups•VaultingZFS Storage Appliance•Backups of database & non-database files•Snapshots•ClonesInfiniBandNetworkStorage Expansion Rack•Fastest Backup and Restore•ILM Historical Archive•Second DATA2 Disk Group10GigE orInfiniBandNetworkEthernet
  • 30 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Backup & Recovery• MAA Best Practices – Exadata Database Machine– http://www.oracle.com/goto/MAA– Backup and Recovery Performance and Best Practices for Exadata Cell andOracle Exadata Database Machine– Oracle Exadata Database Machine - Backup & Recovery Sizing: Tape Backups• Oracle Technology Network– Protecting Oracle Exadata with the Sun ZFS Storage Appliance: ConfigurationBest Practices (http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/articles/systems-hardware-architecture/exadata-7000-367640.pdf)• My Oracle Support– Troubleshooting Backups External to the Database Machine (1275894.1)– RMAN backup from Exadata to ZFS Storage Appliance (1354980.1)– High Redundancy Disk Groups in an Exadata Environment (1339373.1)Resources
  • 31 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.Q&A
  • 32 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.
  • 33 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rightsreserved.