Fibre Optics Seminar Ise09


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Fibre Optics Seminar Ise09

  1. 1. Fibre Optics and its Importance for AV Presented By: Frank Sheehan 10951_ICIA_Template_STD_Final.ppt ICIA Confidentiality Message, Da
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Technology Areas using Fibre </li></ul><ul><li>AV/IT Convergence </li></ul><ul><li>Fibre Basics </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Extenders </li></ul><ul><li>Switching </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Trends & future </li></ul>
  3. 3. Technology Areas <ul><li>Telecommunication </li></ul><ul><li>ICT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computing (HPC – High Performance Computing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fibre Channel – storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other high bandwidth fibre technologies e.g Infiniband etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice over IP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AV </li></ul>
  4. 4. Merging technology areas <ul><li>The merging of AV with the IT network </li></ul>Audio Visual IT Convergence
  5. 5. Fibre Basics <ul><li>What is Fibre? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin strand of glass or plastic, serve as transmission medium for which analogue or digital signals are sent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic fibre optic system consists of two electronic circuits connected by an optical link. </li></ul></ul>Fibre TX Fibre RX Source Destination Fibre
  6. 6. The three key components <ul><li>Transmitter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Converts electrical signal to optical signal in two stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Driver Circuit converts input signal to driver current </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light Source convert electrical to optical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light Source Typically VCEL (Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser) or LED </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fibre Optic Cable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission medium for carrying light. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Receiver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Converts optical signal to electrical signal in two stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photonic device converts optical to electrical signal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Output circuit takes converted signal and reconstructs signal to original format </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Light wave principles <ul><li>Early Fibre Optics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhibited high loss initially </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Snell’s Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Angle at which light reflects from one material to another depends on the indices of the two materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Fibre this is the refractive index between the core and cladding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refraction of light at the interface between two media of different refractive indices, with n2 > n1. Since the phase velocity is lower in the second medium (v2 < v1), the angle of refraction θ2 is less than the angle of incidence θ1; that is, the ray in the higher-index medium is closer to the normal. (Figure 1) </li></ul></ul>Figure 1
  8. 8. Transmission Windows <ul><li>Wavelength a key factor within fibre </li></ul><ul><li>As specified by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Fibre construction <ul><li>Glass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass Core & Glass Cladding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different Elements added to glass to increase or decrease refractive index such as germanium & phosphorus to increase & Boron or Fluorine to decrease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plastic–Clad Silica (PCS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass Core & Plastic Cladding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plastic (POF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic Core & Plastic Cladding </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Fibre construction (cont) <ul><li>Core </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass or Plastic or PCS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically 8-200 microns (µm) Ø </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cladding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides difference in refractive index allowing internal reflection through core </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically layers of polymer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strengthening Fibres </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically Kevlar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cable Jacket </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PVC (Non-Plenum) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluoride Co-Polymer (Plenum) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Light Propagation <ul><li>Total Internal Reflection (TIR) </li></ul><ul><li>Intermodal Dispersion (sometimes known as Differential Mode Delay, DMD) </li></ul><ul><li>Graded index Fibres </li></ul>
  12. 12. Intermodal Dispersion <ul><li>Farther light goes from centre of fibre, the faster its speed </li></ul><ul><li>Speed difference compensates for longer paths </li></ul><ul><li>Equalizing of transit times reduces modal dispersion </li></ul><ul><li>Modal Dispersion may reduced considerably, but never completely eliminated </li></ul>
  13. 13. Graded Index Fibre
  14. 14. Fibre Modes <ul><li>Multimode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically 50µm or 62.5µm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Single-mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically 8µm or 9µm </li></ul></ul>Core & Cladding Diameters of four commonly used fibres
  15. 15. Fibre Types (Premises Cables) <ul><li>Simplex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single Jacketed Cable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Duplex or Zip Cord </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual individual jacketed Cables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small in size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires termination within Patch Panel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Breakout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less labour intensive for termination </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Fibre Rating NEC – National Electrical Code – for all Premises cables Low Smoke Density OFN-LS Plenum rated for use in air handling plenums OFNP or OFCP Riser Rated for vertical runs OFNR or OFCR General Purpose OFNG or OFCG Optical Fibre Conductive OFC Optical Fibre Non-conductive OFN Description NEC Rating
  17. 17. Fibre Connectors <ul><li>LC </li></ul><ul><li>SC </li></ul><ul><li>ST </li></ul>
  18. 18. Optical Budget <ul><li>What is Optical Budget? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The difference between power launched optics at source and received power at other end </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is Optical Loss Budget? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The minimum amount of optical power needed for the receiver to correctly recover signal </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Optical Fibre Loss <ul><li>Table showing typical Optical Fibre Loss </li></ul><ul><li>Other Sources of loss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patch Panels – 0.1dB to greater than 1dB </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Patch Panels <ul><li>SC Patch Panel Example </li></ul>
  21. 21. Fibre Bandwidth <ul><li>Intermodal Dispersion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limits distance capacity of multimode fibre reducing bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chromatic Dispersion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to light of different colours (wavelengths) travelling at different speeds in the core of the fibre </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polarized Mode Dispersion (PMD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A property also called birefringence within single-mode fibre. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. CWDM <ul><li>Coarse Wave Division Multiplexing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 18 Wavelengths evenly spaced 1270nm-1610nm @ 20nm increments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided in Multimode and Single-mode systems </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. DWDM <ul><li>Dense Wave-Division Multiplexing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 0.8nm channel spacing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single mode only </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Video Extenders
  25. 25. Example of DVI interconnect
  26. 26. HD-SDI Interconnect
  27. 27. Rack mounted Systems
  28. 28. Racked Cage Systems
  29. 29. Switching <ul><li>Optical-Optical-Optical (OOO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilizing MEM’s technology ( Micro Electro Mechanical) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optical-Electrical-Optical (OEO) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Optical System Example
  31. 31. Digital Impact <ul><li>Transition from the analogue world to the digital world on the copper infrastructure </li></ul>Analogue Digital Last 10 years Signal Last 10 years Distance
  32. 32. Video <ul><li>HD-SDI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual Link – 10 bit colour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3G (2.97Gbit/s) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DVI-D </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single Link </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual Link – 10 bit colour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HDMI </li></ul><ul><li>Display Port </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10.8Gbit/s data rate </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Dual Link DVI-D Example <ul><li>Data Rate Example </li></ul><ul><li>70fps × 30bpp (RGB) × 2560 × 1600 = 7.4 Gbit/s </li></ul><ul><li>60fps × 36bpp (YCbCr 4:4:4) × 1920× 1080 = 4.5 Gbit/s </li></ul>
  34. 34. Audio <ul><li>TOSLINK (TOShiba-LINK) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ADAT (Lightpipe)[ Alesis Digital Audio Tape] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPDIF [ Sony Philips Digital InterFace ] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AES/EBU (AES3) [Audio Engineering Society & European Broadcasting Union] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MADI [Multichannel Audio Digital Interface] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Networked Audio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EtherSound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CobraNet </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Data Interconnects <ul><li>USB </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.0 = 12Mbit/s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.0 = 480Mbit/s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.0 (Future Version) = 4.8GBit/s (Utilizing parallel optical cable) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Firewire (IEEE 1394) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1394 & 1394a = 400Mbits/s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1394b = 800Mbit/s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S1600 = 1.6Gbit/s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S3200 = 3.2Gbit/s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future iterations = 6.4Gbit/s or > </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Trends <ul><li>Increased loading upon infrastructure – Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Future requirements? </li></ul>Bandwidth VoIP Audio Data IPTV VC Video
  37. 37. Developments <ul><li>10Gb networks being installed now – 100Gb networks under development and being tested </li></ul><ul><li>Fibre systems being developed expanding on multiplexing technologies to carry more data down single fibres </li></ul>
  38. 38. Future? <ul><li>3D Immersive Telepresence requiring large bandwidth </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>David Thomson of Avolution </li></ul><ul><li>Ian Patrick of Network Cabling Help </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus Izquierdo of Emcore </li></ul><ul><li>Jim Jachetta of MultiDyne </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Henderson & Dan Karz of Think Logical </li></ul>Credits Thanks go out to the following for permissions of image use and information kindly donated by the following :
  40. 40. Thank you for your attention
  41. 41. Contact Details Frank Sheehan Director of Technology – Visual Acuity Limited [email_address] Cell: +44(0)7900 904928 Tel: +44(0)8700 775040 Skype: franksheehan