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Opfrisser Onderzoek‘Hoe studeer ik succesvol af?’          6 September 2011           C.A.W. Bal       Hogeschool Zeeland ...
Research Refresher‘How to graduate successfully?’             September 6, 2011              C.A.W. Bal   HZ University of...
There are many books on research     Luckily, they all tell the same story.            ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, ...
Become a competent researcher !              Research competency:• Phase 1: Planning and preparing your research  product:...
What is research?• Finding answers to (complex/scientific) questions• In a structured manner:                     Sharing/...
What is research?• Finding answers to (complex/scientific) questions• In a structured manner:  Report             Sharing/...
Phase 1: Planning and preparation• 1.1 Sketch of problem, research question(s), goal• 1.2 Literature and expert review• 1....
Brick           1.1   Research Question•   Ends with “?”•   Not too simple, not too complex•   Sum of subquestions answer ...
Brick           1.1 Research                      Question• Is this question OK?:  “How can firm A improve business result...
Brick              1.2 Literature                         review•   Search strategy (diversity of sources, keep a log)•   ...
1.3 Research                         design•   Research strategy•   Sample choice (size, representative)•   Operationalisa...
1.3 Research                          design Sharing/                                                  Publication  using ...
Brick                        Experiment Sharing/                                                  Publication  using      ...
Brick                        Experiment Sharing/                                                  Publication  using      ...
Brick                    Grounded theory                  Does this look like an effective teaching method? Sharing/  usin...
Brick                 Grounded theory Sharing/                                                  Publication  using        ...
Brick                                Survey Sharing/                                                  Publication  using  ...
Brick                                Survey Sharing/                                                  Publication  using  ...
Brick                           Case study Sharing/                                                  Publication  using   ...
Brick                           Case study Sharing/                                                  Publication  using   ...
Brick                     Action research Sharing/     Hall, D.T., Otazo, K.L., & Hollenbeck, G.P. (1999).                ...
Brick                   Action research Sharing/                                                  Publication  using      ...
1.4 Research                       proposalThis is the document that convincesyourself and outside parties (host company, ...
1.4 Research                       proposalIt consists of several paragraphs (usually 3 to 5 pages):• Introduction (sketch...
Project planning• Do this upfront (in your research proposal)• Arrange budget and access• Timing usually runs out:   – The...
Project planning• Do this upfront (in your research proposal)• Arrange budget and access• Timing usually runs out:   – The...
Phase 2: Executing your research• 2.1 Gathering the data• 2.2 Processing the data for interpretation• 2.3 Monitor progress...
2.1 Gathering                         the data• Think about access to your data• Apply the rules for proper research:   – ...
‘Increase our road capacity?’How do you apply these rules:– Objectivity: Measuring cars or opinions?– Validity: Can we use...
Brick                    Observation•   Take notes•   Sample choice is important•   Be systematic, use a coding scheme•   ...
Brick                  Questionnaire• Frequently used• Think research through, and pilot test                             ...
Brick                           Interview• Prepare (background of interviewee, subject knowledge,    professional appearan...
Checking numbers and statisticsThings you could read somewhere:• One windmill is enough to power 300 households  (But what...
Checking numbers and statisticsThings you could read somewhere:• One windmill is enough to power 300 households  (But what...
2.2 Processing                          the data• Code your ‘answers’ (into numbers or categories)• Indicate relationships...
2.3 Monitor              progress and quality• Stay on track  Adhere to your planning  Be pragmatic, keep moving  the proj...
Phase 3: Finalizing the research• 3.1 Interpret your data• 3.2 Report your research (process and results)                 ...
3.1 Interpret                    your data•   Interpret in light of your research question•   Formulate conclusions and re...
Brick             Quantitative analysis• The fun part:  Reporting numbers in colourful graphs and tables.  Such descriptiv...
Brick              Qualitative analysis• Coding and structuring (search for relationships between  concepts, explain categ...
Researcher’s attitude• Before moving to writing your report, first a few words  about the fourth part of the research comp...
Neutrality?‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland   7-9-2011
High standards and critical mindset•   Do not believe, until convinced•   One source is not enough•   Do not use, unless u...
Creativity and hard workCreativity is a source of ideas and solutions, but takesan investment to reap the benefits        ...
Brick          3.2 Report               your research• Start from day one• Make and discuss TOC (Table Of Contents) early•...
Brick             3.2 Report            your researchOnly as good as your score on attitudes and skills:.Neutrality  Take ...
Brick             3.2 Report               your researchLogic and coherency The thesis should be fully self-explanatoryStr...
A real project:‘Series or parallel production at HP’ Sharing/  using       • Communication Kao,MT andEfficiency measuremen...
A real project:‘Series or parallel production at HP’ Sharing/  using       • Communication to MT and floor Answer       • ...
Your next project:    ‘Finding right job and company’ Sharing/  using                   • Write application letter(s)     ...
Your next project:    ‘Finding right job and company’ Sharing/  using              • Write application letter(s) Answer   ...
Conclusion• This is just a refresher…  (to know what you do not know is a good start)• The details are important, use your...
Any questions?          Thank you   Wish you wisdom and luckduring graduation and thereafter!   Research Refresher:A compe...
Zijn er vragen?              Dankjewel  Veel wijsheid en voorspoed gewenst     bij het afstuderen en daarna!    Opfrisser ...
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Opfrisser onderzoek - Refresher research methods 2011 (CAW Bal)

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Transcript of "Opfrisser onderzoek - Refresher research methods 2011 (CAW Bal)"

  1. 1. Opfrisser Onderzoek‘Hoe studeer ik succesvol af?’ 6 September 2011 C.A.W. Bal Hogeschool Zeeland Vlissingen
  2. 2. Research Refresher‘How to graduate successfully?’ September 6, 2011 C.A.W. Bal HZ University of Applied Sciences Vlissingen, The Netherlands
  3. 3. There are many books on research Luckily, they all tell the same story. ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  4. 4. Become a competent researcher ! Research competency:• Phase 1: Planning and preparing your research product: research proposal (background + theory)• Phase 2: Executing your research product: work on site (practical component)• Phase 3: Finalising the research product: report (shared knowledge)• Researcher’s attitude product: success (or failure…) ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  5. 5. What is research?• Finding answers to (complex/scientific) questions• In a structured manner: Sharing/ Question/ using hypothesis Answer Orientation Research phases: Two-way Cycle Approach/ Analysis Strategy Gathering data ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  6. 6. What is research?• Finding answers to (complex/scientific) questions• In a structured manner: Report Sharing/ Question/ using hypothesis Answer Orientation Research phases: Two-way Cycle Approach/ Analysis Strategy Gathering data Practical component Research Proposal ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  7. 7. Phase 1: Planning and preparation• 1.1 Sketch of problem, research question(s), goal• 1.2 Literature and expert review• 1.3 Research design (using Bricks ) 1.4 Research proposal ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  8. 8. Brick 1.1 Research Question• Ends with “?”• Not too simple, not too complex• Sum of subquestions answer the main question• Define the scope and the concepts• Link to theory and professional practice SMART• Specific Measurable Attainable Relevant Timed ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  9. 9. Brick 1.1 Research Question• Is this question OK?: “How can firm A improve business results?”• How about this one?: “What are firm A’s legal, technical and marketing requirements for successful introduction of product Y on the Dutch market?” ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  10. 10. Brick 1.2 Literature review• Search strategy (diversity of sources, keep a log)• Search terms (synonyms, language, combinations, theory…)• Use databases (e.g. from the Mediatheek)• Check references for further leads• Mind the quality (recent, trustworthy)• Be critical (arguments in favor, arguments against)• Write summaries, and integrate findings in a chapter Revise research question if needed ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  11. 11. 1.3 Research design• Research strategy• Sample choice (size, representative)• Operationalisation (e.g. “customer satisfaction”)• Measurement instrument• Data analysis method It is the key to finding a proper answer ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  12. 12. 1.3 Research design Sharing/ Publication using Answer/ Answer discussion Quantitative Qualitative Analysis analysis analysisGathering Question- Secundary Observation Interview data naire dataApproach/ Grounded Action Experiment Survey Case study Strategy theory ResearchQuestion + Literature Questionorientation review ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  13. 13. Brick Experiment Sharing/ Publication using Answer/ Answer discussion Quantitative Qualitative Analysis analysis analysisGathering Question- Secundary Observation Interview data naire data Grounded ActionApproach Experiment Survey Case study theory ResearchQuestion + Literature Questionorientation review ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  14. 14. Brick Experiment Sharing/ Publication using Answer/ Answer discussion Quantitative Qualitative Analysis analysis analysisGathering Question- Secundary Observation Interview data naire data Grounded ActionApproach Experiment Survey Case study theory ResearchQuestion + Literature Questionorientation review ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  15. 15. Brick Grounded theory Does this look like an effective teaching method? Sharing/ using Could you derive a theory? Publication Coldren, J., & Hively, J., (2009). Interpersonal Teaching Style and Answer/ Answer discussion Student Impression Formation. College Teaching; Spring2009, 57 [2], pp. 93-98 4 Quantitative Qualitative Analysis analysis analysisGathering Question- Secundary Observation Interview data naire data Grounded ActionApproach Experiment Survey Case study theory ResearchQuestion + Literature Questionorientation review ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  16. 16. Brick Grounded theory Sharing/ Publication using Answer/ Answer discussion Quantitative Qualitative Analysis analysis analysisGathering Question- Secundary Observation Interview data naire data Grounded ActionApproach Experiment Survey Case study theory ResearchQuestion + Literature Questionorientation review ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  17. 17. Brick Survey Sharing/ Publication using Answer/ Answer discussion Quantitative Qualitative Analysis analysis analysisGathering Question- Secundary Observation Interview data naire data Grounded ActionApproach Experiment Survey Case study theory ResearchQuestion + Literature Questionorientation review ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  18. 18. Brick Survey Sharing/ Publication using Answer/ Answer discussion Quantitative Qualitative Analysis analysis analysisGathering Question- Secundary Observation Interview data naire data Grounded ActionApproach Experiment Survey Case study theory ResearchQuestion + Literature Questionorientation review ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  19. 19. Brick Case study Sharing/ Publication using Answer/ Answer discussion Emerging Energy Research, (2008). Global Wind Turbine Markets and Strategies, 2008–2020 (New market study). Quantitative Qualitative Analysis [On-line, Hyperlink to pdf ] (price €3350). 4 analysis analysisGathering Question- Secundary Observation Interview data naire data Grounded ActionApproach Experiment Survey Case study theory ResearchQuestion + Literature Questionorientation review ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  20. 20. Brick Case study Sharing/ Publication using Answer/ Answer discussion Quantitative Qualitative Analysis analysis analysisGathering Question- Secundary Observation Interview data naire data Grounded ActionApproach Experiment Survey Case study theory ResearchQuestion + Literature Questionorientation review ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  21. 21. Brick Action research Sharing/ Hall, D.T., Otazo, K.L., & Hollenbeck, G.P. (1999). Publication Behind Closed Doors: What Really Happens in using Executive Coaching. Organizational Dynamics, 27 [3], pp. 39-54 Answer/ Answer discussion Quantitative Qualitative Analysis analysis analysisGathering Question- Secundary Observation Interview data naire data Grounded ActionApproach Experiment Survey Case study theory ResearchQuestion + Literature Questionorientation review ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  22. 22. Brick Action research Sharing/ Publication using Answer/ Answer discussion Quantitative Qualitative Analysis analysis analysisGathering Question- Secundary Observation Interview data naire data Grounded ActionApproach Experiment Survey Case study theory ResearchQuestion + Literature Questionorientation review ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  23. 23. 1.4 Research proposalThis is the document that convincesyourself and outside parties (host company, tutors)that your research is worthwhile, well prepared,and organized in such a way that you will find an answer/resultNow they will invest in you!(time, energy, resources, money…)(NB: Count on needing four weeks, after approval and start of the graduation assignment, for finalizing your research proposal) ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  24. 24. 1.4 Research proposalIt consists of several paragraphs (usually 3 to 5 pages):• Introduction (sketch of the problem or task)• Research question Use a solid• Theoretical framework set of• Practical relevance references!• Research design + instrument• Project planning and scope Write what you plan to do, and why ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  25. 25. Project planning• Do this upfront (in your research proposal)• Arrange budget and access• Timing usually runs out: – Theory/literature – Setting up interventions/equipment Allow – Interviews (travel, preparation) some slack! – Questionnaire (participants, data)• Leave time for analysis ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  26. 26. Project planning• Do this upfront (in your research proposal)• Arrange budget and access• Timing usually runs out: – Theory/literature – Setting up interventions/equipment Allow – Interviews (travel, preparation) some slack! – Questionnaire (participants, data)• Leave time for analysis ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  27. 27. Phase 2: Executing your research• 2.1 Gathering the data• 2.2 Processing the data for interpretation• 2.3 Monitor progress and quality ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  28. 28. 2.1 Gathering the data• Think about access to your data• Apply the rules for proper research: – Objectivity – Validity – Ethics – Reliability - Repeatability – Transparency NB: Violation disqualifies research findings ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  29. 29. ‘Increase our road capacity?’How do you apply these rules:– Objectivity: Measuring cars or opinions?– Validity: Can we use existing simulation models?– Ethics: Tell the truth or the desired outcome?– Reliability: Who to trust on knowledge?– Repeatability: Will we find the same next time?– Transparency: Is it 100% clear what we did? ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  30. 30. Brick Observation• Take notes• Sample choice is important• Be systematic, use a coding scheme• You only see what you’re looking for• Do not interpret, report facts ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  31. 31. Brick Questionnaire• Frequently used• Think research through, and pilot test very very bad good• Do not ask: ‘How well do you drive?’ 1 2 3 4 never always But ask: ‘How often do you speed?’ 1 2 3 4 ‘Do you drink and drive?’ 1 2 3 4 ‘Do you indicate direction?’ 1 2 3 4 Such a ‘Likert scale’ has a higher reliability and validity• Know the limitations of your sample (non-respons) ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  32. 32. Brick Interview• Prepare (background of interviewee, subject knowledge, professional appearance)• Access (person, location, time)• Topic list• Timing• Make a transcript• Listen well, use follow-up questions• Summarize the answers (as a check)• Ask for further contacts, ideas, suggestions ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  33. 33. Checking numbers and statisticsThings you could read somewhere:• One windmill is enough to power 300 households (But what size, for how long, where on the planet, etc)• 5% population growth means doubling in 20 years (well, not quite, how about doubling every 14 years)• 70% of the internet respondents have experienced crime (who are they, which crime, when, is this not a bit high)• In the crisis every investor has lost 50% of his/her wealth (on average, exactly 50%, investor in what, what is wealth) ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  34. 34. Checking numbers and statisticsThings you could read somewhere:• One windmill is enough to power 300 households (But what size, for how long, where on the planet, etc)• 5% population growth means doubling in 20 years (well, not quite, how about doubling every 14 years)• 70% of the internet respondents have experienced crime (who are they, which crime, when, is this not a bit high)• In the crisis every investor has lost 50% of his/her wealth (on average, exactly 50%, investor in what, what is wealth)These may be calculation or (more likely) copying accidents,but could also deliberately be put there to mislead! ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  35. 35. 2.2 Processing the data• Code your ‘answers’ (into numbers or categories)• Indicate relationships (between variables or categories)• Show overview and structure through: key numbers, graphs, tables, schemes (make them self-explanatory)• Use of Excel Clear and logical ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  36. 36. 2.3 Monitor progress and quality• Stay on track Adhere to your planning Be pragmatic, keep moving the project ahead• Intervene/change if necessary Things do not always go as you plan them! Keep a record of changes and their justification ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  37. 37. Phase 3: Finalizing the research• 3.1 Interpret your data• 3.2 Report your research (process and results) ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  38. 38. 3.1 Interpret your data• Interpret in light of your research question• Formulate conclusions and recommendations• Compare with other research• Report new applications and insights• Propose further research ‘Skills’: Analytical thinking, Logic and coherency, Structured writing, Creativity, Hard work, Concentration ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  39. 39. Brick Quantitative analysis• The fun part: Reporting numbers in colourful graphs and tables. Such descriptive statistics are often useful More advanced: cross-tables, correlation and regression• The tricky part: What can you conclude from your sampled data. Need inferential statistics (confidence levels, accuracy) Get good advice upfront: course, book, or prof. Software is great, if you understand what it does ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  40. 40. Brick Qualitative analysis• Coding and structuring (search for relationships between concepts, explain categories in words, link to theory)• Present text fragments (quotes)• Use schematical representations (diagram or table)• Use word processor (or qualitative analysis software such as Kwalitan, Kodani) Motivate your choices, apply strict logic, demonstrate the arguments that lead to your conclusions ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  41. 41. Researcher’s attitude• Before moving to writing your report, first a few words about the fourth part of the research competency: your attitude as a researcher• Adapt behavior to research norms, professional ethics, and professional responsability Neutrality, Preciseness Critical mindset, High standards, Curiosity, Perseverance, Respect ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  42. 42. Neutrality?‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  43. 43. High standards and critical mindset• Do not believe, until convinced• One source is not enough• Do not use, unless understand• Check, check and double check• Always consider alternatives• Try to prove yourself wrong You’re responsible ! ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  44. 44. Creativity and hard workCreativity is a source of ideas and solutions, but takesan investment to reap the benefits ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  45. 45. Brick 3.2 Report your research• Start from day one• Make and discuss TOC (Table Of Contents) early• Structure: Introduction/background, Method, Results, Discussion/conclusions/implications• Answer the research question!• Clear and logical, Argued choices• References• Research should be reproducible based on report• Target audience, use of appropriate language ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  46. 46. Brick 3.2 Report your researchOnly as good as your score on attitudes and skills:.Neutrality Take some distance every now and thenPreciseness Only write what is needed (no frills, appendix)Critical mindset If something appears simple, check for errorsHigh standards Be extremely strict on yourself in every phaseCuriosity Your thesis is a consequence, not a goalPerseverance When fed up, do not give upAnalytical thinking Is every claim justified Continued ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  47. 47. Brick 3.2 Report your researchLogic and coherency The thesis should be fully self-explanatoryStructured writing Lay-out matters (references, APA?)Creativity Give new ideas follow upHard work Proper effort and no result is a result tooProject planning Count on several times writing, start earlyConcentration Write in half-days, not hours Then: ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  48. 48. A real project:‘Series or parallel production at HP’ Sharing/ using • Communication Kao,MT andEfficiency measurement for C., (2009). toparallel production systems. floor European Journal of Operational Research, Answer • With adaptations, series1107-1112 196 [3], pp. production Analysis • Both numbers and production conceptsGathering data • Production data, floor lay out, staffingApproach • Case study, secundary dataQuestion +orientation • What is flexible and cost efficient? ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  49. 49. A real project:‘Series or parallel production at HP’ Sharing/ using • Communication to MT and floor Answer • With adaptations, series production Analysis • Both numbers and production conceptsGathering data • Production data, floor lay out, staffingApproach • Case study, secundary dataQuestion +orientation • What is flexible and cost efficient? ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  50. 50. Your next project: ‘Finding right job and company’ Sharing/ using • Write application letter(s) LaGesse, D., (2009). Turning Social Networking Into a Job Offer. U.S. News & World Report, 146 [4], pp. 44-45 Answer • Short list of positions and companies Analysis • Qualitative and quantitative comparisonGathering data • Interviews, secundary dataApproach • Survey of jobs and industriesQuestion +orientation • Which jobs fit my skills and interests ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  51. 51. Your next project: ‘Finding right job and company’ Sharing/ using • Write application letter(s) Answer • Short list of positions and companies Analysis • Qualitative and quantitative comparisonGathering data • Interviews, secundary dataApproach • Survey of jobs and industriesQuestion +orientation • Which jobs fit my skills and interests ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  52. 52. Conclusion• This is just a refresher… (to know what you do not know is a good start)• The details are important, use your books (and any good research advice you find at school or on-line)• Research is finding answers systematically (answers that come easily are suspicious)• BUT: If you master the attitudes and skills, succes will follow These are applicable everywhere, and highly valued Learning is in doing, with the thesis as living proof ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  53. 53. Any questions? Thank you Wish you wisdom and luckduring graduation and thereafter! Research Refresher:A competent researcher! kees.bal@hz.nl ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
  54. 54. Zijn er vragen? Dankjewel Veel wijsheid en voorspoed gewenst bij het afstuderen en daarna! Opfrisser Onderzoek:Een competente onderzoeker! kees.bal@hz.nl ‘Research Refresher’ – C.A.W. Bal, Hogeschool Zeeland 7-9-2011
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