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Mapping History on Open Street Map
 

Mapping History on Open Street Map

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  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
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  • Great work. I came here investigating a way for my high school students in B.C., Canada to create a map of our area with layers of historic information detailing changes to economic activity and such.
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  • Excellent summary and example images, thanks!
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  • I want to do the same thing exactly!!
    In openstreetmap, you can draw line features like roads... do you know of anywhere you can draw polygons?
    Check out the work I did animating North American history and the expansion of my town in the 20th century:
    Scroll down to 'Geographic Information Systems (GIS)':
    http://www.thenittygritty.org/intheworks.html
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    Mapping History on Open Street Map Mapping History on Open Street Map Presentation Transcript

    • Mapping History (starting with Manchester) Frankie Roberto frankie@frankieroberto.com Twitter: frankieroberto
    • Currently, OpenStreetMap maps change over time, as people edit them.
    • ...in a way that printed maps don’t. N.B. This map, in Sheffield, has been like this for months.
    • But these changes represent the speed at which editors update and improve the maps, not the speed of changes on the ground.
    • I’d like to be able to add a time-slider to maps, so that you can see how the places themselves have changed over time.
    • Comparing old maps with new maps is fun...
    • Before...
    • After...
    • But these comparisons are made harder by the big changes in cartography.
    • I’ve mapped some of the buildings in Manchester...
    • ...where there are lots of pretty old buildings...
    • ...and some ugly newer ones...
    • ...as well as a few under construction.
    • (I’ve shared all the photos on Flickr)
    • ...where they are even machine tagged with the appropriate way.
    • The years in which the buildings were constructed have been added to OpenStreetMap using...
    • start_date=
    • This information can sometimes be found inscribed on the buildings, but for the most part I used the local library...
    • Isn’t it pretty?
    • Books like this were a great help.
    • ...it even has a gazeteer, listing the buildings by street.
    • So, given this data, how do you filter out new buildings from old maps?
    • You could add extra rules to Mapnik or Osmarender. ...but it’s probably easiest to pre-process.
    • <?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?> <xsl:stylesheet version="1.0" xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"> <xsl:template match="@*|node()"> <xsl:copy><xsl:apply-templates select="@*|node()"/></xsl:copy> </xsl:template> <xsl:template match="way"> <xsl:choose> <xsl:when test="tag/@k = 'start_date'"> <xsl:choose> <xsl:when test="tag[@k = 'start_date']/@v &gt; $year"> </xsl:when> <xsl:otherwise> <way><xsl:apply-templates select="@*|node()"/></way> </xsl:otherwise> </xsl:choose> </xsl:when> <xsl:otherwise> <way><xsl:apply-templates select="@*|node()"/></way> </xsl:otherwise> </xsl:choose> </xsl:template> ...using a little bit of XSLT. </xsl:stylesheet>
    • #!/bin/bash for (( i = 1900; i < 2011; i = i + 10)) do xsltproc --stringparam "year" "$i" start_date_filter.xsl data.svg > data/$i.osm done A quick bash script produces one filtered data file per decade: 1800.osm 1910.osm 1810.osm 1920.osm 1820.osm 1930.osm 1830.osm 1940.osm 1840.osm 1950.osm 1850.osm 1960.osm 1860.osm 1970.osm 1870.osm 1980.osm 1880.osm 1990.osm 1890.osm 2000.osm 1900.osm 2010.osm
    • #!/bin/bash for (( i = 1900; i < 2011; i = i + 10)) do ln -s ../files/$i.osm data.osm xsltproc osmarender.xsl osm-map-features-z17.xml > svg/$i.svg done ...and then another bash script renders each file using Osmarender: 1800.svg 1910.svg 1810.svg 1920.svg 1820.svg 1930.svg 1830.svg 1940.svg 1840.svg 1950.svg 1850.svg 1960.svg 1860.svg 1970.svg 1870.svg 1980.svg 1880.svg 1990.svg 1890.svg 2000.svg 1900.svg 2010.svg
    • A quick caveat...
    • A quick caveat... start_date_filter.xsl expects start_date=YYYY
    • A quick caveat... start_date_filter.xsl expects start_date=YYYY but the actual date might be:
    • A quick caveat... start_date_filter.xsl expects start_date=YYYY but the actual date might be: 1934-10
    • A quick caveat... start_date_filter.xsl expects start_date=YYYY but the actual date might be: 1934-10 1934-10-23
    • A quick caveat... start_date_filter.xsl expects start_date=YYYY but the actual date might be: 1934-10 c1830 1934-10-23
    • A quick caveat... start_date_filter.xsl expects start_date=YYYY but the actual date might be: 1934-10 c1830 1934-10-23 1900s
    • A quick caveat... start_date_filter.xsl expects start_date=YYYY but the actual date might be: 1934-10 c1830 1832-1847 1934-10-23 1900s
    • A quick caveat... start_date_filter.xsl expects start_date=YYYY but the actual date might be: 1934-10 c1830 1832-1847 1934-10-23 1900s “before 1832”
    • A quick caveat... start_date_filter.xsl expects start_date=YYYY but the actual date might be: 1934-10 c1830 1832-1847 1934-10-23 1900s “before 1832” Figuring this out is a TODO...
    • Here’s how the rendered files look: 1 80 0
    • 18 1 0
    • 1820
    • 1830
    • 1840
    • Theatre Royale 1850
    • Free Trade Hall 1860
    • Lloyd’s House 1870
    • Town Hall Train station 1 880
    • Elliot House 1 89 0
    • Train station goods warehouse 1900
    • Midland Hotel 19 1 0
    • St George’s House 1920
    • 1930
    • Town Hall Extension Central Library 1940
    • 1950
    • Peter House 1960
    • Lincoln Square 1970
    • 1 980
    • Heron House 1990
    • 20 0 0
    • Great Northern Tower 20 1 0 (?)
    • But there’s a problem with this map! There are buildings I don’t have dates for yet But more importantly, there are old buildings, long demolished which should be shown. 1 80 0
    • Take a look at this old map of the area for example... We could trace all these old buildings, and tag them with...
    • end_date=
    • But there’s a problem:
    • But there’s a problem: We don’t want long-demolished buildings appearing on the maps!
    • But there’s a problem: We don’t want long-demolished buildings appearing on the maps! Renderers could filter out features with end_date < Date.now...
    • But it’d probably be best to move the filtering to the API:
    • But it’d probably be best to move the filtering to the API: GET http://www.openstreetmap.org/api/0.7/[...]?date=1932
    • But it’d probably be best to move the filtering to the API: GET http://www.openstreetmap.org/api/0.7/[...]?date=1932 Default = [today]
    • We also need to date attributes:
    • We also need to date attributes: • Name changes (old_name=)
    • We also need to date attributes: • Name changes (old_name=) • Change in use (amenity=cinema becomes sport=bingo)
    • We also need to date attributes: • Name changes (old_name=) • Change in use (amenity=cinema becomes sport=bingo) • Change in scale (highway=unclassified to highway=primary)
    • We also need to date attributes: • Name changes (old_name=) • Change in use (amenity=cinema becomes sport=bingo) • Change in scale (highway=unclassified to highway=primary) • Accessibility modifications (bicycle=yes)
    • One solution is add two extra columns:
    • One solution is add two extra columns: Tag start_date end_date amenity=bank 1934 2001 name=Lloyd’s Bank 1934 2001 landuse=construction_site 2001 2002 amenity=pub 2002 name=Wetherspoons 2002 wheelchair=yes 2005
    • One solution is add two extra columns: Tag start_date end_date amenity=bank 1934 2001 name=Lloyd’s Bank 1934 2001 landuse=construction_site 2001 2002 amenity=pub 2002 name=Wetherspoons 2002 wheelchair=yes 2005
    • One solution is add two extra columns: Tag start_date end_date amenity=bank 1934 2001 name=Lloyd’s Bank 1934 2001 landuse=construction_site 2001 2002 amenity=pub 2002 name=Wetherspoons 2002 wheelchair=yes 2005
    • One solution is add two extra columns: Tag start_date end_date amenity=bank 1934 2001 name=Lloyd’s Bank 1934 2001 landuse=construction_site 2001 2002 amenity=pub 2002 name=Wetherspoons 2002 wheelchair=yes 2005
    • One solution is add two extra columns: Tag start_date end_date amenity=bank 1934 2001 name=Lloyd’s Bank 1934 2001 landuse=construction_site 2001 2002 amenity=pub 2002 name=Wetherspoons 2002 wheelchair=yes 2005
    • One solution is add two extra columns: Tag start_date end_date amenity=bank 1934 2001 name=Lloyd’s Bank 1934 2001 landuse=construction_site 2001 2002 amenity=pub 2002 name=Wetherspoons 2002 wheelchair=yes 2005
    • One solution is add two extra columns: Tag start_date end_date amenity=bank 1934 2001 name=Lloyd’s Bank 1934 2001 landuse=construction_site 2001 2002 amenity=pub 2002 name=Wetherspoons 2002 wheelchair=yes 2005
    • We may also need to date changes in positions (nodes)
    • We may also need to date changes in positions (nodes) • Boundary changes
    • We may also need to date changes in positions (nodes) • Boundary changes • Extensions to buildings
    • We may also need to date changes in positions (nodes) • Boundary changes • Extensions to buildings • Road straightening
    • We may also need to date changes in positions (nodes) • Boundary changes • Extensions to buildings • Road straightening • Flooding?
    • The solution is probably to use Relations (??)
    • Dating things poses some Philosophical Issues
    • How long does a feature remain the same feature? (Is a building with a preserved facade the same building, or a new one?)
    • Final thought....
    • Final thought.... Can we predict the future?
    • Final thought.... Can we predict the future? (Should we tag planned new buildings, roads and features?)
    • Thanks (get mapping history!) Frankie Roberto frankie@frankieroberto.com Twitter: frankieroberto