Rio de Janeiro Urban Development

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This presentation is made for a high-school Geography project, which intends to investigate the urban development problems and possible solutions for Rio de Janeiro.

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Rio de Janeiro Urban Development

  1. 1. Rio de JaneiroUrban Development Investigation
  2. 2. Brazil
  3. 3. BrazilWhere the world’s largestrainforest is locatedWhere one of the best soccerteam was from2014 World Cup host2016 Olympics host
  4. 4. Brazil 2014 World Cup ho 2016 Olympics hRio de Janeiro
  5. 5. Rio de Janeiro Demographics84% people living incities (in Brazil) 6 million population in municipality (2010)2nd populous Brazilian City(behind Sao Paulo)High urban populationdensity of 4781 ppl/ km2About 200 billion USD GDP Hong Kong had an urban population density of 6480 ppl/ km2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rio_de_Janeiro
  6. 6. Rio de Janeiro Panorama
  7. 7. Copacabana Beach, Rio
  8. 8. Rio de Janeiro Carnival 2011
  9. 9. Centro,Janeiro Janeiro (CBD)Rio de Rio de Carnival 2011
  10. 10. What Rio is now. What is Rio doing? What should Rio do?(for simplicity, Rio de Janeiro will be called Rio from now on)
  11. 11. What Rio is now. What is Rio doing? What should Rio do? Is Rio ready for the twoworld-class events ahead?
  12. 12. Current urban land use planning Housing the poorer people Social Deprivation Pollution and waste Transport & infrastructureWater, food and power systems What Rio is now. W
  13. 13. Poor ✈Poor Middle CBD Slum ✈ High High
  14. 14. Poor 3 ✈Poor Middle CBD 4 Slum 1 ✈ High High 2
  15. 15. 1 Airport leads to increased accessibility, and therefore the CBD is located near the airport CBD Mid-high class Airport residential area
  16. 16. 2 to CBD High class residential area Hotel+ resorts Beach scenery + short distance to CBD leads to rapid development of structured tourist facilities and high-class residential areas
  17. 17. 3Slum Airport Mid-levelresidential area Many middle income people live here, favoring the nearby airportSlum Poorer people live inland and far from the main highways.
  18. 18. 4 Slum Largest slum in Brazil: Rocinha Favela Located in a steep hillside
  19. 19. Kinds of slums in RioA highly consolidated invasion of public or private environmentally safe land by very poor people. Favela Illegal Subdiv
  20. 20. Kinds of slums in Rio Landowners illegally distribute land to very poor people for housing. They lack infrastructure and are illegal.Favela Illegal Subdivisions Cortiç
  21. 21. Kinds of slums in Rio Housing or flats divided and sub-leased to many poor people/ families. They often share the same bathroom, electrical appliances etc. and were often overcrowded.ubdivisions Cortiços Invasion
  22. 22. Kinds of slums in Rio Using of very dangerous lands for building houses for very poor people. These lands are often environmentally fragile and lack infrastructure.Cortiços Invasions Basically, a slum used land illegally (or are abandoned).
  23. 23. Favelas and illegal settlements in Rio Inland poor agricultural land is often illegally Many favelas are located in the subdivided for the middle of the mid-class landowner to residential areas, and are make profits. denser than illegal subdivisions
  24. 24. Lack of green spaceSlums Corrupting Authorities Poverty Social Income Deprivation in inequality Drugs Rio de Janeiro Poor Crime water & Lack of electricity infrastructure distributionUnemployment
  25. 25. Unemployment Air Pollution Water Pollution Waste United StatesBrazil Average6.7% 8.3%5.1%Unemployment rate in Rio
  26. 26. Unemployment Air Pollution Water Pollution Waste ManagementSão Paūlo Shanghai86 Mexico City 246 279 Mumbai Beijing 240 377 139 mg/m3 Particulates in air Air pollution index in Rio (from World Bank)
  27. 27. Unemployment Air Pollution Water Pollution Waste ManagementMass popularization of ethanol as car fuels in Brazil (ethanolburns cleaner) leads to a lower air pollution index. 139 Air pollution index in Rio mg/m3 Particulates in air (from World Bank)
  28. 28. Unemployment Air Pollution Water Pollution Waste Management Transport Ene 35% Percentage of waste water that are treated in Brazil
  29. 29. Unemployment Air Pollution Water Pollution Waste Management Transport Ene 65% of wastewater are directly added to the water system
  30. 30. t Air Pollution Water Pollution Waste Management Transport Energy Water Supply Unplanned development, which makes waste collection difficult Waste management is very difficult in favelas.
  31. 31. t Air Pollution Water Pollution Waste Management Transport Energy Water Supply Lower processing costs Rio elected landfills instead of incineration to deal with trash. Waste management is very difficult in favelas.
  32. 32. Water Pollution Waste Management Transport Energy Water Supply Food Supply P Metrô Rio - Founded in 1979 - Runs in 41 km - State owned, corporate ran - Significantly reduced road traffic and increased accessibility - Serves working-class neighborhoods
  33. 33. Water Pollution Waste Management Transport Energy Water Supply Food Supply P 440 Bus lines in Rio de Janeiro
  34. 34. Water Pollution Waste Management Transport Energy Water Supply Food Supply P but traffic problems Janeiro Bus lines in Rio de 440 Metrô Rio still persist in Rio 160km 2 Length of bicycle paths Airports (1 international)
  35. 35. Less Congested Serious traffic congestion in/More Congested near the CBD during rush hours *abstract representation
  36. 36. sy Po pLess Congested st or la em ro nni Hig ad ng h ca (peo r ow ple ner ove pre shipMore Congested r pu fers rate blic driv tran ing spo rt) Low-capacity public transport systems
  37. 37. ution Waste Management Transport Energy Water Supply Food Supply Public Spac Aging Unreliable Brazil’s Power Grid
  38. 38. ution Waste Management Transport Energy Water Supply Food Supply Public Spac Rio de Janeiro Sao Paulo Brasilia Power Source (Itaipu Dam)
  39. 39. ution Waste Management Transport Energy Water Supply Food Supply Public Spac Rio de Janeiro Sao Paulo Brasilia Power Source (Itaipu Dam)
  40. 40. e Management Transport Energy Water Supply Food Supply Public Space Green 77% of people in Brazil had access to piped water
  41. 41. Transport Energy Water Supply Food Supply Public Space Green Brazil is a large global food exporting country People have access to agricultural products in Brazil No problems in food supply
  42. 42. Energy Water Supply Food Supply Public Space Green Government (in the past) prioritize road construction Traffic Less streets and congestion public space People choose Difficulty walking driving on streets
  43. 43. er Supply Food Supply Public Space Green Rio de Janeiro had a lot of green spaces. - Predominantly a rainforest - Many steep terrain, which leads to difficulty in development, which preserves rainforest - Presence of golf courses
  44. 44. IncoPoor Public Electricity Ineq me sport ualit Tran Shortages y Problems in Rio Poor Waste FloodingInfrastructur e Management
  45. 45. Poor Public Transport 440 Bus lines in Rio de Janeiro Metrô Rio160km 2Length of bicycle paths Airports (1 international)
  46. 46. Poor Public Transport Mexico CityHong Kong 451km211km Sao Paulo 73km Only 41 km Metrô Rio
  47. 47. Poor Public Transport People in rural areas buy cars to work in the CBDSmall Coverage Metrô Rio 41 km Only
  48. 48. Hong Kong 700+440Bus lines in Rio de Janeiro
  49. 49. New York City Bogota675km 300km 160km Length of bicycle paths
  50. 50. ↓global image $$$ ↓productivity ↓time ↓money TRAFFIC CONGESTION↑GHG Emissions Disturbance to↑Air Pollution residents↑Noise Pollution ↓Accessibility
  51. 51. Major power blackout in 2009
  52. 52. Caused by Brazil’s aging power systems Millions of dollars lostor power blackout in 2009
  53. 53. ↓lose money$$$ - Manufacturing sector fail - People spend additional money purchasing backup electricity supplies - Maintenance and repairing ↓global image POWER FAILURE Inconvenience Social Outrage Skeptical on public power systems
  54. 54. Hong Kongvery high 0.5330.518 GINI Coefficient for Rio de Janeiro
  55. 55. Top 20Homicide rate:20 per 100,000 inhabitants
  56. 56. ning Slum Upgradese Slum Demolishment Public Transport Upgrade Recreation Upgradese Power Island Program ms Street Pedestrianizationw. What is Rio doing? Wha
  57. 57. Rocinha Favela
  58. 58. Rocinha Favela Self-helpThe authoritiessupplied materials toresidents to build theirown permanentaccommodation inRocinha (such ascement, breezeblocks). UPGRADED
  59. 59. Rocinha Favela Self-help- Now an urbanized neighbourhood- Almost all houses are built with brick and concrete today- Supplied with electricity and basic sanitation facilities. UPGRADED
  60. 60. But not all of them are this lucky...
  61. 61. Favela do Metrô With Maracana Stadium nearby (Will be hosting the finals of World Cup 2014 and main athletics events in Olympics 2016)
  62. 62. Favela do MetrôTo “revitalize” area nearby the stadium and to make DE MOL way for construction ISHED
  63. 63. Favela do Metrô New Homes People are relocated in apartments or are homeless (unable to sustain informal economy in buildings)
  64. 64. Favela do Metrô New Homes People have homes bulldozed with a short time of notice/ without notice People are relocated in apartments or are homeless (unable to sustain informal economy in buildings)
  65. 65. Favela do Metrô New Homes unemployment and loss of jobs for poor people
  66. 66. SUSTAIN ABLE Rocinha Metrô✔ Informal economy Much quicker effect sustained (prevents damage on People :) Rios image) Increased quality of living Spare land Saved costs People get conpensated✘ Slower effect Informal economy Still looks like a slum disrupted Still an unplanned UNSU neighborhood STAIN People :( No spare land ABLE More costly Unemployment Sanitation problems not
  67. 67. Construction of new stations/ expansion of road network
  68. 68. Rio de Janeiro Gondola-Above the slums-Offers great panoramic view of Rio favelas-Cost-effective way to travel uphill-Major tourist attraction
  69. 69. $$$ -Less time spent on traveling over hills -Tourist spending Rio de Janeiro Gondola SUSTAIN ABLE- Lower emissions - Panoramic View to favelas compared to cars as a transport method - Establishing transport links- More quiet - No need to demolish slums
  70. 70. 160kmLength of bicycle paths
  71. 71. Rio bicycle path expansions Built to accommodate the Olympics Near famous beaches 320km Length of bicycle paths SUSTAINABLE
  72. 72. Rio de Janeiro Power IslandRio de Janeiro Sao Paulo Brasilia Power Source (Itaipu Dam)
  73. 73. Rio de Janeiro Power Island HEP Sao Paulo BrasiliaRio de Janeiro Power Source (Itaipu Dam)
  74. 74. Rio de Janeiro Power Island HEP Sao Paulo BrasiliaRio de Janeiro Power Source (Itaipu Dam)
  75. 75. Lowers the chance of blackoutRio de Janeiro Power Island Hydroelectric power plant construction
  76. 76. Car- less!
  77. 77. Rio street pedestrianization- Roads along beaches in Rio are car- free on Sundays- Paquetá Island is also car-free permanently
  78. 78. (now) Government prioritize pedestrians/ cyclistsLess cars More streets and public spacePeople choose Ease walking onwalking/ cycling streets
  79. 79. What should Rio do? Is Rio ready for the two world-class events ahead? NOToo much serious urban problems still remained unsolved. Crime, urban housing...
  80. 80. Is Rio ready for the two What should Rio do?world-class events ahead?
  81. 81. How can Rio be competentfor the two games ahead?
  82. 82. Beijing
  83. 83. 1. Rapid expansion of railroad
  84. 84. 1. Rapid expansion of railroad Wealthy people takesIncreased accessibility airplanes or cars for poor people Cleaner
  85. 85. A Shipyard in Rio, showing water pollutants
  86. 86. 2. Subsidies for polluting industries (for purchasing eco- friendly equipments and better filtering systems) Creates incentives to cut water pollution Improves global image of Brazil
  87. 87. Expand public transport systems, with renewable/ eco-friendly sources Railway Bus Airports Roads Develop rural areas/ commuter zones
  88. 88. “Despite Rio de Janeiro had a low city airpollution, Brazil contributed to 1.3% ofglobal emissions. Therefore, Brazil shouldalso help tackle global warming, and Rio isthe perfect place to start with this.
  89. 89. Why Rio is a good place to develop renewable power sources:-Abundant rivers and rainfall (for HEP)-Coastal Area (for wind power and tide power)-Good accessibility Tourist hub: Better global image
  90. 90. Besides infrastructures,But... what can we do?Money can neversolve all of theproblems.Or problems will never have existed.
  91. 91. 2.Constitutional Reforms
  92. 92. Regulated Urban Land-Urban land use zoning-Better regulations and restrictions to development-Halt illegal settlement development-Inspections to ensure infrastructure safety
  93. 93. Creates incentives for poor peasants to shift out of cities Land Tenure Redistribution quality les ineBatt Brazil in 1% PE OPLE S 47% LAND OWN
  94. 94. POOR RICH(now) Rainforest
  95. 95. POOR RICH NSUSTAINABLE(future) U Rainforest
  96. 96. POOR RICH(now) Rainforest
  97. 97. Purchase farmlandfrom the rich POORForcedremoval RICH SUSTAINABLE(now) Rainforest
  98. 98. ✔ Urban development disparities✔ Slum/ irregular developments✔ Agricultural production M SOLVED PROBLE (but policy is hard to reinforce)
  99. 99. Money lost from officials Anti-corruption elfare ey+ w pleMon eo kt op bac Arrest corruptive officials +Increase salary from officials in Brazil (reduce incentives to corrupt)
  100. 100. Rio de Janeiro “The M arvelou s City”
  101. 101. “Brazil had a chance for shining it’s softpower to the globe through Rio, butcertainly it requires a good planning... andmoney.
  102. 102. References http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/12/world/americas/12brazil.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hong_Kong http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocinha http://www.rio2016.org/en/home http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-jXWo5ts7SpU/TdSbyQfBm4I/AAAAAAAAASo/zzyqQac61pA/s1600/Cristo +statue.jpg http://www.treehugger.com/bikes/bikers-in-sao-paulo-homage-fallen-cyclist-claim-more-respect-in-the- streets.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rio_de_Janeiro http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shanghai_metro http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1082/is_1_46/ai_83039410/ http://www.lumes.lu.se/database/alumni/02.03/theses/lillemets_krista.pdf http://www.ceci-br.org/novo/revista/docs2006/CT-2006-53.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_supply_and_sanitation_in_Brazil http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=assqIe.PMIRs http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santos_Dumont_Airport http://www.cheapflights.com/airports/rio-de-janeiro/ http://riotimesonline.com/brazil-news/rio-real-estate/navigating-crosstown-traffic-in-rio-de-janeiro/ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/02/03/brazils-olympics-world-cup-evictions_n_1252994.html http://deportesus.terra.com/olympic-games/london-2012/fotos/0,,OI187568-EI19641,00-Rio+favela +cleared+for+Olympic+and+World+Cup+construction.html http://www.google.com/imgres?q=favela+do +metro&um=1&hl=en&client=safari&sa=N&rls=en&biw=1680&bih=988&tbm=isch&tbnid=vaEaVGf2dV q0WM:&imgrefurl=http://thehypervigilantobserver.blogspot.com/2011/04/brasil-rios-slums-make-way- for-world.html&docid=U1ylL9l6h1GpWM&imgurl=http://www.riooooolympics.com/wp-content/uploads/ 2009/10/rio_olympics.jpg&w=525&h=294&ei=NOlMT6G1GOawiQeEorFn&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=241&sig=1068 43437299836073198&page=1&tbnh=108&tbnw=192&start=0&ndsp=38&ved=1t:429,r:2,s: 0&tx=82&ty=74 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_South_America http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2d/ Jacuecanga_Angra_dos_Reis_Rio_de_Janeiro_Brazil_Brasfels.JPG http://news.mongabay.com/2009/0629-amazon.html http://www.cidh.oas.org/countryrep/brazil-eng/chaper%207%20.htm http://www.google.com/publicdata/explore? ds=z1ebjpgk2654c1_&met_y=unemployment_rate&idim=country:US&fdim_y=seasonality:S&dl=en&hl =en&q=us+unemployment+rate

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