How do people 
handle the 
unknown?
Part # 1 
What does it mean to handle the unknown? 
Part # 2 
In which cultures do people avoid the unknown? 
Part # 3 
In...
Part # 1 
What does it mean to 
handle the unknown?
Degree of rule focus 
Handling 
the unknown 
Speed of 
decision making 
Degree to which it is 
expected to be open and 
ex...
Cultures with high uncertainty avoidance 
try to minimize uncertainty through strict 
laws and rules as well as safety and...
How many 
rules does 
a company, 
you work 
for, have? 
http://www.imagebase.net/Concept/concept-_78_
Characteristics of rule-based cultures 
# 1: People respect the rules for their own sake. 
# 2: Compliance with rules is o...
People in rule-based cultures seek security and 
predictability by structuring their 
environment, and in particular by st...
To be efficient To be creative 
Plan. Let things emerge. 
Impose process and structure. Avoid process and encourage 
unstr...
Much of the typical risk aversion related to smaller investments 
can be attributed to a combination of 2 well-documented ...
Graham Duncan 
You indicate that small and large corporations have different 
motivations for using social media. Why is b...
Study shows that as the days grow shorter, 
people feel less and less like taking risk. 
http://www.fastcompany.com/302460...
Part # 2 
In which cultures do people 
avoid the unknown?
Uncertainty avoidance - comparison 
http://geert-hofstede.com/germany.html 
http://geert-hofstede.com/china.html
http://washingtonbureau.typepad.com/china/2007/09/the-design-of-c.html
http://washingtonbureau.typepad.com/china/2007/09/the-design-of-c.html
People with international business 
experience have confirmed many times that 
German organizations need more structure. 
...
“When people must park their cars driving 
backwards, focus on security is strengthened.” 
http://epn.dk/samfund/article22...
Much of the country's [Germany’s] best 
homegrown talent is locked inside the 
country's great corporations, leaving 
youn...
Attention to detail 
http://www.swiss-miss.com/2010/07/thorough-swiss.html
Attention to detail 
http://frankcalberg.blogspot.com/2009/06/example-of-order-in-switzerland.html
https://twitter.com/ooniboni/status/219070054929670145
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2010/05/11/travel/funny-signs.html#/4be383740bca256c9e0004c0/ 
Peter and Paul Fortress ...
Russia, China and many Arab states, 
which want more Internet regulation, a 
greater governmental control and have been 
p...
Who is watching you now? 
Do you know? 
http://www.imagebase.net/Concept/276-copy
In the United Arab Emirates and 
Saudi Arabia, Viber was blocked. 
http://mashable.com/2013/06/06/saudi-arabia-bans-viber-...
When you look around 
where you live / work, how 
large a part of the doors 
and gates are locked? 
Why are they locked?
http://www.economist.com/blogs/dailychart/2011/06/military-spending
http://www.gapminder.org/
Fascism and racism find their most fertile 
ground in cultures with strong uncertainty 
avoidance plus pronouncedly mascul...
Part # 3 
In which cultures do people 
embrace the unknown?
People from Singapore, the nordic countries, Great 
Britain, the USA, and Hong Kong feel most 
comfortable in a world with...
Open Data Index top 10 
https://index.okfn.org/country/
The United States, Europe, and Canada 
want a hands-off approach to Internet 
regulation and want to limit the new treaty'...
Open gardens 
http://www.nubricks.com/archives/41626/3-bed-house-usa-id-6036102/
High spending on education in Scandinavia 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/isaacmao/6422522391/sizes/l/in/contacts/
When people in Thailand do not do 
what they are supposed to do, other 
people may just smile and let it go. 
http://home....
A street in India 
http://youtu.be/PsZKPnvlx44
Cultures with Chinese-speaking 
populations and Confucian tradition tend 
to score lower on uncertainty avoidance. 
http:/...
The about 16'000 chinese mines are the most 
dangerous in the world. 
In 2008, more than 3,000 people were killed in 
mine...
How safe is your work environment? 
http://www.imagebase.net/People/IMG_5256-copy
Further inspiration 
http://www.andrews.edu/~tidwell/bsad560/HofstedeUncertainityAvoidance.html 
http://www.scribd.com/doc...
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How do people handle the unknown?

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Part # 1: What does it mean to handle the unknown?
Part # 2: In which cultures do people avoid the unknown?
Part # 3: In which cultures do people embrace the unknown?

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How do people handle the unknown?

  1. 1. How do people handle the unknown?
  2. 2. Part # 1 What does it mean to handle the unknown? Part # 2 In which cultures do people avoid the unknown? Part # 3 In which cultures do people embrace the unknown?
  3. 3. Part # 1 What does it mean to handle the unknown?
  4. 4. Degree of rule focus Handling the unknown Speed of decision making Degree to which it is expected to be open and express feelings Attitudes towards people who are different Part of time spent on planning and structuring Part of income put in savings accounts Part of income spent on insurance Degree of order, precision, and perfectionism Degree to which people suffer from stress Time and money spent on trying new ideas out Time and money spent on idea development Part of people who resist change
  5. 5. Cultures with high uncertainty avoidance try to minimize uncertainty through strict laws and rules as well as safety and security measures. http://suite101.com/article/risk-adverse-trade-cultures-a42761
  6. 6. How many rules does a company, you work for, have? http://www.imagebase.net/Concept/concept-_78_
  7. 7. Characteristics of rule-based cultures # 1: People respect the rules for their own sake. # 2: Compliance with rules is often encouraged by guilt feelings and fear of punishment. http://repository.cmu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1149&context=tepper
  8. 8. People in rule-based cultures seek security and predictability by structuring their environment, and in particular by structuring their time. They tend to set aside a time slot for each activity, resulting in appointments and strict schedules. http://repository.cmu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1149&context=tepper
  9. 9. To be efficient To be creative Plan. Let things emerge. Impose process and structure. Avoid process and encourage unstructured interaction. Govindarajan, Vijay & Trimble, Chris: 10 rules for strategic innovators, p. 3.
  10. 10. Much of the typical risk aversion related to smaller investments can be attributed to a combination of 2 well-documented behavioral biases. 1. Loss aversion People fear losses more than they value equivalent gains. 2. Narrow framing People weigh potential risks as if there were only a single potential outcome – as opposed to many outcomes in the long term. https://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Corporate_Finance/Performance/Overcoming_a_bias_against_risk_3004
  11. 11. Graham Duncan You indicate that small and large corporations have different motivations for using social media. Why is big business so slow to catch on to social media? Paul Gillin There are lots of reasons, including bureaucracy, conservatism, shareholder pressure, regulatory requirements, legal concerns, internal politics, and brand equity. http://www.ideaconnection.com/open-innovation-articles/00121-Influencing-Innovation.html
  12. 12. Study shows that as the days grow shorter, people feel less and less like taking risk. http://www.fastcompany.com/3024600/bottom-line/how-seasonal-affective-disorder-twists-our-decisions http://www.businessinsider.com/psychological-reasons-people-take-risks-2014-8
  13. 13. Part # 2 In which cultures do people avoid the unknown?
  14. 14. Uncertainty avoidance - comparison http://geert-hofstede.com/germany.html http://geert-hofstede.com/china.html
  15. 15. http://washingtonbureau.typepad.com/china/2007/09/the-design-of-c.html
  16. 16. http://washingtonbureau.typepad.com/china/2007/09/the-design-of-c.html
  17. 17. People with international business experience have confirmed many times that German organizations need more structure. Hofstede, Geert: Cultures and Organizations, p. 305.
  18. 18. “When people must park their cars driving backwards, focus on security is strengthened.” http://epn.dk/samfund/article2207191.ece Tanja Thorsteinsson, Siemens Wind Power.
  19. 19. Much of the country's [Germany’s] best homegrown talent is locked inside the country's great corporations, leaving young companies hard-pressed to find qualified employees. http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/innovation-thrives-among-german-firms-though-hurdles-persist/
  20. 20. Attention to detail http://www.swiss-miss.com/2010/07/thorough-swiss.html
  21. 21. Attention to detail http://frankcalberg.blogspot.com/2009/06/example-of-order-in-switzerland.html
  22. 22. https://twitter.com/ooniboni/status/219070054929670145
  23. 23. http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2010/05/11/travel/funny-signs.html#/4be383740bca256c9e0004c0/ Peter and Paul Fortress in St. Petersburg, Russia
  24. 24. Russia, China and many Arab states, which want more Internet regulation, a greater governmental control and have been pushing to expand the treaty beyond traditional telecom operators. http://mobile.reuters.com/article/idUSBRE8B913L20121210
  25. 25. Who is watching you now? Do you know? http://www.imagebase.net/Concept/276-copy
  26. 26. In the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia, Viber was blocked. http://mashable.com/2013/06/06/saudi-arabia-bans-viber-skype/
  27. 27. When you look around where you live / work, how large a part of the doors and gates are locked? Why are they locked?
  28. 28. http://www.economist.com/blogs/dailychart/2011/06/military-spending
  29. 29. http://www.gapminder.org/
  30. 30. Fascism and racism find their most fertile ground in cultures with strong uncertainty avoidance plus pronouncedly masculine values. Hofstede, Geert: Cultures and Organizations, p. 255.
  31. 31. Part # 3 In which cultures do people embrace the unknown?
  32. 32. People from Singapore, the nordic countries, Great Britain, the USA, and Hong Kong feel most comfortable in a world with few rules. They are more likely to stimulate innovations and emphasize new ideas, are more flexible and more acting than reacting on changes occurring inside and outside of business. http://intpmcomms.com/uncertainty-avoidance-in-international-project-communications/ http://www.via-web.de/uncertainty-avoidance/
  33. 33. Open Data Index top 10 https://index.okfn.org/country/
  34. 34. The United States, Europe, and Canada want a hands-off approach to Internet regulation and want to limit the new treaty's scope to telecom companies. http://mobile.reuters.com/article/idUSBRE8B913L20121210
  35. 35. Open gardens http://www.nubricks.com/archives/41626/3-bed-house-usa-id-6036102/
  36. 36. High spending on education in Scandinavia http://www.flickr.com/photos/isaacmao/6422522391/sizes/l/in/contacts/
  37. 37. When people in Thailand do not do what they are supposed to do, other people may just smile and let it go. http://home.sandiego.edu/~pavett/docs/msgl_503/dim_of_cult.pdf
  38. 38. A street in India http://youtu.be/PsZKPnvlx44
  39. 39. Cultures with Chinese-speaking populations and Confucian tradition tend to score lower on uncertainty avoidance. http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/11711_Chapter7.pdf
  40. 40. The about 16'000 chinese mines are the most dangerous in the world. In 2008, more than 3,000 people were killed in mine floods, explosions, collapses and other accidents in China’s coal-mining industry. http://www.nzz.ch/nachrichten/panorama/china_bergwerk_unglueck_1.4047426.html http://www.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUSTRE5AK08Y20091123?
  41. 41. How safe is your work environment? http://www.imagebase.net/People/IMG_5256-copy
  42. 42. Further inspiration http://www.andrews.edu/~tidwell/bsad560/HofstedeUncertainityAvoidance.html http://www.scribd.com/doc/57186675/Traps-of-Growing-Big http://www.scribd.com/doc/32211076/Power-distance http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/5-reasons-why-people-resist-change http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/gender-diversity-9869793 http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/power-to-the-people-34722633 http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/time-15259416 http://youtu.be/Qem46KUMIOM http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/ideas-to-prevent-stress
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