How is your 
personality?
Part # 1: How large a need for stability do you have? 
Part # 2: How extroverted are you? 
Part # 3: How open-minded are y...
Personality 
dimension # 1 
Need for stability
Personality with low score on need for stability 
Personality traits 
 Calm. 
 Emotionally stable. 
 Not easily irritat...
Development tips for people with low score on need for stability 
Note for yourself why something will work, 
and why it m...
Personality with high score on need for stability 
Personality trait 
Excitable. 
Can be perceived as 
 easily irritated....
Development tips for people with high score on need for stability 
 Communicate emotions. 
 Drain the ”anger container.”...
Further inspiration 
http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/how-do-you-manage-your-emotions 
http://www.slideshare.net/fra...
Personality 
dimension # 2 
Extraversion
Studies show that between 
1/3 and ½ of us are introverts. 
https://www.goodreads.com/review/show/1044045074 page 255.
Personality with low score on extraversion 
Personality traits 
 Reserved. 
 Gains energy by 
being / working 
independe...
Development tips for people with a more introverted personality 
 Create time-outs to recharge. 
 Find an object that re...
Both introverts and extroverts can be adept at 
public speaking. 
Whereas an extrovert might afterward want to 
interact w...
Personality with high score on extraversion 
Personality traits 
 Sociable. 
 Gains energy by 
working / being with 
oth...
Extraverted people don’t mind being 
the center of attention. 
http://ipip.ori.org/newBigFive5broadKey.htm
Extraverted people tend 
to smile and wave. 
http://academicearth.org/lectures/personality-and-social-interaction-2-b, min...
Extraversion relates to qualities of self 
confidence in social settings, assertiveness, 
and social involvement. 
http://...
There is strong correlation between 
extraversion and individualism. 
Sources 
Hofstede, Geert: Cultures and Organizations...
Sales revenue and degree of extraversion 
Source 
Research by Adam Grant. 
Pink, Daniel: To sell is human: The surprising ...
There is zero correlation between being 
the best talker and having the best ideas. 
http://youtu.be/rUaj7rj6MI8
Development tips for people with a more extroverted personality 
 Listen and show you have listened. 
 When talking, lim...
Further inspiration 
https://www.goodreads.com/review/show/1044045074 
http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/listening-ti...
Personality 
dimension # 3 
Openness
Personality with low score on openness 
Personality traits 
 Pragmatic. 
 Data driven. 
Can be perceived as 
 Closed-mi...
Development tips for people with low score on openness 
Challenge yourself. 
http://sloanreview.mit.edu/the-magazine/2012-...
Personality with high score on openness 
Personality traits 
 Curious. 
 Creative. 
 Preferring variety, 
doing what is...
Openness is highly related to creativity 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aKcu_ztYCtk
Creative personalities encompass 
 openness to experience, 
 autonomy, 
 flexibility, 
 preference for complexity, 
 ...
Increased openness tends to predict 
better health and a longer life. 
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=li...
Exposure to different cultures 
 offers access to diverse ideas, 
 promotes openness to new perspectives, and 
 helps p...
People, who simultaneously identify with their 
home and host cultures while abroad, come up 
with more ideas than their c...
Living abroad and being immersed in a 
culture different from one’s own promotes 
creative problem solving. 
http://www.hb...
People with high score on openness 
to experience are more likely to be 
motivated to learn. 
http://areadocenti.eco.unica...
People in low power distance countries 
tended to score higher on openness to 
experience than people in high power 
dista...
People who score high on openness are likely 
to feel the most chills while listening 
to music. 
http://www.spring.org.uk...
Development tips for people with high score on openness 
Regulate your bouts of creativity. 
http://sloanreview.mit.edu/th...
Further inspiration 
http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/creativity-exercises 
https://www.scribd.com/doc/32211076/Powe...
Personality 
dimension # 4 
Agreeableness
Personality with low score on agreeableness 
Personality traits 
 Competition minded. 
 Challenging. 
Can be perceived a...
Disagreeable people are not really 
interested in others and/or other 
people’s problems. 
http://ipip.ori.org/newBigFive5...
Development tips for people with low score on agreeableness 
 Articulate what’s in it for others. 
 Use humor. 
http://s...
Personality with high score on agreeableness 
Personality traits 
 Collaboration minded. 
 Compassionate. 
 Interested ...
Agreeable workers earn significantly 
lower incomes than less agreeable ones. 
Sources 
http://nd.edu/~cba/Nice--JPSPInPre...
A person tends to like his or her job more - 
irrespective of his or her salary - the more 
 emotionally stable he/she is...
In those occupations that involve frequent 
interaction or cooperation with others, we 
expect that two personality dimens...
Development tips for people with high score on agreeableness 
Change your mindset from ”I want to be 
liked” to ”I want to...
Further inspiration 
http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/customer-needs 
http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/social-...
Personality 
dimension # 5 
Conscientiousness
Personality with low score on conscientiousness 
Personality traits 
 Flexible. 
 Spontaneous. 
Can be perceived as 
 C...
Development tips for people with low score on conscientiousness 
 Sleep on it before making a decision. 
 Consult a ”dev...
Personality with high score on conscientiousnees 
Personality traits 
 Persistent. 
 Self disciplined. 
 Systematic. 
...
Conscientuous people are always prepared. 
http://ipip.ori.org/newBigFive5broadKey.htm
Examples of conscientious behaviour 
 Arrive early or on time for meetings. 
 Double-check writing for spelling. 
http:/...
Respondents from poor countries tended to 
describe themselves as more conscientious 
than those from wealthier countries....
Conscientiuous people tend to be happier 
with themselves and do what they think 
is right according to the cultural conte...
Development tips for people with high score on conscientiousness 
Ask questions. 
http://sloanreview.mit.edu/the-magazine/...
Further inspiration 
http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/questions-that-challenge-the-way-you-think 
http://www.slidesh...
Part # 6 
How large a part of your 
personality is learned?
How large a part of your 
personality is learned? 
_____% 
How large a part of your 
personality is inherited? 
_____%
Results have consistently suggested that 
introversion and extroversion, like other 
major personality traits such as 
agr...
Personality traits are on average 
between 42% and 57% heritable. 
http://hbr.org/2011/07/the-unselfish-gene/ar/4
6 creativity studies of identical twins show that 
25% to 40% of what we do innovatively stems 
from genetics. 
That means...
Further sources of inspiration 
http://www.123test.com/personality-test/ 
http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2012/02/are_successful_p...
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How is your personality?

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Part # 1: How large a need for stability do you have?
Part # 2: How extroverted are you?
Part # 3: How open-minded are you?
Part # 4: How agreeable are you?
Part # 5: How conscientious are you?

Part # 6:
How large a part of your personality is learned?
How large a part of your personality is inherited?

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How is your personality?

  1. 1. How is your personality?
  2. 2. Part # 1: How large a need for stability do you have? Part # 2: How extroverted are you? Part # 3: How open-minded are you? Part # 4: How agreeable are you? Part # 5: How conscientious are you? Part # 6: How large a part of your personality is learned? How large a part of your personality is inherited?
  3. 3. Personality dimension # 1 Need for stability
  4. 4. Personality with low score on need for stability Personality traits  Calm.  Emotionally stable.  Not easily irritated.  Copes well with stress. Can be perceived as  Unconcerned.  Uninspiring.  Laid back.
  5. 5. Development tips for people with low score on need for stability Note for yourself why something will work, and why it may not work. http://sloanreview.mit.edu/the-magazine/2012-spring/53312/how-to-become-a-better-leader/
  6. 6. Personality with high score on need for stability Personality trait Excitable. Can be perceived as  easily irritated.  short-tempered.  having difficulty coping with stress.  Overreacting.  Unstable.  Insecure.
  7. 7. Development tips for people with high score on need for stability  Communicate emotions.  Drain the ”anger container.” http://sloanreview.mit.edu/the-magazine/2012-spring/53312/how-to-become-a-better-leader/
  8. 8. Further inspiration http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/how-do-you-manage-your-emotions http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/ideas-to-prevent-stress
  9. 9. Personality dimension # 2 Extraversion
  10. 10. Studies show that between 1/3 and ½ of us are introverts. https://www.goodreads.com/review/show/1044045074 page 255.
  11. 11. Personality with low score on extraversion Personality traits  Reserved.  Gains energy by being / working independently / alone.  Prefers to be quiet, think / reflect, read, listen, watch, write. Can be perceived as  Self absorbed.  Too introspective.
  12. 12. Development tips for people with a more introverted personality  Create time-outs to recharge.  Find an object that reminds you to relax your face. http://sloanreview.mit.edu/the-magazine/2012-spring/53312/how-to-become-a-better-leader/
  13. 13. Both introverts and extroverts can be adept at public speaking. Whereas an extrovert might afterward want to interact with others in a large group, introverts might feel the need for self-reflection and time alone, such as by taking a walk. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324144304578621951399427408.html
  14. 14. Personality with high score on extraversion Personality traits  Sociable.  Gains energy by working / being with other people.  Prefers to talk and act. Can be perceived as  Dominant.  Crushing debate.  Attention seeking.  Too energetic.
  15. 15. Extraverted people don’t mind being the center of attention. http://ipip.ori.org/newBigFive5broadKey.htm
  16. 16. Extraverted people tend to smile and wave. http://academicearth.org/lectures/personality-and-social-interaction-2-b, minute 5. http://www.imagebase.net/People/imagebase18_04
  17. 17. Extraversion relates to qualities of self confidence in social settings, assertiveness, and social involvement. http://books.google.com/books?id=Fy9gXBgREtQC&pg=PA324&lpg=PA324&dq=social+competence+%22five+factor+model%22 &source=bl&ots=lppSqReGKy&sig=JtFPbGY0N9QQRRi-YfvGPh31cBI&hl=en&ei=FgfXTMO2G4zvsgbG2- GPCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CEcQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=social%20competence%20%22five%20f actor%20model%22&f=false
  18. 18. There is strong correlation between extraversion and individualism. Sources Hofstede, Geert: Cultures and Organizations, p. 114. http://www.psy.ed.ac.uk/people/awei/courses/folder.2008-11-03.1677181083/hofstede%20mccrae%20cross%20cult%20res%202004.pdf, p. 68-69, 73.
  19. 19. Sales revenue and degree of extraversion Source Research by Adam Grant. Pink, Daniel: To sell is human: The surprising truth about moving others, location 1108. http://www.amazon.de/Sell-Human-Surprising-Influencing-ebook/dp/B00AO3K05S/
  20. 20. There is zero correlation between being the best talker and having the best ideas. http://youtu.be/rUaj7rj6MI8
  21. 21. Development tips for people with a more extroverted personality  Listen and show you have listened.  When talking, limit yourself to 4 sentences. http://sloanreview.mit.edu/the-magazine/2012-spring/53312/how-to-become-a-better-leader/
  22. 22. Further inspiration https://www.goodreads.com/review/show/1044045074 http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/listening-tips http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/speaking-tips-15818774
  23. 23. Personality dimension # 3 Openness
  24. 24. Personality with low score on openness Personality traits  Pragmatic.  Data driven. Can be perceived as  Closed-minded.  Conventional.  Uncertainty avoidant.  Preferring routine.  Holding on to status quo.
  25. 25. Development tips for people with low score on openness Challenge yourself. http://sloanreview.mit.edu/the-magazine/2012-spring/53312/how-to-become-a-better-leader/
  26. 26. Personality with high score on openness Personality traits  Curious.  Creative.  Preferring variety, doing what is new. Can be perceived as  Unfocused.  Too complex.  Too innovative.  Easily bored.
  27. 27. Openness is highly related to creativity http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aKcu_ztYCtk
  28. 28. Creative personalities encompass  openness to experience,  autonomy,  flexibility,  preference for complexity,  sensitivity,  playfulness,  tolerance of ambiguity,  risk taking or risk tolerance,  intrinsic motivation,  wide interest and curiosity. http://crell.jrc.ec.europa.eu/Publications/CRELL%20Research%20Papers/EVillalba_creativity_EUR_web.pdf
  29. 29. Increased openness tends to predict better health and a longer life. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=life-satisfaction-linked-to-personality-change
  30. 30. Exposure to different cultures  offers access to diverse ideas,  promotes openness to new perspectives, and  helps people link apparently disparate ideas to generate new ones. Sources http://www.hbs.edu/research/pdf/11-085.pdf Antonio, Chang, Hakuta, Kenny, Levin, & Milem, 2004. Cheng, Sanchez-Burks, & Lee, 2008. Leung & Chiu, 2008. Leung, Maddux, Galinsky, & Chiu, 2008. Maddux & Galinsky, 2009.
  31. 31. People, who simultaneously identify with their home and host cultures while abroad, come up with more ideas than their counterparts who identify with just one culture. http://blogs.wsj.com/atwork/2012/08/29/taking-a-job-overseas-do-it-right/
  32. 32. Living abroad and being immersed in a culture different from one’s own promotes creative problem solving. http://www.hbs.edu/research/pdf/11-085.pdf
  33. 33. People with high score on openness to experience are more likely to be motivated to learn. http://areadocenti.eco.unicas.it/virili/old/ApprofondimentiCO/BarrickMount%20PP91%20The%20Big%20Five %20personality%20dimensions%20and%20job%20performance%20-%20a%20meta-analysis.pdf
  34. 34. People in low power distance countries tended to score higher on openness to experience than people in high power distance countries. http://www.psy.ed.ac.uk/people/awei/courses/folder.2008-11-03.1677181083/hofstede%20mccrae%20cross%20cult%20res%202004.pdf, p. 73.
  35. 35. People who score high on openness are likely to feel the most chills while listening to music. http://www.spring.org.uk/2013/09/10-magical-effects-music-has-on-the-mind.php
  36. 36. Development tips for people with high score on openness Regulate your bouts of creativity. http://sloanreview.mit.edu/the-magazine/2012-spring/53312/how-to-become-a-better-leader/
  37. 37. Further inspiration http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/creativity-exercises https://www.scribd.com/doc/32211076/Power-distance
  38. 38. Personality dimension # 4 Agreeableness
  39. 39. Personality with low score on agreeableness Personality traits  Competition minded.  Challenging. Can be perceived as  only interested in own needs.  Self promoting.  Aggressive.  Uncaring.  Suspicious.  Untrustworthy.
  40. 40. Disagreeable people are not really interested in others and/or other people’s problems. http://ipip.ori.org/newBigFive5broadKey.htm
  41. 41. Development tips for people with low score on agreeableness  Articulate what’s in it for others.  Use humor. http://sloanreview.mit.edu/the-magazine/2012-spring/53312/how-to-become-a-better-leader/
  42. 42. Personality with high score on agreeableness Personality traits  Collaboration minded.  Compassionate.  Interested in others’ needs.  Trusts others. Can be perceived as  Naïve.  Easy to manipulate.  Too considerate.  Submissive.
  43. 43. Agreeable workers earn significantly lower incomes than less agreeable ones. Sources http://nd.edu/~cba/Nice--JPSPInPress.pdf http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424053111904823804576502763895892974.html
  44. 44. A person tends to like his or her job more - irrespective of his or her salary - the more  emotionally stable he/she is.  extraverted he/she is.  agreeable he/she is.  conscientious he/she is. http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2013/04/does_money_really_affect_motiv.html
  45. 45. In those occupations that involve frequent interaction or cooperation with others, we expect that two personality dimensions, extraversion and agreeableness, will be valid predictors. http://areadocenti.eco.unicas.it/virili/old/ApprofondimentiCO/BarrickMount%20PP91%20The%20Big%20 Five%20personality%20dimensions%20and%20job%20performance%20-%20a%20meta-analysis.pdf
  46. 46. Development tips for people with high score on agreeableness Change your mindset from ”I want to be liked” to ”I want to be perceived as fair”. http://sloanreview.mit.edu/the-magazine/2012-spring/53312/how-to-become-a-better-leader/
  47. 47. Further inspiration http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/customer-needs http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/social-competence
  48. 48. Personality dimension # 5 Conscientiousness
  49. 49. Personality with low score on conscientiousness Personality traits  Flexible.  Spontaneous. Can be perceived as  Careless.  Disorderly.  Sloppy.  Unreliable.
  50. 50. Development tips for people with low score on conscientiousness  Sleep on it before making a decision.  Consult a ”devil’s advocate”. http://sloanreview.mit.edu/the-magazine/2012-spring/53312/how-to-become-a-better-leader/
  51. 51. Personality with high score on conscientiousnees Personality traits  Persistent.  Self disciplined.  Systematic.  Thorough.  Careful.  Orderly. Can be perceived as  Stubborn.  Obsessive.  Losing sight of the big picture.  Risking to get a burn-out.
  52. 52. Conscientuous people are always prepared. http://ipip.ori.org/newBigFive5broadKey.htm
  53. 53. Examples of conscientious behaviour  Arrive early or on time for meetings.  Double-check writing for spelling. http://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~johnlab/pdfs/2008chapter.pdf p. 120.
  54. 54. Respondents from poor countries tended to describe themselves as more conscientious than those from wealthier countries. http://www.psy.ed.ac.uk/people/awei/courses/folder.2008-11-03.1677181083/hofstede%20mccrae%20cross%20cult%20res%202004.pdf, p. 74 and 80.
  55. 55. Conscientiuous people tend to be happier with themselves and do what they think is right according to the cultural context. http://hbr.org/2011/07/the-unselfish-gene/ar/4
  56. 56. Development tips for people with high score on conscientiousness Ask questions. http://sloanreview.mit.edu/the-magazine/2012-spring/53312/how-to-become-a-better-leader/
  57. 57. Further inspiration http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/questions-that-challenge-the-way-you-think http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/uncertainty-avoidance
  58. 58. Part # 6 How large a part of your personality is learned?
  59. 59. How large a part of your personality is learned? _____% How large a part of your personality is inherited? _____%
  60. 60. Results have consistently suggested that introversion and extroversion, like other major personality traits such as agreeableness and conscientiousness, are about 40% to 50% heritable. https://www.goodreads.com/review/show/1044045074 page 104.
  61. 61. Personality traits are on average between 42% and 57% heritable. http://hbr.org/2011/07/the-unselfish-gene/ar/4
  62. 62. 6 creativity studies of identical twins show that 25% to 40% of what we do innovatively stems from genetics. That means that roughly 2/3 of our innovation skills come through learning. Source Dyer, Jeff; Gregersen, Hal & Christensen, Clayton M: “The Innovator’s DNA: Mastering the Five Skills of Disruptive Innovators.” Location 311.
  63. 63. Further sources of inspiration http://www.123test.com/personality-test/ http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2012/02/are_successful_people_nice.html http://drphil.com/shows/bigfivepersonalityquiz http://ipip.ori.org/newBigFive5broadKey.htm http://jonathanbecher.com/2013/03/17/introverts-are-more-detailed-than-extroverts/ http://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~johnlab/pdfs/2008chapter.pdf http://www.outofservice.com/bigfive/ http://pages.uoregon.edu/sanjay/bigfive.html http://www.skillview.eu/skillview/innovastudio/assetmanager/risorse/theuseofpersonalitymeasur esinpersonnelselection.pdf http://sloanreview.mit.edu/the-magazine/2012-spring/53312/how-to-become-a-better-leader/ http://test.personality-project.org/survey/consentform.html http://youtu.be/Ar1kEN_ZPNM
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