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Conflict
Management
Strategy # 1
Cooperate
2
Compete
1
Cooperate
3
Compromise
5
Avoid
4
Adapt
Cooperative behaviourAdapted from Blake & Mouton (1964).
Self confidence
Step A
Find reasons for the problem
Focus on process rather than just on content.
http://www.css.ethz.ch/publications/Mediating-Islam-web.pdf
Step # 1
Each person explain how he/she perceives the problem / conflict.
The other person listens and repeats to make sur...
Get to the root of the problem.
Knowing the real issue at hand is the only way
to develop the right solution.
http://www.o...
First, person A speaks 5 minutes, while person B listens.
Then person B speaks 5 minutes, while person A listens.
http://h...
Collaborate when your objective is to learn.
Morgan, Gareth: Images of Organization, p. 201.
http://marshallgoldsmith.blogspot.com/2011/06/7-steps-to-stop-finger-pointing-in.html
Ask each person to reflect on this q...
Further sources of inspiration
http://www.scribd.com/doc/34918427/Problem-analysis-methods
http://www.slideshare.net/frank...
Step B
Find needs and values of people
Since the mid 1980s, behavioral researchers have
consistently shown that people enter negotiations
assuming that their pre...
To negotiate constructively, learn about
and understand the needs of yourself and
the other person.
Kofman, Fred: Consciou...
Focus on interests rather than positions.
http://www.css.ethz.ch/publications/Mediating-Islam-web.pdf
We often don’t like in others what causes us
discomfort in ourselves, so self-awareness is a
key asset for a lifetime of e...
Further sources of inspiration
http://www.scribd.com/doc/56785190/Customer-Needs
http://www.scribd.com/doc/36200010/questi...
Step C
Develop ideas
If everyone is going to feel satisfied with the resolution,
it will help if everyone has had fair input in generating
solu...
To negotiate constructively, create new
solutions with the other person.
Kofman, Fred: Conscious Business, p. 172.
Further inspiration
http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/brainstorming-3015611
http://issuu.com/frankcalberg/docs/brains...
Strategy # 2
Compete. Use force.
2
Compete
1
Cooperate
3
Compromise
5
Avoid
4
Adapt
Cooperative behaviourAdapted from Blake & Mouton (1964).
Self confidence
Possibility A
Do a competition.
The best wins.
Competing can be appropriate when the
importance of the issue far outweighs the
importance of the relationship.
Source
Sel...
Force / compete when you are negotiating
with someone who prefers to be competitive.
http://culture-at-work.com/5styles.ht...
Individualists tend to use more self-defensive,
controlling, dominating, and competitive styles
in managing conflicts than...
http://thisisindexed.com/2011/02/and-the-pros-make-the-big-money/
In the USA as well as in other masculine cultures
such as Britain and Ireland, there is a feeling that
conflicts should be...
If you go around the world now and ask the
people about the United States’ relation to
peace, they would say that we are m...
Whenever you're fighting about ideas, it's important
that you're engaging in the “right fight,” criticizing
another person...
Tactical argumentation
Conversation stops
Hostile images
Threats
Disagreement
Destruction
Focus on topic
Focus on person
Possibility B
Work with people who
want to collaborate
15% say that they get the best outcome when they
exploit the other person’s cooperation unilaterally,
and those 15% are dr...
http://hbr.org/web/slideshows/difficult-conversations-nine-common-mistakes/1-slide
To facilitate conflict management, you want
to change the game from a more competitive
to a more cooperative game.
http://...
If you can select employees who can sustain
cooperative environments, you’ll spend less
on conflict resolution and managem...
Strategy # 3
Compromise
2
Compete
1
Cooperate
3
Compromise
5
Avoid
4
Adapt
Cooperative behaviourAdapted from Blake & Mouton (1964).
Self confidence
 To achieve temporary settlements to complex issues.
 To arrive at quick solutions under time pressure.
 As a backup mo...
Possibility A
A mediator moderates
At Morning Star, conflicts are handled via a 4-step procedure:
Step # 1
Appeal directly to the colleague. See if you can s...
Bargaining zone
http://www.scribd.com/doc/6672392/Conflict-Management-and-Negotiation-826
In femine cultures such as the Netherlands,
Sweden, and Denmark, there is a preference for
resolving conflicts by compromi...
Everybody feels unhappy with a mediocre team decision,
but everyone accepts it because it incorporates
everybody’s input.
...
Possibility # 2
A manager or judge decides
Example
The manager of the co-working space clarifies who
empties the dishwashing machine.
Adapted from
http://blogs.hbr.o...
At Morning Star, conflicts are handled via a 4-step procedure:
Step # 1
Appeal directly to the colleague. See if you can s...
Strategy # 4
Adapt.
Accommodate.
2
Compete
1
Cooperate
3
Compromise
5
Avoid
4
Adapt
Cooperative behaviourAdapted from Blake & Mouton (1964).
Self confidence
Examples of when to use adapting strategy
 When you realize that you are wrong and to show that you are reasonable.
 Whe...
Accommodating might take the form of selfless
generosity or charity – or obeying another
person’s order when you would pre...
Hofstede, Geert: Cultures and Organizations, p. 138.
The IBM research found Thailand to be the most
femine Asian country.
...
Further inspiration
http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/gender-diversity-9869793
http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg...
Strategy # 5
Avoid. Ignore. Escape.
2
Compete
1
Cooperate
3
Compromise
5
Avoid
4
Adapt
Cooperative behaviourAdapted from Blake & Mouton (1964).
Self confidence
Situation # 1
When a “cooling off” period is needed.
Situation # 2
When you have low power or you are frustrated by
someth...
http://hbr.org/web/slideshows/difficult-conversations-nine-common-mistakes/1-slide
If you know the difficult person isn't going to change, and if
you've examined the unhealthy and healthy choices involved
...
We all know that “sleeping on it” can help us calm
down and think about what we really want.
The trick to success is ensur...
Collectivists tend to use more obliging and
avoiding styles in task-related conflicts than
do individualists.
Ting-Toomey,...
Further inspiration
http://www.scribd.com/doc/32211076/Power-Distance
http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/power-to-the-...
Thank you for your interest. For further inspiration
and personalized services, feel welcome to visit
http://frankcalberg....
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Conflict management

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Strategy # 1: Cooperate.
Strategy # 2: Compete. Use force.
Strategy # 3: Compromise.
Strategy # 4: Adapt. Accommodate.
Strategy # 5: Avoid. Ignore. Escape.


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Transcript of "Conflict management"

  1. 1. Conflict Management
  2. 2. Strategy # 1 Cooperate
  3. 3. 2 Compete 1 Cooperate 3 Compromise 5 Avoid 4 Adapt Cooperative behaviourAdapted from Blake & Mouton (1964). Self confidence
  4. 4. Step A Find reasons for the problem
  5. 5. Focus on process rather than just on content. http://www.css.ethz.ch/publications/Mediating-Islam-web.pdf
  6. 6. Step # 1 Each person explain how he/she perceives the problem / conflict. The other person listens and repeats to make sure that he/she understands. Step # 2 Each person explains his/her interests and needs. The other person listens and repeats to make sure that he/she understands. Step # 3 Ideas are developed, for example by using brainstorming technique. The best ideas are selected. Step # 4 An agreement / way forward is agreed upon, for example through a document and/or a handshake. Inspired by http://www.mediatoradvokater.dk/mediation/hvordan-foregaar-det.html
  7. 7. Get to the root of the problem. Knowing the real issue at hand is the only way to develop the right solution. http://www.openforum.com/articles/5-strategies-for-managing-workplace-conflicts/
  8. 8. First, person A speaks 5 minutes, while person B listens. Then person B speaks 5 minutes, while person A listens. http://hbr.org/tip?date=052913 Plan who speaks when
  9. 9. Collaborate when your objective is to learn. Morgan, Gareth: Images of Organization, p. 201.
  10. 10. http://marshallgoldsmith.blogspot.com/2011/06/7-steps-to-stop-finger-pointing-in.html Ask each person to reflect on this question: "What can I learn from this crisis?"
  11. 11. Further sources of inspiration http://www.scribd.com/doc/34918427/Problem-analysis-methods http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/listening-tips
  12. 12. Step B Find needs and values of people
  13. 13. Since the mid 1980s, behavioral researchers have consistently shown that people enter negotiations assuming that their preferences and priorities are identical to their counterparts’ priorities. http://www.gsb.stanford.edu/news/research/nir-halevey-how-do-you-resolve-conflict
  14. 14. To negotiate constructively, learn about and understand the needs of yourself and the other person. Kofman, Fred: Conscious Business, p. 172.
  15. 15. Focus on interests rather than positions. http://www.css.ethz.ch/publications/Mediating-Islam-web.pdf
  16. 16. We often don’t like in others what causes us discomfort in ourselves, so self-awareness is a key asset for a lifetime of effective conflict management. https://www.cpp.com/pdfs/CPP_Global_Human_Capital_Report_Workplace_Conflict.pdf
  17. 17. Further sources of inspiration http://www.scribd.com/doc/56785190/Customer-Needs http://www.scribd.com/doc/36200010/questions-to-discover-your-values http://www.scribd.com/doc/34862800/Values
  18. 18. Step C Develop ideas
  19. 19. If everyone is going to feel satisfied with the resolution, it will help if everyone has had fair input in generating solutions. Brainstorm possible solutions, and be open to all ideas. http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_81.htm
  20. 20. To negotiate constructively, create new solutions with the other person. Kofman, Fred: Conscious Business, p. 172.
  21. 21. Further inspiration http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/brainstorming-3015611 http://issuu.com/frankcalberg/docs/brainstormingnominalmethod http://issuu.com/frankcalberg/docs/scamper
  22. 22. Strategy # 2 Compete. Use force.
  23. 23. 2 Compete 1 Cooperate 3 Compromise 5 Avoid 4 Adapt Cooperative behaviourAdapted from Blake & Mouton (1964). Self confidence
  24. 24. Possibility A Do a competition. The best wins.
  25. 25. Competing can be appropriate when the importance of the issue far outweighs the importance of the relationship. Source Seltzer, Joseph & Smither, James W.: ”Where there is a will..” Organization Management Journal, 2007 vol. 4.
  26. 26. Force / compete when you are negotiating with someone who prefers to be competitive. http://culture-at-work.com/5styles.html
  27. 27. Individualists tend to use more self-defensive, controlling, dominating, and competitive styles in managing conflicts than do collectivists. Ting-Toomey, Stella & Oetzel, John G.: Managing intercultural conflict effectively, p. 48-49.
  28. 28. http://thisisindexed.com/2011/02/and-the-pros-make-the-big-money/
  29. 29. In the USA as well as in other masculine cultures such as Britain and Ireland, there is a feeling that conflicts should be resolved by a good fight. Hofstede, Geert: Cultures and Organizations, p. 166.
  30. 30. If you go around the world now and ask the people about the United States’ relation to peace, they would say that we are maybe one of the most warlike countries. http://youtu.be/1LdaMIRI2As Mr. Jimmy Carter
  31. 31. Whenever you're fighting about ideas, it's important that you're engaging in the “right fight,” criticizing another person's ideas and not the person himself. http://99u.com/articles/7224/Why-Fighting-For-Our-Ideas-Makes-Them-Better
  32. 32. Tactical argumentation Conversation stops Hostile images Threats Disagreement Destruction Focus on topic Focus on person
  33. 33. Possibility B Work with people who want to collaborate
  34. 34. 15% say that they get the best outcome when they exploit the other person’s cooperation unilaterally, and those 15% are driving a lot of conflict. Results of surveys with thousands of employees. http://www.gsb.stanford.edu/news/research/nir-halevey-how-do-you-resolve-conflict
  35. 35. http://hbr.org/web/slideshows/difficult-conversations-nine-common-mistakes/1-slide
  36. 36. To facilitate conflict management, you want to change the game from a more competitive to a more cooperative game. http://www.gsb.stanford.edu/news/research/nir-halevey-how-do-you-resolve-conflict
  37. 37. If you can select employees who can sustain cooperative environments, you’ll spend less on conflict resolution and management. http://www.gsb.stanford.edu/news/research/nir-halevey-how-do-you-resolve-conflict
  38. 38. Strategy # 3 Compromise
  39. 39. 2 Compete 1 Cooperate 3 Compromise 5 Avoid 4 Adapt Cooperative behaviourAdapted from Blake & Mouton (1964). Self confidence
  40. 40.  To achieve temporary settlements to complex issues.  To arrive at quick solutions under time pressure.  As a backup mode when collaboration or competition strategies fail to be successful. Sources http://web.mit.edu/collaboration/mainsite/modules/module1/1.11.5.html http://culture-at-work.com/5styles.html Examples of when to use compromising strategy
  41. 41. Possibility A A mediator moderates
  42. 42. At Morning Star, conflicts are handled via a 4-step procedure: Step # 1 Appeal directly to the colleague. See if you can sort out your differences. Step # 2 Bring in a 3rd colleague to mediate the argument. Step # 3 Create a panel of six to ten additional colleagues. Step # 4 If steps # 3 also fails, the CEO Chris Rufer can be called upon to join the panel and help render a decision. This happens about 10 times every year. http://nymag.com/news/features/bossless-jobs-2013-6/index3.html
  43. 43. Bargaining zone http://www.scribd.com/doc/6672392/Conflict-Management-and-Negotiation-826
  44. 44. In femine cultures such as the Netherlands, Sweden, and Denmark, there is a preference for resolving conflicts by compromise and negotiation. Hofstede, Geert: Cultures and Organizations, p. 166.
  45. 45. Everybody feels unhappy with a mediocre team decision, but everyone accepts it because it incorporates everybody’s input. If one traveller wants to cross the cliff using the bridge to the east and her partner wants to cross on the bridge to the west, the worst possible thing is to go straight ahead where there is no bridge. Kofman, Fred: Conscious Business, p. 171. A compromise may be the worst decision
  46. 46. Possibility # 2 A manager or judge decides
  47. 47. Example The manager of the co-working space clarifies who empties the dishwashing machine. Adapted from http://blogs.hbr.org/2014/05/most-work-conflicts-arent-due-to-personality/
  48. 48. At Morning Star, conflicts are handled via a 4-step procedure: Step # 1 Appeal directly to the colleague. See if you can sort out your differences. Step # 2 Bring in a 3rd colleague to mediate the argument. Step # 3 Create a panel of six to ten additional colleagues. Step # 4 If steps # 3 also fails, the CEO Chris Rufer can be called upon to join the panel and help render a decision. This happens about 10 times every year. http://nymag.com/news/features/bossless-jobs-2013-6/index3.html
  49. 49. Strategy # 4 Adapt. Accommodate.
  50. 50. 2 Compete 1 Cooperate 3 Compromise 5 Avoid 4 Adapt Cooperative behaviourAdapted from Blake & Mouton (1964). Self confidence
  51. 51. Examples of when to use adapting strategy  When you realize that you are wrong and to show that you are reasonable.  When the issue is much more important to the other person than to yourself.  To build up social credits for later issues which are important to you.  When continued competition would only damage your cause – when you are outmatched and losing.  When preserving harmony and avoiding disruption are especially important. http://web.mit.edu/collaboration/mainsite/modules/module1/1.11.5.html
  52. 52. Accommodating might take the form of selfless generosity or charity – or obeying another person’s order when you would prefer not to. https://www.cpp.com/pdfs/4813.pdf
  53. 53. Hofstede, Geert: Cultures and Organizations, p. 138. The IBM research found Thailand to be the most femine Asian country. A book about Thai culture by a British-Thai couple reads, ”The Thai learns how to avoid aggression rather than how to defend himself against it.”
  54. 54. Further inspiration http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/gender-diversity-9869793 http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/differences-between-women-and-men
  55. 55. Strategy # 5 Avoid. Ignore. Escape.
  56. 56. 2 Compete 1 Cooperate 3 Compromise 5 Avoid 4 Adapt Cooperative behaviourAdapted from Blake & Mouton (1964). Self confidence
  57. 57. Situation # 1 When a “cooling off” period is needed. Situation # 2 When you have low power or you are frustrated by something which would be very difficult to change. Situation # 3 When the issue and the relationship are unimportant. http://web.mit.edu/collaboration/mainsite/modules/module1/1.11.5.html Examples of when to use avoiding strategy
  58. 58. http://hbr.org/web/slideshows/difficult-conversations-nine-common-mistakes/1-slide
  59. 59. If you know the difficult person isn't going to change, and if you've examined the unhealthy and healthy choices involved in putting up with them, you have a good foundation for making the right choice: Do I stay or do I walk? I'm not promising that your decision will feel nice. It probably won't. But it will be the right decision, the kind you will be able to look back on with a sigh of relief and recognition that moving on was healthy and productive. http://www.linkedin.com/today/post/article/20130822022815-75054000-how-to-handle-difficult-people
  60. 60. We all know that “sleeping on it” can help us calm down and think about what we really want. The trick to success is ensuring that you do not use this calmer mindset as an excuse for not addressing those issues that may worsen if left unresolved. https://www.cpp.com/pdfs/CPP_Global_Human_Capital_Report_Workplace_Conflict.pdf
  61. 61. Collectivists tend to use more obliging and avoiding styles in task-related conflicts than do individualists. Ting-Toomey, Stella & Oetzel, John G.: Managing intercultural conflict effectively, p. 49.
  62. 62. Further inspiration http://www.scribd.com/doc/32211076/Power-Distance http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/power-to-the-people-34722633 http://www.scribd.com/doc/35468260/Individualism
  63. 63. Thank you for your interest. For further inspiration and personalized services, feel welcome to visit http://frankcalberg.com/ Have a great day.
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