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Conflict management

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Strategy # 1: Cooperate. …

Strategy # 1: Cooperate.
Strategy # 2: Compete. Use force.
Strategy # 3: Compromise.
Strategy # 4: Adapt. Accommodate.
Strategy # 5: Avoid. Ignore. Escape.



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  • 1. Conflict Management
  • 2. Strategy # 1 Cooperate
  • 3. 2 Compete 1 Cooperate 3 Compromise 5 Avoid 4 Adapt Cooperative behaviourAdapted from Blake & Mouton (1964). Self confidence
  • 4. Step A Find reasons for the problem
  • 5. Focus on process rather than just on content. http://www.css.ethz.ch/publications/Mediating-Islam-web.pdf
  • 6. Step # 1 Each person explain how he/she perceives the problem / conflict. The other person listens and repeats to make sure that he/she understands. Step # 2 Each person explains his/her interests and needs. The other person listens and repeats to make sure that he/she understands. Step # 3 Ideas are developed, for example by using brainstorming technique. The best ideas are selected. Step # 4 An agreement / way forward is agreed upon, for example through a document and/or a handshake. Inspired by http://www.mediatoradvokater.dk/mediation/hvordan-foregaar-det.html
  • 7. Get to the root of the problem. Knowing the real issue at hand is the only way to develop the right solution. http://www.openforum.com/articles/5-strategies-for-managing-workplace-conflicts/
  • 8. First, person A speaks 5 minutes, while person B listens. Then person B speaks 5 minutes, while person A listens. http://hbr.org/tip?date=052913 Plan who speaks when
  • 9. Collaborate when your objective is to learn. Morgan, Gareth: Images of Organization, p. 201.
  • 10. http://marshallgoldsmith.blogspot.com/2011/06/7-steps-to-stop-finger-pointing-in.html Ask each person to reflect on this question: "What can I learn from this crisis?"
  • 11. Further sources of inspiration http://www.scribd.com/doc/34918427/Problem-analysis-methods http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/listening-tips
  • 12. Step B Find needs and values of people
  • 13. Since the mid 1980s, behavioral researchers have consistently shown that people enter negotiations assuming that their preferences and priorities are identical to their counterparts’ priorities. http://www.gsb.stanford.edu/news/research/nir-halevey-how-do-you-resolve-conflict
  • 14. To negotiate constructively, learn about and understand the needs of yourself and the other person. Kofman, Fred: Conscious Business, p. 172.
  • 15. Focus on interests rather than positions. http://www.css.ethz.ch/publications/Mediating-Islam-web.pdf
  • 16. We often don’t like in others what causes us discomfort in ourselves, so self-awareness is a key asset for a lifetime of effective conflict management. https://www.cpp.com/pdfs/CPP_Global_Human_Capital_Report_Workplace_Conflict.pdf
  • 17. Further sources of inspiration http://www.scribd.com/doc/56785190/Customer-Needs http://www.scribd.com/doc/36200010/questions-to-discover-your-values http://www.scribd.com/doc/34862800/Values
  • 18. Step C Develop ideas
  • 19. If everyone is going to feel satisfied with the resolution, it will help if everyone has had fair input in generating solutions. Brainstorm possible solutions, and be open to all ideas. http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_81.htm
  • 20. To negotiate constructively, create new solutions with the other person. Kofman, Fred: Conscious Business, p. 172.
  • 21. Further inspiration http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/brainstorming-3015611 http://issuu.com/frankcalberg/docs/brainstormingnominalmethod http://issuu.com/frankcalberg/docs/scamper
  • 22. Strategy # 2 Compete. Use force.
  • 23. 2 Compete 1 Cooperate 3 Compromise 5 Avoid 4 Adapt Cooperative behaviourAdapted from Blake & Mouton (1964). Self confidence
  • 24. Possibility A Do a competition. The best wins.
  • 25. Competing can be appropriate when the importance of the issue far outweighs the importance of the relationship. Source Seltzer, Joseph & Smither, James W.: ”Where there is a will..” Organization Management Journal, 2007 vol. 4.
  • 26. Force / compete when you are negotiating with someone who prefers to be competitive. http://culture-at-work.com/5styles.html
  • 27. Individualists tend to use more self-defensive, controlling, dominating, and competitive styles in managing conflicts than do collectivists. Ting-Toomey, Stella & Oetzel, John G.: Managing intercultural conflict effectively, p. 48-49.
  • 28. http://thisisindexed.com/2011/02/and-the-pros-make-the-big-money/
  • 29. In the USA as well as in other masculine cultures such as Britain and Ireland, there is a feeling that conflicts should be resolved by a good fight. Hofstede, Geert: Cultures and Organizations, p. 166.
  • 30. If you go around the world now and ask the people about the United States’ relation to peace, they would say that we are maybe one of the most warlike countries. http://youtu.be/1LdaMIRI2As Mr. Jimmy Carter
  • 31. Whenever you're fighting about ideas, it's important that you're engaging in the “right fight,” criticizing another person's ideas and not the person himself. http://99u.com/articles/7224/Why-Fighting-For-Our-Ideas-Makes-Them-Better
  • 32. Tactical argumentation Conversation stops Hostile images Threats Disagreement Destruction Focus on topic Focus on person
  • 33. Possibility B Work with people who want to collaborate
  • 34. 15% say that they get the best outcome when they exploit the other person’s cooperation unilaterally, and those 15% are driving a lot of conflict. Results of surveys with thousands of employees. http://www.gsb.stanford.edu/news/research/nir-halevey-how-do-you-resolve-conflict
  • 35. http://hbr.org/web/slideshows/difficult-conversations-nine-common-mistakes/1-slide
  • 36. To facilitate conflict management, you want to change the game from a more competitive to a more cooperative game. http://www.gsb.stanford.edu/news/research/nir-halevey-how-do-you-resolve-conflict
  • 37. If you can select employees who can sustain cooperative environments, you’ll spend less on conflict resolution and management. http://www.gsb.stanford.edu/news/research/nir-halevey-how-do-you-resolve-conflict
  • 38. Strategy # 3 Compromise
  • 39. 2 Compete 1 Cooperate 3 Compromise 5 Avoid 4 Adapt Cooperative behaviourAdapted from Blake & Mouton (1964). Self confidence
  • 40.  To achieve temporary settlements to complex issues.  To arrive at quick solutions under time pressure.  As a backup mode when collaboration or competition strategies fail to be successful. Sources http://web.mit.edu/collaboration/mainsite/modules/module1/1.11.5.html http://culture-at-work.com/5styles.html Examples of when to use compromising strategy
  • 41. Possibility A A mediator moderates
  • 42. At Morning Star, conflicts are handled via a 4-step procedure: Step # 1 Appeal directly to the colleague. See if you can sort out your differences. Step # 2 Bring in a 3rd colleague to mediate the argument. Step # 3 Create a panel of six to ten additional colleagues. Step # 4 If steps # 3 also fails, the CEO Chris Rufer can be called upon to join the panel and help render a decision. This happens about 10 times every year. http://nymag.com/news/features/bossless-jobs-2013-6/index3.html
  • 43. Bargaining zone http://www.scribd.com/doc/6672392/Conflict-Management-and-Negotiation-826
  • 44. In femine cultures such as the Netherlands, Sweden, and Denmark, there is a preference for resolving conflicts by compromise and negotiation. Hofstede, Geert: Cultures and Organizations, p. 166.
  • 45. Everybody feels unhappy with a mediocre team decision, but everyone accepts it because it incorporates everybody’s input. If one traveller wants to cross the cliff using the bridge to the east and her partner wants to cross on the bridge to the west, the worst possible thing is to go straight ahead where there is no bridge. Kofman, Fred: Conscious Business, p. 171. A compromise may be the worst decision
  • 46. Possibility # 2 A manager or judge decides
  • 47. Example The manager of the co-working space clarifies who empties the dishwashing machine. Adapted from http://blogs.hbr.org/2014/05/most-work-conflicts-arent-due-to-personality/
  • 48. At Morning Star, conflicts are handled via a 4-step procedure: Step # 1 Appeal directly to the colleague. See if you can sort out your differences. Step # 2 Bring in a 3rd colleague to mediate the argument. Step # 3 Create a panel of six to ten additional colleagues. Step # 4 If steps # 3 also fails, the CEO Chris Rufer can be called upon to join the panel and help render a decision. This happens about 10 times every year. http://nymag.com/news/features/bossless-jobs-2013-6/index3.html
  • 49. Strategy # 4 Adapt. Accommodate.
  • 50. 2 Compete 1 Cooperate 3 Compromise 5 Avoid 4 Adapt Cooperative behaviourAdapted from Blake & Mouton (1964). Self confidence
  • 51. Examples of when to use adapting strategy  When you realize that you are wrong and to show that you are reasonable.  When the issue is much more important to the other person than to yourself.  To build up social credits for later issues which are important to you.  When continued competition would only damage your cause – when you are outmatched and losing.  When preserving harmony and avoiding disruption are especially important. http://web.mit.edu/collaboration/mainsite/modules/module1/1.11.5.html
  • 52. Accommodating might take the form of selfless generosity or charity – or obeying another person’s order when you would prefer not to. https://www.cpp.com/pdfs/4813.pdf
  • 53. Hofstede, Geert: Cultures and Organizations, p. 138. The IBM research found Thailand to be the most femine Asian country. A book about Thai culture by a British-Thai couple reads, ”The Thai learns how to avoid aggression rather than how to defend himself against it.”
  • 54. Further inspiration http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/gender-diversity-9869793 http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/differences-between-women-and-men
  • 55. Strategy # 5 Avoid. Ignore. Escape.
  • 56. 2 Compete 1 Cooperate 3 Compromise 5 Avoid 4 Adapt Cooperative behaviourAdapted from Blake & Mouton (1964). Self confidence
  • 57. Situation # 1 When a “cooling off” period is needed. Situation # 2 When you have low power or you are frustrated by something which would be very difficult to change. Situation # 3 When the issue and the relationship are unimportant. http://web.mit.edu/collaboration/mainsite/modules/module1/1.11.5.html Examples of when to use avoiding strategy
  • 58. http://hbr.org/web/slideshows/difficult-conversations-nine-common-mistakes/1-slide
  • 59. If you know the difficult person isn't going to change, and if you've examined the unhealthy and healthy choices involved in putting up with them, you have a good foundation for making the right choice: Do I stay or do I walk? I'm not promising that your decision will feel nice. It probably won't. But it will be the right decision, the kind you will be able to look back on with a sigh of relief and recognition that moving on was healthy and productive. http://www.linkedin.com/today/post/article/20130822022815-75054000-how-to-handle-difficult-people
  • 60. We all know that “sleeping on it” can help us calm down and think about what we really want. The trick to success is ensuring that you do not use this calmer mindset as an excuse for not addressing those issues that may worsen if left unresolved. https://www.cpp.com/pdfs/CPP_Global_Human_Capital_Report_Workplace_Conflict.pdf
  • 61. Collectivists tend to use more obliging and avoiding styles in task-related conflicts than do individualists. Ting-Toomey, Stella & Oetzel, John G.: Managing intercultural conflict effectively, p. 49.
  • 62. Further inspiration http://www.scribd.com/doc/32211076/Power-Distance http://www.slideshare.net/frankcalberg/power-to-the-people-34722633 http://www.scribd.com/doc/35468260/Individualism
  • 63. Thank you for your interest. For further inspiration and personalized services, feel welcome to visit http://frankcalberg.com/ Have a great day.