WGES Geothermal Development in Indonesia 2011 (Arc Media Global)

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Geothermal Energy Development Status in Indonesia in 2011, at the Arc Media Global high-level energy investment conference

Geothermal Energy Development Status in Indonesia in 2011, at the Arc Media Global high-level energy investment conference

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  • 1. Geothermal Energy Development in Indonesia Herman Darnel Ibrahim Dr [ITB Indonesia], M Sc [UMIST Manchester] Ir [ITB] Dr. [ITB, Indonesia] M.Sc. [UMIST, Manchester], Ir. Member of National Energy Council of Indonesia Vice Chairman of Expert Board of Indonesian Renewable Energy Society Board Member of IGA and Chairman of IGA Western Pacific Regional Branch Presented at World Geothermal Energy Summit 2011 Arc Media Global, Manila, 8 December 2011
  • 2. Manila, 08.12.11 Indonesian Geothermal Development 2
  • 3. Part 1: Indonesia Energy and Renewable Energy Development at Present Energy Development at PresentArc Media Global, Manila, 08.12.11 Indonesian Geothermal Development 3
  • 4. Indonesian Demography and Energy Utilization Features Total % of World [2009] World Rank Land Area 1.9 Million 1.3 16 sq km sq km Population 230 3.41 4 Republic Indonesia p Million. GDP $ 540 0.95 18 Billon Electricity 150 0.9 15 TWh Energy E 150 150 1.5 15 13 MTOEManila, 08.12.11 Indonesian Geothermal Development 4
  • 5. Energy Resources, Production and Utilization In Million Ton Oil Equivalent [MTOE] Oil Gas Situation 2009 Coal RE* 7961 8285 Resources 51571 606 1125 3954 Reserve 10384 NA 628 2824 Proven Reserve 2651 NA brahim 48.7 48 7 75.8 75 8 Production 125.9 125 9 13.9 13 9 Copyright ® H Darnel Ib 37.0 0 Import 0.03 0 [24.0] [24 0] [43.2] [43 2] [Export]** [97.5] [97 5] 59 26.2 Consumption 26.7 13.9 •Including Biomass in MTOE per Year ** Crude and Refined Oil Source of Data: Indonesia Energy and Economy Statistic 2009, MEMR S fD t I d i E dE St ti ti 2009 MEMRManila, 08.12.11 Indonesian Geothermal Development 5
  • 6. Renewable Energy Supply and Carbon EmissionEnergy Unit Indonesia* World**Primary Energy Consumption MTOE 159.9 10583Renewable Energy [RE] MTOE 7.7 547Renewable Energy Share % 4.8 5.1Fossil Energy MTOE 152.2 9308Fossil Energy Share % 95.2 88.1Oil Energy MTOE 79.1 3846Oil Energy Share % 49.5 36.3Electr. Share in Final EnergyEl t Sh i Fi l E % 12.1 12 1 19.2 19 2CO2 Emission Million Ton 456 27347CO 2 per TOE Primary EnergyCO 2 per TOE Primary Energy Ton 2.85 2 85 2.58 2 58CO2 Emission per capita Ton per capita 1.9 4.20Source: Handbook of Energy and Economic Statistics in Japan 2009, The EDMC Japan f gy p p* 2010, ** 2006Manila, 08.12.11 Indonesian Geothermal Development 6
  • 7. Characteristic of Indonesian Renewable Energy Geo‐ Biomass Biomass No Description Hydro Solar Wind Ocean thermal Waste Biofuel 1200 1200 240 240 175 M 175 M1 Potential 28 GWe 75 GWe 9GWe 50GWe GWe GWe kiloliter 95 2 Supply Capability 25 GWe 45 GWe 120 GWe 9 GWe 12 GWe 30 GWe MTOE Seasonal S l Intermit I t I t it Intermit C ti it Continu Availability and Continuo Intermitt Affected [Semi tent tent ous 3 Base Load us [Base ent [Low by Base [Low [Low [Base Capability Load] Density] Weather Load] Density] Density] Load] Medium Small to Small to Small to 4 Capacity Scale Small Medium NA to Big Big Medium Medium Technology 5 Ready Ready Ready Ready RnD Ready Ready Readiness Medium Low Medium 6 Investment Cost High High Medium NA High Medium High Production Cost 7 50‐80 50 80 30‐120 200‐500 50‐140 30 120 200 500 50 140 NA 50‐120 50 120 NA USD per MWh**Source: REN21 Renewables 2010 Global Status Report  Among all renewable energy sources only geothermal and biomass has the base WREC 20110 Indonesian Energy11.10.18 by HDI load capability. 7 Scenario and RE Perspective to 2050
  • 8. RE Energy Development Issues  Electrification ratio and energy consumption is still relatively low: Choice of priority to grow or go green . l l l h f  Subsidy of oil and electricity: Barrier for RE and Low Carbon development [competitiveness] C b d l t[ titi ]  RE project preparation and readiness: Resources Inventory, Survey [+Exploration] and Feasibility Studies Inventory Survey [+Exploration] and Feasibility Studies  Conflicting in land use: About 80 % of geothermal are in the area of Forest Conservation and National Park area of Forest Conservation and National Park  Project funding: Small Player [local] for Small to Medium Sca e ojects, C ed t o t ess Scale Projects, Credit WorthinessManila, 08.12.11 Indonesian Geothermal Development 8
  • 9. Development Progress and On Going ProjectsEnergy National Installed Yearly On Going Potential Capacity Capacity Production Project Project [MWe] [MW] [GWh] [GW]Geothermal 29,000 1,194 11,000 4,000Hydro 75,000 3,500 10,000 2,100Mini Hydro 5,000 600 3,000 480Solar Energy 1,200,000 12 18 70Ocean Energy 240,000 0 0 10Biomass [waste] 50,000 300 2,000 100Wind Energy 9,000 1 1 30Total 1,607,000 5,607 26,019 6,790Biomass [biofuel] 175 M kl NA 600000 kl No InfoManila, 08.12.11 Indonesian Geothermal Development 9
  • 10. National Energy Council and Energy Policy and PlanninggDewan Energi Nasional [DEN] President As Vice President Minister EnergyNational Energy Council Member: Chairman Vice Chairman Exec. Chairman7 Ministers + 8 Stakeholder Rep.[SHR]Minister Minister Minister Minister Minister Minister MinisterTransport Agriculture Industry Envir’ment Research Dev. Plan FinanceAcademic SHR: Industry SHR: Consumer SHR: Environment TechnologyTumiran H. Darnel Ibrahim H Agustiawan SHR: SHR:Rinaldy y Eddie Widiono Agusman E g Mukhtasor Widjajono j jEnergy Laws National National National Energy Policyand d Energy E Energy Plan E Pl Long Term L T Implementation I l iRegulation Policy [KEN] [RUEN] Plan [RPJP] SupervisionCentral Govt. Energy SOEs Private Energy Regional Industry SocietyDepartments [BUMN] Industries Government Large Users ConsumersEnergy Supply Security Economy [Competitiveness] Environmental Preservation
  • 11. Manila, 08.12.11 Indonesian Geothermal Development 11
  • 12. Renewable Energy Institutional National Energy Council Ministry Ministry Ministry Ministry Transport Envir’ment Energy Finance Ministry Ministry DG DG Parliament Industry Research Electricity Oil&Gas Energy Commission Ministry y Ministryy DG DG Coal& Agriculture Dev. Plan New & RE Mineral “Supporting” Agencies g gImplementing AgenciesImplementing Agencies Provincial District Energy Energy National Agency Agency Council of Climate Ch Cli t Change Regulating and Licensing Agencies Private State Own Energy Users Energy Energy and Companies Companies Societies 12
  • 13. Indonesia Energy PolicyEnergy Policy [Current] Initiatives and ProgramsDiversification • Geothermal, Solar Energy, • Maximize Renewable Share Biofuel, Biomass, • Minimize Oil Share Gasification, Mini Hydro• U C l dG t b i Use Coal and Gas to bring cost t • R Remove Oil Subsidy Oil S b id down • Coal PP, Gas for HousesConservation • CCGT Plant CCGT Plant• Maximize Renewable Share • Loss Reduction• More Efficient Conversion More Efficient Conversion • Labeling, Energy Audit Labeling, Energy Audit• Demand and Supply Side Eff’cy. • Mass TransportPricingg • Remove oil subsidy . y• Market Price Primary Energy • Competition on oil • Uniform Electricity Price distribution• Subsidy Electricity and Oil b d l d l • Subsidize Biofuel b d f l 13
  • 14. Renewable Energy Target and Commitment Indonesia will voluntarily reduce its carbon emission of 26% by 2020 [P id [President speech at G20 M i i B h Meeting in Boston]. ] Ministry of Energy set the target of new and renewable energy share of 25% of the energy mix by 2025 [Vision 25 25] 25‐25]. Government is working to develop a regulation of Feed in Tariff for RE: Biomass Solar Energy and Minihydro [Mandate Price] Biomass, Minihydro. National Energy Council recommends to set RE target in National Energy Plan and to oblige producer to produce RE [Mandate Quota] RE regulations is being reviewed by government to make g g y g necessary improvement and to remove the barriers [oil and electricity subsidies]. Manila, 08.12.11 Indonesian Geothermal Development 14
  • 15. Regulation Pushing Renewable Energy  Energy Law: Prioritize Renewable Energy and Environmentally Friendly Energy E i ll F i dl E Minister Decree: Import Tax Exempt for RE machinery equipment , Corporate Tax and VAT Incentive in RE Business. equipment Corporate Tax and VAT Incentive in RE Business Minister Decree: Purchasing of geothermal electricity up to 9.7 cent per kWh. p Minister Decree: Obliged Utility [PLN] to purchase electricity from RE small scale power plant up to 10 Megawatt. President Decree: Subsidizing biodiesel energy for domestic use [allocated Rp 2000 per liter]. DG NREEC Decree: Audit Energy Obligation for energy user of DG NREEC Decree: Audit Energy Obligation for energy user of more than 6000 TOE or 69780 MWh.Manila, 08.12.11 Indonesian Geothermal Development 15
  • 16. Part 2: Geothermal Development in Indonesia I d i
  • 17. First Geothermal Plant Was in 1978The first survey by geothermalexperts is started in 1964,followed by more specificsurveys in 1968. Six explorationwells were drilled in Kamojang j gWest Java from 23 September to27 November 1972. The well No Commemorative Geothermal Well No 6 Kamojang6 is then used for experimentalproduction well and the firstmonoblock of 250 kW wasinaugurated 27 Nov 1978. Thefirst commercial power plant p pKamojang 1 of 30 MW is thenbuilt, and was inaugurated in 29January 1983. Kamojang Geothermal Power Plant 17
  • 18. Indonesian Geothermal Resource is Over 29000 MWeIndonesia has an enormouspotential of geothermal The geothermal.potential are mainly located inSumatera, Java, Sulawesi, NusaTenggara and Maluku. The totalpotential identified in 276 areas ismore ththan 29 038 MW Th 29,038 MWe. The Geothermal Potential in Indonesia ArchipelagoPotential is classified as ProvenReserve: 2 288 MW Probable 2,288 MW,Reserve: 1,050 MW, PossibleReserve: 12,529 MW. ThePotential classified as HypotheticResources: 4,391 MW and asSpeculative RS l ti Reserve: 8 780 MW 8,780 MW. Kamojang the First Geothermal Field, West Java 18
  • 19. Manila, 08.12.11 Indonesian Geothermal Development 19
  • 20. Geothermal Energy Resources 2009 [2011] Location, Resources [MWe] Reserve [MWe] No. Island Speculative Hypothetic Possible Probable Proven1. Sumatera 4,973 2,121 5,845 15 3802. Java 1,960 , 1,771 , 3,265 , 885 1,815 ,3. Bali and NT 410 359 973 - 154. Sulawesi 875 32 959 150 785. Maluku 370 37 327 - -6. Kalimantan 45 - - - -7. Papua 50 - - - -Total 257 8,683 4,320 11,369 1,050 2,288Locations [276] 13,003 [13171] 14,707 [15867] Total Indonesia 27,710 [29038]Source: Directorate General of Mineral Coal and Geothermal Indonesia 2009 20
  • 21. Location of Geothermal Energy Resources 2011 Installed Number of Potential No. Island Capacity Locations [MW] Source: Badan Geologi, MEMR 2010 [MW] 1 Sumatera 86 13,516 13 516 122 Java 71 10,092 1,1173 Bali 5 2964 Nusa Tenggara 22 1,471 Legend:5 Kalimantan 8 115 Initial Survey Ready to Develop6 Sulawesi 55 2,519 , 607 Maluku 26 954 Detail Survey Installed8 Papua 3 75 Total 276 29,038 1,189 21
  • 22. Parties Involved in the Concession Award Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources Decide: Guidance and Guidance and Price and Compensation of Data+Pre FS p Supervision p Supervision p Price of Steam and Electricity Governor of Province Tender Committee Bupati, MayorDecide Decide of District Paying Concession Personnel Data+Pre FS Data+Pre FS Compensation Tender Except * Pre FS by Government Licensing Concession Appointment pp • Exploration p Area A of Winner • FS [ W K P ] Tender • Exploitation *Pre FS by Private y [First Right Refusal] 22
  • 23. Manila, 08.12.11 Indonesian Geothermal Development 23