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Report written for MSc Disaster Management & Sustainable Development (Northumbria University, 2010-11).

Report written for MSc Disaster Management & Sustainable Development (Northumbria University, 2010-11).
Co-authors: Katharine Timpson, Simon Steele, Adam Craggs

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Integrated Emergency Management Report Document Transcript

  • 1. RESILIENCE AND CASTEIN ORISSA, INDIAPROGRESS IN THE HYOGOFRAMEWORK FOR ACTIONAdam CraggsFrancesca HughesSimon SteeleKatharine TimpsonMay 2011GE271: Integrated Emergency Management
  • 2. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, India1.0 Executive Summary “A disaster occurs only if a community or population is exposed to the natural hazard and cannot cope with its effects” (ISDR 2010)At the World Disaster Reduction Conference in 2005, the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) wasadopted by 168 countries, aiming to reduce disaster losses by building the resilience of nations andcommunities. Conceptually, it has many strengths, promoting self-reliance and cost-effectiveness;citizen participation; and integrating disaster risk reduction (DRR) with climate change adaptation(CCA). In practice, it must respond to complexity.This report examines the situation in India generally and in the state of Orissa – one of the pooreststates, and heavily afflicted by natural disasters – more particularly, to gain an understanding of howresilience planning is operating. Both the effectiveness of the priority actions and the building ofresilience are assessed in relation to the caste system in India.The report first introduces the origins of resilience and the caste system, before turning to the stateof Orissa to analyse progress towards resilience in terms of the HFA priority actions. Progress isassessed in relation to the overarching theme of caste, before presenting recommendations.Steps are being taken towards resilience building and, while impact varies, there are some goodpractices that should be strengthened and extended. There are many challenges facing resiliencebuilding in India: the lack of resources coupled with high poverty rates has a major impact, which isheightened by social divisions, such as those along caste lines.This report presents the argument that the use of such globally formulated frameworks as HFA canneglect important local contexts, and thus that India’s use of such documents must be backed up bya commitment to actively confront the social issue of caste. Page 2
  • 3. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, India CONTENTS1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................................................. 22.0 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................... 63.0 BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................................ 7 3.1 DISASTER MANAGEMENT & RESILIENCE .............................................................................................. 7 3.2 CASTE ................................................................................................................................................. 104.0 FINDINGS ........................................................................................................................................ 12 4.1 ORISSA ................................................................................................................................................ 12 4.2 HYOGO FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION ..................................................................................................... 14 4.2.1 Ensure the Disaster Risk Reduction is a national and local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation ..................................................................................................... 14 4.2.2 Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning ......................... 14 4.2.3 Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels ................................................................................................................................ 15 4.2.4 Reduce the underlying risk factors ........................................................................................ 15 4.2.5 Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective disaster response at all levels ............. 17 4.3 OVERARCHING ISSUE OF CASTE ........................................................................................................ 185.0 CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................................... 196.0 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................ 217.0 APPENDICES ................................................................................................................................. 23 7.1 APPENDIX A: RESILIENCE ................................................................................................................... 23 7.2 APPENDIX B: CASTE ........................................................................................................................... 24 Appendix B1: Caste and Community profile of ‘below poverty line’ population in India, 1999-2000 .................................................................................................................................................. 24 Appendix B2: Poverty levels of ‘forward castes’ in rural areas of India, by state ............................ 24 7.3 APPENDIX C: ORISSA.......................................................................................................................... 25 Appendix C1: India Natural Hazards Map ............................................................................................. 25 Appendix C2: India Cyclone Prone Areas Map .................................................................................... 26 Appendix C3: Trends in rural poverty in Orissa .................................................................................... 27 Appendix C4: Trends in urban poverty in Orissa .................................................................................. 27 Page 3
  • 4. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, India LIST OF FIGURESFIGURE 1: DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE.......................................................................................................... 7FIGURE 2: ISDR FRAME W ORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION ....................................................................... 8FIGURE 3: CASTE SYSTEM ................................................................................................................................... 10FIGURE 4: MAP OF INDIA SHOWING PER CAPITA INCOME BY STATE .................................................................... 12 LIST OF TABLESTABLE 1: HYOGO FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION, PRIORITY ACTIONS........................................................................ 9TABLE 2: POVERTY INCIDENCE IN RURAL ORISSA BY REGION AND SOCIAL GROUP, 1999-2000 ....................... 13TABLE 3: TECHNICAL ORGANISATIONS ................................................................................................................ 14TABLE 4: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT POLICIES AND ORGANISATIONS ....................................................................... 16TABLE 5: GROWTH OF SLUMS IN BHUBANESWAR ................................................................................................ 17 Page 4
  • 5. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, India ACRONYMSCCA Climate Change AdaptationCBA Cost Benefit AnalysisDM Disaster ManagementDRR Disaster Risk ReductionEWS Early Warning SystemHFA Hyogo Framework for ActionIIRS Indian Institute of Remote SensingINCOIS Indian National Centre for Ocean Information ServicesISRO Indian Space Research OrganisationJNNURM Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal MissionMGNREGA Mahatma Ghandi National Rural Employment Guarantee ActMFI Microfinance InstitutionMDG Millennium Development GoalNEOC National Emergency Operations CentreNIDM National Institute of Disaster ManagementNREGS National Rural Employment GuaranteeNRSA National Remote Sensing AgencyOSDMA Orissa State Disaster Management AuthorityOBC Other Backward CasteSAARC South Asia Association of Regional CooperationSC Scheduled CasteSDMC SAARC Disaster Management CentreST Scheduled TribeSCP Special Component Plan for Scheduled CastesUNISDR United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Page 5
  • 6. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, India2.0 IntroductionResilience has become the emphasis of disaster strategies worldwide. Conceptually, it has manystrengths: it takes a positive stance towards fighting disaster impacts; it promotes self-reliance andcost-effective solutions; it advocates the involvement of citizens in decisions making and disastermanagement. In practice, it must respond to complexity.This report examines the situation in India generally and in the state of Orissa – one of the pooreststates, and heavily afflicted by natural disasters – more particularly, to gain an understanding of howresilience planning is operating.The report is structured thus: firstly the origins of resilience are considered, showing how it emergedfrom previous disaster management (DM) paradigms. Then the caste system in India will be lookedat, which the authors consider to be a key – and often overlooked – context of resilience there. Thereport then turns more specifically to the state of Orissa, providing information on levels ofresilience by working through the objectives stated in one of the key documents of the resiliencemovement: the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA). Lastly, recommendations are offered for Orissa,and the authors present the argument that the use of such globally formulated frameworks as HFAcan neglect important local contexts, and thus that India’s use of such documents must be backedup by a commitment to actively confront the social issue of caste (as well as issues highlighted by theFramework such as gender). Page 6
  • 7. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, India3.0 Background3.1 Disaster Management & ResilienceDisaster management theory and practice has evolved over time from being a reactive process –focused on recovery and reconstruction – to a more proactive one, focusing on improvingpreparedness. An early disaster management cycle (shown in Fig. 1) is concerned with actions takenpre and post disaster (ASDRC 2005). Prevention and mitigation actions are taken before an event toreduce impacts (e.g. building dams to stop flooding), whilst preparedness focuses on the populationbeing prepared and able to act in a disaster event. Response occurs immediately post-disaster,followed by reconstruction and rehabilitation, where the cycle starts over as prevention andmitigation are implemented in reconstruction.Figure 1: Disaster Management CycleSource: ASDRC 2005Wisner introduced the concept that in disasters, Risk = Hazard x Vulnerability; showing that risk wasintrinsically linked to underlying factors, such as poverty and social exclusion, which increasevulnerability (2004:337). However, this simplified notion does not allow for feedback fromemergency planning that could reduce risks (such as Early Warning Systems). A fuller understandingof risk can be gained by conceptualising it as the result of the hazard, vulnerability, and deficienciesin preparedness (Vilagran de Leon 2004). Focus thus turned to disaster risk reduction (DRR).The United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction framework (see Fig. 2) provides anoverview of the different facets of DRR (UNISDR 2004). The framework places risk outside theresponse framework, with the flows indicating that risk cannot be directly reduced: only that earlywarning, preparedness and response could reduce disaster impact (Birkmann 2006:25). Page 7
  • 8. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, IndiaFigure 2: ISDR Frame Work for Disaster Risk ReductionSource: UNISDR 2004The Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) (UNISDR 2007) was adopted in 2005, aiming to reducedisaster losses by building the resilience of nations and communities. HFA contains priorities foraction and practical means for achieving disaster resilience. It promotes cross-cutting themes, suchas a multi-hazard approach, gender perspective, cultural diversity, community participation, andcapacity building. The framework has been widely implemented around the world with over 100countries having implemented HFA by 2011 (UNISDR 2011)1.Table 1 shows the HFA Priority Actions, which highlight a range of issues and call for DRR andresilience building to be implemented at all levels of society. HFA also aims to build communityresilience to events, making communities stronger and able to cope or mitigate disaster impact1 See Appedix A for the Hyogo Framework for Action summary diagram. Page 8
  • 9. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, Indiamore easily. Both the effectiveness of the priority actions and the building of resilience will beassessed in relation to the caste system in India.Table 1: Hyogo Framework for Action, Priority ActionsPriority Action 1: Ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and a local priority with astrong institutional basis for implementationCountries that develop policy, legislative and institutional frameworks for disaster risk reductionand that are able to develop and track progress through specific and measurable indicators havegreater capacity to manage risks and to achieve widespread consensus for, engagement in andcompliance with disaster risk reduction measures across all sectors of society.Priority Action 2: Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warningThe starting point for reducing disaster risk and for promoting a culture of disaster resilience lies inthe knowledge of the hazards and the physical, social, economic and environmental vulnerabilitiesto disasters that most societies face, and of the ways in which hazards and vulnerabilities arechanging in the short and long term, followed by action taken on the basis of that knowledge.Priority Action 3: Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety andresilience at all levelsDisasters can be substantially reduced if people are well informed and motivated towards a cultureof disaster prevention and resilience, which in turn requires the collection, compilation anddissemination of relevant knowledge and information on hazards, vulnerabilities and capacities.Priority Action 4: Reduce the underlying risk factorsDisaster risks related to changing social, economic, environmental conditions and land use, and theimpact of hazards associated with geological events, weather, water, climate variability andclimate change, are addressed in sector development planning and programmes as well as in post-disaster situations.Priority Action 5: Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levelsAt times of disaster, impacts and losses can be substantially reduced if authorities, individuals andcommunities in hazard-prone areas are well prepared and ready to act and are equipped with theknowledge and capacities for effective disaster management.Source: UNISDR 2007 Page 9
  • 10. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, India3.2 CasteIndian society has been dominated for the last 3,000 years by the caste system. Originally developedby the Brahmins (Hindu Priests) it was designed to maintain their superiority over society through anumber of levels said to be divinely inspired. Over time these became formalised into four castes orvarnas (shown in Fig.3): the Brahmins or priests, the Kshatriyas or warriors and administrators, theVaishyas or commercial class and the Kshudras or peasants and farmers (Kethineni & Humiston2010).These castes are said to come from various parts of the god Brahma with the Brahmins originatingfrom the mouth and the other castes from the arm, thigh and feet respectively (Izzo 2005). Thisstructure has evolved into a number of complex, interlinking systems which vary spatially acrossIndia, interacting with a variety of economic conditions (Gupta 2009).Figure 3: Caste system Source: http://www.annemariemink.nl/india-project/situation-of-women/Underneath the distinct castes is another group called the Dalits, or broken people, often referred toas the untouchables or scheduled caste (SC), reflecting their status in society. For centuries theywere excluded from mainstream society and assigned menial and degrading jobs. They alsoexperienced segregation such as being consigned to separate drinking wells and temples (Kethineni& Humiston 2010). Despite protection in the new Indian constitution written in 1947 and theconcept of untouchability being made illegal, discrimination is reported in some areas to be at an all- Page 10
  • 11. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, Indiatime high with violence and social and economic boycotts by higher castes a frequent occurrence(Kethineni & Humiston 2010). Doobay and Lyons (2003, in Ray-Bennett, 2009:.2) describe the castesystem saying: “Centuries of this ‘hidden apartheid’ that has perpetuated discrimination and denial of their human rights, has resulted not only in Dalits representing a disproportionate amount of the poor in India, but also in the creation of numerous other obstacles that hinder Dalit’s ability to change their situation’’.2The caste system is a very resilient system despite its oppressive nature. One of the major reasonsfor this is how intrinsically embedded it is into society. Over 3,000 years it has become a norm whichis supported by the institutional and religious elite of the country and this endures to various extentstoday despite its illegality (Human Rights Watch 2007). This increases the vulnerability of those inthe caste system (Gupta 2009) and particularly but not exclusively the Dalit caste. Any failure torecognise the caste system or any active caste discrimination obviously presents a challenge forresilience building in India.2 See Appendix B for further details on poverty in India, by caste and tribe. Page 11
  • 12. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, India4.0 Findings4.1 OrissaOrissa, at 62,000 square miles, is the 9th largest state in India. It is located in north-eastern India, andhas a population just under 42 million (Census India 2011).Figure 4: Map of India showing per capita income by state Source: http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/india/percapitaincome.htmOrissa experiences natural disasters and variable weather, with extremes of drought, wind and rainin different years3. Natural disasters have a devastating impact: the supercyclone in 1999 killed10,000 people, made 750,000 homeless and destroyed many livelihoods. There have also beensevere flooding incidences in 2001 and 2003 killing 150 people and affecting over 3 million.3 See Appendix C1 and C2 for natural hazard and cyclone risk maps. Page 12
  • 13. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, IndiaPoverty is declining but remains high, and Orissa suffers extreme religious and caste-based violence(Catholic Relief Services 2004). Table 2 shows the high level of poverty incidence, and inequality bycaste: average poverty incidence is 48% throughout the state, dropping to 33% for ‘others’ andjumping to 73% for SCs4.Table 2: Poverty incidence in rural Orissa by region and social group, 1999-2000 Social groups Regions Scheduled Castes Scheduled Tribes Others All Coastal 66.63 42.18 24.32 31.74 Southern 92.42 88.9 77.65 87.05 Northern 61.69 57.22 34.67 49.81 Orissa 73.08 52.3 33.29 48.01 Source: Orissa HDI ReportThe practice of segregating villages by caste and religion continues in many areas. Bonds ofcohesiveness predominantly exist between members of the same caste and there are manyexamples of discrimination during natural disasters. During the supercyclone Ray-Bennett (2009)describes how some Dalit families were refused access to a shelter and survived by hugging nearbytrees. The lack of community resilience as a result of the caste system increases the vulnerability ofeveryone: Ray-Bennett also found an example of how some upper caste women would not enter ashelter during the 2003 floods due to the presence of lower castes.4 See Appendix C3 and C4 for further details of poverty in Orissa. Page 13
  • 14. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, India4.2 Hyogo Framework for ActionThis report will now examine progress in resilience-building in Orissa, in relation to the five HFApriority actions. Caste is subsequently considered as an overarching issue, in section 4.3.4.2.1 Ensure the Disaster Risk Reduction is a national and local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementationPlans have been formulated on the national level, but the size of the country requires that they areimplemented in a decentralized fashion by State Government. However the links between these arenot strong, so despite India’s National Disaster Management Act (AIDMI/Concern Worldwide 2010)being established in 2005, no new DM authorities have appeared in states. Only Orissa and Gujarathave authorities, both set up previously as a response to the 1999 supercyclone and the 2001earthquake respectively (AIDMI/Concern Worldwide 2010). From the state level there is too muchfocus on macro-level assessment, and despite local government having responsibility for “carryingout relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction activities in a post-disaster situation” (Srivastava, 2011:8), this level has neither the resources nor legislative capacity to achieve resilience (Swalheim &Dodman 2008). There is also the problem of relationships between local governments – the mayorof Bhubaneshwar has pointed out that his city’s resilience depends upon that of the rest of theOrissa State (PreventionWeb 2011). Further to this we must consider the role of NGOs – anothertype of institution which has the potential to improve governance in India. Their importance ishighlighted by the Disaster Management Act (Bhatt 2007).4.2.2 Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warningTable 3 overleaf shows organisations utilised by the government for hazard information collectionand compilation. The government has also established a National Emergency Operations Centre(NEOC) with equipment to sense and assess impending disasters, initiate EWS and begin responseactivities, with plans to replicate this resource at state level. Furthermore, a Vulnerability Atlas,intended to explain the differential effects of disasters, is being compiled, so risk assessment willextend beyond the physical hazard (Goswami 2008). Information is being gathered, but access tothis information is complicated: much of it is online (e.g. information for schools and hospitals canbe found on http://www.safecommunities.info/index.php) which makes it easily accessible only tointernet users. It is on this level, of “last mile connectivity”, that more work is needed (Srivastava2011:11).Table 3: Technical organisations Technical Organisation Hazards monitored India Meteorological Department Cyclones, Earthquakes, Rainfall Central Water Commission Floods Page 14
  • 15. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, India Technical Organisation Hazards monitored Geological Survey of India Landslides Ministry of Agriculture Drought National Spatial Data Infrastructure Various Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Various Services (INCOIS) Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (NRSA) Various National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) Various Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Various Source: Srivastava 20114.2.3 Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levelsEducation has two functions, often considered separate: firstly, to inform the entire population ofhazards; and secondly, to create a culture of disaster research which will foster expertise withinIndia. The first involves introducing DRR and climate change adaptation (CCA) issues into schoolcurricula and citizen education (Local Governance Network; SEEDS 2010). It links to issues in point4.2.2 with EWS, where we see that distribution of information remains limited, in this case to thosein formal education of some kind. It needs to reach further. The second will take time but has begun,with India Disaster Knowledge Network, training for teachers, university courses and planned HazardSpecific Centres of Excellence (Goswami 2008; Srivastava 2011: 15). A Disaster Management Centre(SDMC) was set up in 2006 in New Delhi’s National Institute of Disaster Management, mandated toexchange research, information, advice and training on disasters with seven other countries in theregion, so clearly India is important to the international disaster research community already (theSouth Asia Association of Regional Cooperation - see http://saarc-sdmc.nic.in/index.asp). However,concerns exist that current study focuses too much on the technical aspects of risk and that morecould be done in the fields of cost benefit analysis (CBA) and of vulnerability, as showing the linksbetween poverty and risk is crucial to ensuring commitment to both (Global Assessment of Risk: Asia2009).4.2.4 Reduce the underlying risk factorsThis report considers underlying risk factors of environmental, social and economic nature.Environmental factors are difficult to combat but can be lessened through good practice such as theuse of building codes and regulations. Such things do exist in Orissa, with guidelines to “build backbetter” after disasters, but in reality funds do not exist to enforce codes or assist re-building, and sopeople will build where they can using the materials available to them, irrespective and oftenunaware of risk (Goswami 2008, Srivastava 2011). Buildings already standing can be improved upon,and although state government does not have the resources to retrofit all buildings in Orissa, it Page 15
  • 16. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, Indiacould begin with hospitals and schools – important to reducing social risk. SEEDS have producedwork on the prices of school retrofitting, which they calculate would cost $3200 million for the entirecountry (SEEDS 2010). Economic underlying risks must also be combated and this can be a questionof attitude. Many still consider long-term development and poverty alleviation to be a separate issueto DM, despite the clear links between the two. Reducing disaster risk will help reduce poverty but itis also imperative to DRR that India combats its chronic problem of poverty. According to the OrissaHuman Development Report, “poverty in Orissa is overwhelmingly a rural phenomenon” (2004:21).As we look at consumption patterns we see rapidly growing inequity between the poorer ruralpopulation and the relatively more wealthy urban communities. This has led to much developmentin the rural areas of the State, and Table 4 summarises some current policy practice.Table 4: Social development policies and organisations Policy/Organisation - Activity National Rural Employment Guarantee - To ensure food security in rural (NREGS) households Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban - City development to stimulate local Renewal Mission (JNNURM) economies. - Involving local communities National Rural Health Mission - Rural public and primary health care Swarna Javanti Shahari Rojgar Yojana - Self employment through micro- enterprise set up - Development of women and children in urban areas National Social Assistance Programme - National old age pension scheme - National family benefit scheme Indira Awas Yojana - Housing for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, bonded Labourers and others living in poverty (rural focus) Bharat Nirman - Rural irrigation, road connectivity, housing, water supply, electrification and telephony Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan - Elementary education (rural) Rajiv Awas Yojana - Urban housing scheme for the poor The National Institute of Social Work - Entrepreneurship work aimed at and Social Sciences the emancipation of the disadvantaged Ruchika Social Service Organisation - Education of children living in urban slums, emergency assistance to families living in slums Mahatma Ghandi National Rural - Environmentally sustainable, Employment Guarantee Act “safety net” employment service (MGNREGA) for rural poor Source: Srivastava 2011 Page 16
  • 17. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, IndiaHowever, variance also exists within the urban setting where slums house around 40% of thepopulation and are growing, as rural poverty pushes people into the city. Table 5 shows more detailof the growth of slums in Bhubaneswar, the capital of Orissa (Rout 2008). Those living there are atgreatest risk of the effects of climate change (Swalheim & Dodman 2008), therefore urban work isalso crucial (shown in Table 4).Table 5: Growth of slums in Bhubaneswar Year Number of Households Annual Rate Population Annual Population Pockets HH Growth Growth Rate 1971 7 1981 23 1989 70 17,175 86,901 1991 86 21,003 11.14 110,112 13.35 1993 101 24,318 7.89 117,000 3.13 1999 145 30,000 3.89 200,000 11.82 Source: Rout 2008, from Bhubaneswar Development Authority (Cited in Environmental Management Plan Bhubaneswar; OSPCB; 2003)The key point here is that people do not necessarily want disaster work that pushes developmentforwards in the immediate aftermath, and are more likely to support longer term slower impactpoverty alleviation, and so the links between these two types of work must be stressed (HuairouCommission 2010).4.2.5 Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective disaster response at all levelsPlanning exists from the national level (e.g. the National Emergency Communication Plan) (Goswami2008). Policy is described as “well established”, but ultimately not fully adhered to (Srivastava 2011:23). The states, with their limited resources, use financial assistance to meet people’s basic needs,rather than compensate losses (Orissa Human Development Index 2004: 40), and tend to focus toooften on generic assessments, missing the details of disaster risk (Srivastava 2011: 26). At thecommunity level, once again, we see the work of NGOs like Gram Vikas who promote the combat ofchronic development problems: the issues that face people daily but will aid their disaster resilience(Todd & Palakudiyil 2004). There is also evidence of state level objectives such as Orissa StateDisaster Managment Authority (OSDMA), working with the UN to try and promote communitycontingency planning (OSDMA & UN). Page 17
  • 18. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, India4.3 Overarching Issue of CasteThe Hyogo Framework is not limited to these objectives: it also allows overarching themes asdiscussed in section 3.1. Bhatt (2007) considers recommendations around one of the cross-cuttingthemes: that of gender. Gender is an important context to consider in disaster work, as is povertyand the urban/rural divide (discussed above in 4.2.4). But it has been our objective to consider adifferent perspective – the perspective of caste. The entrenched nature of caste makes it crucial tounderstanding vulnerability in India. Many works have stressed its continued influence on people’slives (Gupta 2009; Kapoor 2007; Rew & Rew 2003: 216; Thorat & Gupta 2009) and the inequitiessuffered because of caste are exacerbated by disasters. The Orissa Human Development Reportshows how SC and ST minorities are among the most vulnerable members of the populationthroughout the state, looking at levels of poverty and nutrition, and claiming that the supercyclonedisproportionately affected the Dalit population (Orissa Human Development Report 2004). Thoratand Gupta (2009) call for disaggregation of disaster data on caste bases to avoid the practice of“caste blindness” - which intensifies such problems by dismissing them (Gill 2007).This is where we are concerned that the Hyogo Framework and other global understandings ofresilience may not suffice in India, where this highly political issue remains under-researched and isnot always considered. Page 18
  • 19. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, India5.0 Conclusion & RecommendationsSteps are being taken to address and build resilience by central, state and local government,international and civil society organisations. Impact varies, but there are good practices that shouldbe strengthened and extended. There are many challenges facing resilience building in India, andmore specifically, Orissa. The state suffers multiple hazards which are increasing in frequency andintensity. The lack of resources coupled with high poverty rates has a major impact, which isheightened by social divisions, such as those along caste lines.In light of the findings of this report, the following recommendations are proposed. 1. Financial resources must match the level of responsibility at state, district and local levels. Cost effective solutions to DM must be sought as resources are scarce. 2. Governance must be improved. Officials must be educated to consider disasters an impediment to development and the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Proper cost-benefit analyses (CBAs) must be conducted in order to understand the relationship between vulnerability and poverty. Land use planning and building codes must be effective and enforced. 3. Both structural and non-structural steps must be taken to make existing buildings disaster- resilient, with hospitals and schools – as key components of community capacity – made a priority. In addition, furniture and equipment can be arranged in ways that prevent injury and leave escape routes accessible. Flammable and toxic substances must be stored safely (SEEDS 2010). 4. The mainstreaming of DRR and CCA in school curricula must be extended to all primary and secondary schools, using analysis of experienced hazards as case study material. DM plans should be updated inclusively, consulting teachers and students. Restoring rountine education promptly after disasters can aid children’s psychological healing (SEEDS 2010). 5. Rural poverty must be addressed in order to slow rural-urban migration. The expanding urban slums adversely affect DM: plans must constantly evolve to account for rapid population growth. Job creation in areas of DRR and CCA in rural and urban communities can address unemployment, poverty and be advantageous for resilience. 6. Community based adaptation should be adopted, utilising the community’s own knowledge and perceptions to define their vulnerabilities and needs, and develop solutions. This is cost effective and sustainable as it is community-managed (Swalheim & Dodman 2008). Communities should be assisted in areas such as hazard and vulnerability mapping, awareness of rights and entitlements, search and rescue and first aid training, etc. Page 19
  • 20. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, India 7. Locally embedded institutions are more likely to be accepted than imposed structures and are therefore more effective. Programmes must fit the social and cultural context of individual communities, and progress at an appropriate pace (AIDMI/Concern Worldwide 2010; Rew & Rew 2003). Organisations already working in communities may possess suitable resources. 8. The weak insurance culture must be addressed. Compensation currently only covers basic needs, not all lost assets. Financial risk sharing must be cost effective and inclusive, such as community emergency funds. Microfinance institutions (MFIs) can help people protect themselves and their assets in disasters, by offering risk-mitigating products such as savings and micro-insurance. However, it is essential that MFIs prepare for the impact of disasters on themselves as well as their clients (FDC 2007). 9. It is imperative that the excellent national level EWS reaches the state and local level. Information must be accessible in medium and content.Vulnerability is the “most important link between hazards and disaster risk in Orissa” (GlobalAssessment of Risk 2009:29), and therefore sustainable DRR can only be achieved in conjunctionwith long term poverty reduction.The effect of caste on resilience must be recognised and acknowledged at all levels of DM andresilience building. Twigg (2009) suggests that new thematic areas can be created in HFA, asexplored by Plan UK with regard to child rights. The authors advocate that caste should be athematic area that cuts across the HFA priority actions. There must be increased representation oflower caste and vulnerable groups at all levels of DM, and advocacy in DM legislation. Data must bedisaggregated by caste in order to fully understand the unique vulnerabilities faced by differentgroups. Preparedness and contingency exercises must include vulnerable groups. Training andeducation must include all societal divisions. One Indian-based NGO, Gram Vikas, (Todd & Palakudiyil2004) applies an all-inclusive, consensus building principle to projects. Development projects willonly take place when all community members are involved and agreed, therefore the onus is on thecommunity to get everyone ‘on board’ so they can benefit. The replication of this principle should besought, but it is recognised that it is a slow process. Page 20
  • 21. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, India6.0 ReferencesAIDMI/Concern Worldwide (2010) Building Resilient Communities through Disaster Recovery: Lessonslearned by Concern Worldwide India, Available online:http://www.concern.net/sites/concern.net/files/building_resilient_communities_through_disaster_recovery.pdf [Accessed on 5/5/2011]ASDRC (2005) Disaster risk management cycle, Available:http://www.adrc.asia/publications/TDRM2005/TDRM_Good_Practices/PDF/PDF-2005e/Chapter2_2.2.pdf[Accessed on 13/5/2011]Bhatt, M. R. (2007) The Hyogo Framework for Action: reclaiming ownership? Humanitarian ExchangeMagazine, Issue 38, June 2007, Humanitarian Practice Network at ODI, Available online:http://www.odihpn.org/report.asp?id=2886 [Accessed on 18/5/2011]Birkman, J. Ed. (2006) Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards: Towards Disaster Resilient Societies,United Nations University Press: New YorkCatholic Relief Service (2004) Development Relief in Action: CRS/India experiences with disasterpreparedness during development, CRS South Asia TeamCensus India (2011) Provisional Population Totals, Orissa, Available: http://censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/data_files/orissa/Provisional%20Population%20Total%20Orissa-Book.pdfb [Accessed on26/5/2011]Foundation for Development Cooperation (FDC) (2007) Capacity Building for Microfinance in Post-TsunamiReconstruction: Summary Report, Foundation for Development Cooperation: AustraliaGill, T. (2007) Making Things Worse: How ‘caste blindness’ in Indian post-tsunami disaster recovery hasexacerbated vulnerability and exclusion, Dalit Network NetherlandsGoswami, S. (2008) Progress in implementation of Hyogo Framework For Action, presentation by DeputySecretary, Ministry Of Home Affairs, Government of India in New Delhi, 13th November 2008, Availableonline: http://www.adrc.asia/acdr/2008bali/documents/02-01-19.pdf [Accessed on 18/5/2011]Government of Orissa (2004) Orissa Human Development Report 2004, Available at:http://www.orissa.gov.in/p&c/humandevelopment/hdr/HDR_2004.pdf [Accessed on 16/5/11]Todd, M. & Palakudiyil, T. (2004) Harnessing Local Capacities in Rural India, World Disasters Report 2004,International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Available online:http://www.gramvikas.org/PDF/published/Harnessing%20Local%20Capacities.pdf [Accessed on18/5/2011]Gupta, P. (2009) Ethnicity, Caste and Community in a Disaster prone area of Orissa, Working paper 231,The Institution for Social and Economic change, BangaloreHuairou Commission (2010) Grassroots Women Define Resilience at Asian Academy in Delhi, IndiaSeptember 13-15, 2010, Available at: http://www.disasterwatch.net/resources/asianconsultation-cdrf2010.pdf [Accessed on 13/5/2011]Human Rights Watch (2007) India: ‘Hidden Apartheid’ of Discrimination against Dalits, Available at:http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2007/02/12/india-hidden-apartheid-discrimination-against-dalits [Accessedon 13/5/11]Izzo, J.F. (2005) Dalit Means Broken, America 5, 192, pp.11-15Kapoor, D. (2007) Gendered-Caste Discrimination, Human Rights Education, and the Enforcement of thePrevention of Atrocities Act in India, The Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 53.3, pp.273-286Kethineni. S. & Humiston, G.D. (2010) Dalits: the ‘oppressed people’ of India: How are their social,economic, and human rights addressed? War crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity, 4, pp. 99-140 Page 21
  • 22. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, IndiaLocal Governance Network (no date) Urban Disaster Risk Reduction: A case of Indian State Orissa(Bhubaneswar), Available online:http://www.preventionweb.net/files/section/230_BhubaneswarUrbanDisasterRiskReduction.pdf[Accessed on 13/5/2011]Maps of India (2010) Map of India: per capita income by state, Available online:http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/india/percapitaincome.htm [Accessed on 18/5/2011]OSDMA & UN (no date) Community Contingency Plan for Floods & Cyclones – Orissa, Available online:http://data.undp.org.in/dmweb/plans/MANUAL~1.pdf [Accessed on 5/5/2011]PreventionWeb (2011) India: Over one hundred municipal leaders in Orissa pledge to strengthenenvironmental sustainability, 21 Jan 2011, Available online:http://www.preventionweb.net/english/professional/news/v.php?id=17611 [Accessed on 26/5/2011]Ray-Bennett, N.S. (2009) The influence of caste, class and gender in surviving multiple disasters: a casestudy from Orissa, India, Environmental hazard, human and policy dimensionsRew, A. & Rew, M. (2003) Development models ‘out-of-place’: Social research on methods to improvelivelihoods in eastern India, Community Development Journal, 38.3, pp.213-224Rout, N. R. (2008) Slum Growth In Bhubaneswar: A Problem Or Solution? ITPI Journal, 5.4, 2008, pp.59-64SEEDS (2010) Building Resilience through Community Lifelines, SEEDS, New Delhi, Available online:http://www.seedsindia.org/pdf/Building%20Resiliance%20Report.pdf [Accessed on 5/5/2011]Srivastava, R. K. (2011) India: National progress report on the implementation of the Hyogo Framework forAction (2009-2011) – interim, Available online:http://www.preventionweb.net/english/hyogo/gar/2011/en/bgdocs/hfa/15602_ind_NationalHFAprogress_2009-11.pdf [Accessed on 13/5/2011]Swalheim, S. & Dodman, D. (2008) Building resilience: how the urban poor can drive climate adaptation,International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), November 2008Thorat, S. & Gupta, P. D. (2009) Will India’s Attainment of MDGs Be An Inclusive Process? Working PaperSeries, 3.2, 2009, Indian Institute of Dalit Studies, New DelhiTwigg, J. (2009) Characteristics of a Disaster-Resilient Community: A Guidance Note, Version 2, November2009, on behalf of the Interagency Group (ActionAid, British Red Cross, Christian Aid, Plan UK, PracticalAction and Tearfund)UNISDR (2004) Living with Risk: A Global Review of Disaster Reduction Initiatives, UN Publications: GenevaUNISDR (2007) Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the resilience of nations and communitiesto disasters - full text, Available:http://www.preventionweb.net/files/1037_hyogoframeworkforactionenglish.pdf [Accessed on 20/5/2011]UNISDR (2011) Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 Building the Resilience of Nations and Communitiesto Disasters mid-term review 2010-2011, Available:http://www.preventionweb.net/files/18197_midterm.pdf [Accessed on 20/5/2011]Vilagran de Leon, J. C. (2004) Manual para la esimacion cuantitativa de riesgod asociados a diversasamenazas, Guatemala: Accion Contra el Hambre, ACH, In: Brikmann, J. (2006) Measuring Vulnerability toNatural Hazards: Towards disaster resilient societies, United Nations University Press: New YorkWisner, B. (2004) At Risk: natural hazards, peoples vulnerability and disasters, Routeledge: New YorkNo given author (2008) Global Assessment Of Risk 2009: Asia Country & State Case Study Report December2008, accessed from http://www.preventionweb.net/english/hyogo/gar/background-papers/documents/Chap3/Asia-overview/Revi-Asia-Case-Study-Report.pdf [Accessed on 13/5/2011] Page 22
  • 23. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, India7.0 Appendices7.1 Appendix A: ResilienceSource: UNISDR 2011 Page 23
  • 24. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, India7.2 Appendix B: CasteAppendix B1: Caste and Community profile of ‘below poverty line’ population in India,1999-2000 Source: http://wapedia.mobi/en/Reservation_in_IndiaAppendix B2: Poverty levels of ‘forward castes’ in rural areas of India, by state Note: ‘forward castes’ include all except scheduled and backward castes Source: http://uk.ask.com/wiki/Forward_Castes Page 24
  • 25. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, India7.3 Appendix C: OrissaAppendix C1: India Natural Hazards Map Source: http://mapsofindia.com/maps/india/natural-hazard.htm Page 25
  • 26. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, IndiaAppendix C2: India Cyclone Prone Areas Map Source: http://mapsofindia.com/maps/india/cyclone-prone-areas.html Page 26
  • 27. Resilience and Caste in Orissa, IndiaAppendix C3: Trends in rural poverty in Orissa Source: Orissa HDI Report 2004Appendix C4: Trends in urban poverty in Orissa Source: Orissa HDI Report 2004 Page 27