Integrated Emergency Management - Orissa, India

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Presentation for MSc Disaster Management & Sustainable Development (May 2011, Northumbria University)

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  • Resilience alliance: The amount of change a system can undergo and still retain the same controls on function and structureThe degree to which the system is capable of self-organisationThe ability to build and increase the capacity for learning and adaptation
  • Good:Substantial reduction of disaster losses, in lives and in the social, economic and environmental assets of communities and countries (UNISDR HFA).multi hazard approachgender perspective and cultural diversitycommunity and volunteer participationcapacity building and technology transferHFA says better local responses to disastrous events.Adaptive capacity: learning and storage of knowledge.
  • Bad- Destruction as opportunity – what are we prepared to lose? Victimless world? What about rights and responsibilities? What are your R&R in a world where you’re supposed to be self-reliant?- Achieving resilience – ten point plan – top-down approach, focuses on outcome rather than process. Is it really resilience if its not grassroots?- Bounce forward - whose forward? Who’s idea of progress?- Tragedy of the Commons – resiliencies are interlinked (so ecological resilience is useless if your neighbours are poaching those resources). Not enough on a local scale.- Pathological resistance to change – too resilient – Gandhi and Hitler – Hollings’s resilience concept is a valueless concept – use resistance if we don’t like it and resilience if we do – not true to reality... - Caste is an institutional resilient system; cultural pathological resilience (resistance).
  • Language – ‘backward’ castes – not very polite!Examples of caste-based discrimination in India:Also known as the untouchables, harijans or scheduled castes have historically been poor and deprived of basic human rights. Today they still face economic, social, cultural and political discrimination. Doobay & Lyons (2003, p9) ‘“Centuries of this ‘hidden apartheid’ that has perpetuated discrimination and denial of their human rights, has resulted not only in Dalits representing a disproportionate amount of the poor in India, but also in the creation of numerous other obstacles that hinder Dalit’s ability to change their situation’’.Gandhi first recognised the Dalit struggle in the 1930s but he only viewed it as a social problem whereas Dr Ambedkar saw it as political and economic created by the upper castes.
  • The following legislation and reports neglect to mention caste:Disaster Management Act for India 2005Asia Pacific Disaster Report 2010Catholic Relief Services Disaster Preparedness during Development 2004The following draw attention to the fact that caste is ignored, and thus leads to discrimination – ‘discrimination by default’:Exclusion of Dalits – DRR Interventions – consultationStatistics are not disaggregated – National Conference on Exclusion of Dalits on DRRNGO ‘caste blindness’ in disaster relief can lead to discrimination or ignores that which already exists
  • For example Caste system in Orissa: very resilient (not good), pathologically resistant to change.Case study: Working hard on resilience and DRR but caste will continue to be a problem. Disasters have capacity to destroy good structures but caste will remain.Use case study of HFA to show benefit of ‘resilience’.
  • What is there to “be optimistic” about?There is good that will save lives but isn’t this just DRR?How can resilience be useful for people not just academics and the abstract?
  • All India Disaster Mitigation Institute (AIDMI) (no date) Hyogo’s Priorities and AIDMI’s Contributions, Available online: http://www.aidmi.org/aidmi%20contri%20to%20hfa%20etc.asp (accessed 28/04/11)Catholic Relief Service (2004) Development relief in action: CRS/India experiences with disaster preparedness during development. CRS South Asisa Team, February 2004.CDRF (2010) Grassroots Women Define Resilience at Asian Academy in Delhi, India, September 13-15, 2010, Available online: http://www.disasterwatch.net/resources/asianconsultation-cdrf2010.pdf (accessed 28/04/11)Gill, T. (2007) Making Things Worse: How ‘caste blindness’ in Indian post-tsunami disaster recovery has exacerbated vulnerability and exclusion, Dalit Network NetherlandsGovernment of Orissa (2011) Report on the Activities of Revenue and Disaster Management Department for the year 2010-2011Gupta, P. (2009) Ethnicity, Caste and Community in a disaster prone area of Orissa, working paper 231, The institution for economic change, Bangalore.Holling, C.S. (1973) Resilience and Stability of Ecological Systems, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 4, pp.1-23Holling, C. S. (2004) Complex Regions Complex Worlds Ecology and Society 9.1, pp.11-21Homer-Dixon, T (2009) Our Panarchic Future, World Watch Magazine, 22.2,accessed at http://www.worldwatch.org/node/6008Jiloha, RC (2010) Deprivation, Discrimination, Human Rights Violation and Mental Health of the Deprived, Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 52.3, pp.207-212Jodhka, S. S. (2010) Engaging with Caste: Academic Discourses, Identity Politics and State Policy, Working Paper Series, 2.2m, IIDS/UNICEF Kapoor, D. (2007) Gendered-Caste Discrimination, Human Rights Education, and the Enforcement of the Prevention of Atrocities Act in India, The Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 53.3, pp.273-286Kashyap, A., Finberg Fellow, A. R. & B. D., (2008) Being Neutral is Our Biggest Crime, Human Rights Watch, New YorkKethineni, S. & Humiston, G.D. (2010) Dalits: the oppressed people of India: How are their social, economic and human rights addressed? War crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity 4, pp.99-140.Kyoto University/SEEDS (2010) India City Profile: Climate and Disaster Resilience: Consultation Report2010, SEEDS, Available online: http://www.preventionweb.net/files/15263_15263cityprofileindia1.pdf (accessed 17/02/11)Lakshmi, A., (2010) Building Local Capacities for Disaster Response and Risk Reduction: An Oxfam-BEDROC Study, Tamil Nadu, Available online: http://bedroc.in/report.pdf (Accessed 17/02/11)NCDHR (2010) National consultation: Exclusion of Dalits- disaster risk reduction interventions. June 2010.Ray-Bennett, N.S. (2009) The influence of caste, class and gender in surviving multiple disasters: a case study from Orissa, India. Environmental hazards, human and policy dimensions, 8, pp.5-22Resilience Alliance Panarchy Page: www.resalliance.org/index.php/panarchyRew, A. & Rew, M. (2003) Development models ‘out-of-place’: Social research on methods to improve livelihoods in eastern India, Community Development Journal, 38.3, pp.213-224Stockholm Resilience Centre (2007) Buzz Holling: Father of the Reslience Theory, accessed from http://www.stockholmresilience.org/seminarandevents/seminarandeventvideos/buzzhollingfatheroftheresiliencetheory.5.aeea46911a3127427980003713.html (video)The Risk to Resilience Study Team (2009) Catalyzing Climate and Disaster Resilience: Processes for Identifying Tangible and Economically Robust Strategies: Final Report of the Risk to Resilience Study, eds. Moench, M., Fajber, E., Dixit, A., Caspari, E. & Anil Pokhrel, ISET, ISET-Nepal, KathmanduWarrier, S. (2010)Caste inclusion in census will be a disaster, Available online: http://news.rediff.com/interview/2010/jun/29/interview-caste-inclusion-in-census-will-be-a-disaster.htm (accessed 04/05/11)Xuan, Z. & Velasquez, J. (eds.) (2010) Protecting Development Gains: Reducing Disaster Vulnerability and Building Resilience in Asia and the Pacific: The Asia-Pacific Disaster Report, 2010, UNESCAP/UNISDR, ThailandNo given author (2008) Global Assessment Of Risk 2009: Asia Country & State Case Study Report December 2008, accessed from http://www.preventionweb.net/english/hyogo/gar/background-papers/documents/Chap3/Asia-overview/Revi-Asia-Case-Study-Report.pdf
  • Catholic Relief Service (2004) Development relief in action: CRS/India experiences with disaster preparedness during development. CRS South Asisa Team, February 2004.Gill, T. (2007) Making Things Worse: How ‘caste blindness’ in Indian post-tsunami disaster recovery has exacerbated vulnerability and exclusion, Dalit Network NetherlandsGovernment of Orissa (2011) Report on the Activites of Revenue and Disaster Management Department for the year 2010-2011Gupta, P. (2009) Ethnicity, Caste and Community in a disaster prone area of Orissa, working paper 231, The institution for economic change, Bangalore.Holling, C.S. (1973) Resilience and Stability of Ecological Systems, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 4, pp.1-23Holling, C. S. (2004) Complex Regions Complex Worlds Ecology and Society 9.1, pp.11-21Homer-Dixon, T (2009) Our Panarchic Future, World Watch Magazine, 22.2,accessed at http://www.worldwatch.org/node/6008Jiloha, RC (2010) Deprivation, Discrimination, Human Rights Violation and Mental Health of the Deprived, Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 52.3, pp.207-212Jodhka, S. S. (2010) Engaging with Caste: Academic Discourses, Identity Politics and State Policy, Working Paper Series, 2.2m, IIDS/UNICEF Kapoor, D. (2007) Gendered-Caste Discrimination, Human Rights Education, and the Enforcement of the Prevention of Atrocities Act in India, The Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 53.3, pp.273-286Kashyap, A., Finberg Fellow, A. R. & B. D., (2008) Being Neutral is Our Biggest Crime, Human Rights Watch, New YorkKethineni, S. & Humiston, G.D. (2010) Dalits: the oppressed people of India: How are their social, economic and human rights addressed? War crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity 4, pp.99-140.Kyoto University/SEEDS (2010) India City Profile: Climate and Disaster Resilience: Consultation Report2010, SEEDS, Available online: http://www.preventionweb.net/files/15263_15263cityprofileindia1.pdf (accessed 17/02/11)Lakshmi, A., (2010) Building Local Capacities for Disaster Response and Risk Reduction: An Oxfam-BEDROC Study, Tamil Nadu, Available online: http://bedroc.in/report.pdf (Accessed 17/02/11)NCDHR (2010) National consultation: Exclusion of Dalits- disaster risk reduction interventions. June 2010.Ray-Bennett, N.S. (2009) The influence of caste, class and gender in surviving multiple disasters: a case study from Orissa, India. Environmental hazards, human and policy dimensions, 8, pp.5-22Resilience Alliance Panarchy Page: www.resalliance.org/index.php/panarchyRew, A. & Rew, M. (2003) Development models ‘out-of-place’: Social research on methods to improve livelihoods in eastern India, Community Development Journal, 38.3, pp.213-224Stockholm Resilience Centre (2007) Buzz Holling: Father of the Reslience Theory, accessed from http://www.stockholmresilience.org/seminarandevents/seminarandeventvideos/buzzhollingfatheroftheresiliencetheory.5.aeea46911a3127427980003713.html (video)The Risk to Resilience Study Team (2009) Catalyzing Climate and Disaster Resilience: Processes for Identifying Tangible and Economically Robust Strategies: Final Report of the Risk to Resilience Study, eds. Moench, M., Fajber, E., Dixit, A., Caspari, E. & Anil Pokhrel, ISET, ISET-Nepal, KathmanduXuan, Z. & Velasquez, J. (eds.) (2010) Protecting Development Gains: Reducing Disaster Vulnerability and Building Resilience in Asia and the Pacific: The Asia-Pacific Disaster Report, 2010, UNESCAP/UNISDR, ThailandNo given author (2008) Global Assessment Of Risk 2009: Asia Country & State Case Study Report December 2008, accessed from http://www.preventionweb.net/english/hyogo/gar/background-papers/documents/Chap3/Asia-overview/Revi-Asia-Case-Study-Report.pdf
  • Integrated Emergency Management - Orissa, India

    1. 1. “Be Optimistic” BUZZ HOLLING TO RESILIENCE AND BEYOND….Adam Craggs, Francesca Hughes, Simon Steele, Katharine Timpson
    2. 2. Outline What is resilience? Advantages of resilience Disadvantages of resilience Caste system Case studies: Tamil Nadu and Orissa Conclusion
    3. 3. What is resilience? “The persistence of relationships within a system [and is a] measure of the ability of these systems to absorb changes of state variables, driving variables and parameters, and still persist” Resilience Alliance: •Capable of self-organisation •Able to build and increase capacity for learning and adaptationHolling 1973:16Resilience Alliance website
    4. 4. Advantages Expected outcome: “Substantial reduction of disaster losses, in lives and in the social, economic and environmental assets of communities and countries” (UNISDR HFA) DRR integrated with Sustainable Development Participatory Bounce forward Better local responses to disastrous events
    5. 5. Disadvantages Destruction as opportunity Achieving resilience – ten-point plan Bounce forward Tragedy of the Commons Pathological resistance to change
    6. 6. Caste 3,000 years old with divine origins, developed by Brahmin priests designed to maintain their superiority Formalised into four castes Dalits seen as untouchable „Centuries of hidden apartheid‟ Untouchability was made illegal in 1947 however there is still oppression and power in the upper castes
    7. 7. Caste is Ignored Disaster Management Act for India 2005 Asia Pacific Disaster Report 2010 Catholic Relief Services Disaster Preparedness during Development 2004 Exclusion of Dalits – DRR planning - HFA Statistics are not disaggregated – National Conference on Exclusion of Dalits on DRR NGO „caste blindness‟
    8. 8. Caste Discrimination in Tamil Nadu  “Denied access to food, water, shelter and toilets”  Aid diverted away by higher castes  Forced to remove dead bodies  “Dalits reported being near starvation while caste fishermen threw surplus sacks of rice in the sea or put provisions they could not eat into storage”Gill 2007: 10
    9. 9. “Resilience” in Orissa North-eastern state in India Poorest state in India Cyclone 1999 Floods 2003 Receiving aid and compensation Urban resilience plans Gram Vikas – rural areas Source: http://www.toshalitours.com/orissa-travel-map.htm
    10. 10. Conclusion Is it not just DRR? Perception of resilience will be based on perception of sustainable development How can resilience be useful for people not just academics and the abstract? What is there to “be optimistic” about?
    11. 11. ReferencesAll India Disaster Mitigation Institute (AIDMI) (no date) Hyogo‟s Priorities and AIDMI‟s Contributions, Available online:http://www.aidmi.org/aidmi%20contri%20to%20hfa%20etc.asp (accessed 28/04/11)Catholic Relief Service (2004) Development relief in action: CRS/India experiences with disaster preparedness during development.CRS South Asia Team, February 2004.CDRF (2010) Grassroots Women Define Resilience at Asian Academy in Delhi, India, September 13-15, 2010, Available online:http://www.disasterwatch.net/resources/asianconsultation-cdrf2010.pdf (accessed 28/04/11)Gill, T. (2007) Making Things Worse: How „caste blindness‟ in Indian post-tsunami disaster recovery has exacerbated vulnerabilityand exclusion, Dalit Network NetherlandsGovernment of Orissa (2011) Report on the Activities of Revenue and Disaster Management Department for the year 2010-2011Gupta, P. (2009) Ethnicity, Caste and Community in a disaster prone area of Orissa, working paper 231, The institution foreconomic change, Bangalore.Holling, C.S. (1973) Resilience and Stability of Ecological Systems, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 4, pp.1-23Holling, C. S. (2004) Complex Regions Complex Worlds Ecology and Society 9.1, pp.11-21Homer-Dixon, T (2009) Our Panarchic Future, World Watch Magazine, 22.2, accessed at http://www.worldwatch.org/node/6008Jiloha, RC (2010) Deprivation, Discrimination, Human Rights Violation and Mental Health of the Deprived, Indian Journal ofPsychiatry, 52.3, pp.207-212Jodhka, S. S. (2010) Engaging with Caste: Academic Discourses, Identity Politics and State Policy, Working Paper Series, 2.2m,IIDS/UNICEFKapoor, D. (2007) Gendered-Caste Discrimination, Human Rights Education, and the Enforcement of the Prevention of Atrocities Actin India, The Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 53.3, pp.273-286Kashyap, A., Finberg Fellow, A. R. & B. D., (2008) Being Neutral is Our Biggest Crime, Human Rights Watch, New YorkKethineni, S. & Humiston, G.D. (2010) Dalits: the oppressed people of India: How are their social, economic and human rightsaddressed? War crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity 4, pp.99-140
    12. 12. ReferencesKyoto University/SEEDS (2010) India City Profile: Climate and Disaster Resilience: Consultation Report 2010, SEEDS, Availableonline: http://www.preventionweb.net/files/15263_15263cityprofileindia1.pdf (accessed 17/02/11)Lakshmi, A., (2010) Building Local Capacities for Disaster Response and Risk Reduction: An Oxfam-BEDROC Study, Tamil Nadu,Available online: http://bedroc.in/report.pdf (Accessed 17/02/11)NCDHR (2010) National consultation: Exclusion of Dalits- disaster risk reduction interventions. June 2010.Ray-Bennett, N.S. (2009) The influence of caste, class and gender in surviving multiple disasters: a case study from Orissa, India.Environmental hazards, human and policy dimensions, 8, pp.5-22Resilience Alliance Panarchy Page: www.resalliance.org/index.php/panarchyRew, A. & Rew, M. (2003) Development models „out-of-place‟: Social research on methods to improve livelihoods in eastern India,Community Development Journal, 38.3, pp.213-224Stockholm Resilience Centre (2007) Buzz Holling: Father of the Resilience Theory, accessed fromhttp://www.stockholmresilience.org/seminarandevents/seminarandeventvideos/buzzhollingfatheroftheresiliencetheory.5.aeea46911a3127427980003713.html (video)The Risk to Resilience Study Team (2009) Catalyzing Climate and Disaster Resilience: Processes for Identifying Tangible andEconomically Robust Strategies: Final Report of the Risk to Resilience Study, eds. Moench, M., Fajber, E., Dixit, A., Caspari, E. & AnilPokhrel, ISET, ISET-Nepal, KathmanduWarrier, S. (2010) Caste inclusion in census will be a disaster, Available online:http://news.rediff.com/interview/2010/jun/29/interview-caste-inclusion-in-census-will-be-a-disaster.htm (accessed 04/05/11)Xuan, Z. & Velasquez, J. (eds.) (2010) Protecting Development Gains: Reducing Disaster Vulnerability and Building Resilience inAsia and the Pacific: The Asia-Pacific Disaster Report, 2010, UNESCAP/UNISDR, ThailandNo given author (2008) Global Assessment Of Risk 2009: Asia Country & State Case Study Report December 2008, accessed fromhttp://www.preventionweb.net/english/hyogo/gar/background-papers/documents/Chap3/Asia-overview/Revi-Asia-Case-Study-Report.pdf
    13. 13. Thank you

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