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Lecture 1 POL 101

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  • Lecture1

    1. 1. Welcome to Political Ideologies! Lecture 1 Ball & Dagger Chapters 1 & 2
    2. 2. Francine Banner, JD, PhD Francine.Banner@asu.edu
    3. 3. What is an Ideology? An Ideology is a set of ideas that links thought to action. To be an ideology, a concept must be: 1. Explanatory 2. Evaluative 3. Orientative 4. Programmatic
    4. 4. Beware! Not all “isms” are ideologies. For example: Veganism is an ideology (see http://www.vegan.org). •Veganism seeks to explain why people today eat animal products and to steer them toward what members view as a more humane approach to eating. •It provides standards by which people can evaluate what to eat and how to live. •The vegan movement can provide a source of identity for its members, including dictating not only what they will eat but what clothes they will wear, what food they feed their pets, and what political candidate they will support.
    5. 5. Terrorism is an ism but not an ideology. •Terrorism does not explain anything about the world. It is a means to an end. •It is not a theory that helps us evaluate the world around us. •It does not tell us what we should and should not do in certain circumstances. Democracy is an ideal—but not an ideology. Nationalism and Anarchism comprise many different ideologies but are not ideologies in and of themselves.
    6. 6. Ideology is not the same as scientific theory because it is not empirical but normative. Ideology does not describe something that is, but instead seeks
    7. 7. Political ideologies are about assessing human potential. 2 elements to this: Who are we (human nature)? What are we capable of (level of freedom)? (pp. 9-11)
    8. 8. FREEDOM IS NOT UNIVERSAL. IT IS A CONTESTED CONCEPT. McCallum says that every conception of freedom contains 3 components: 1.Agent 2.Goal 3.Barrier or Obstacle to Achieving Goal The way each of these 3 components are defined will differ based on the particular ideology. Thus, each ideology has a different idea of freedom.
    9. 9. Veganism: Agent = person or animal Goal = respect of all life, animal and human Barrier or Obstacle = Lobbying of cattle industry; Deliciousness of Big Mac sandwich Communism: Agent = class of people Goal = end of private property Barrier or Obstacle = power of capitalist system; greed “Radical” Islamism: Agent = all Muslims around the world Goal = creation of global Muslim state Barrier or Obstacle = converting non-Muslims; secularists   Feminism: Agent = women and men Goal = “equality” of sexes Barrier or Obstacle = “Conservative” ideas about home and family; Religious mandates
    10. 10. Another contested concept (B&D Chapter 2):
    11. 11. Cold War (1945-1991) Communism vs. Democracy and Industrial Capitalism Source: http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/govt1980.htm
    12. 12. Self-identification of world governments with regard to democracy, as of March 2008. The only governments not self-identified as democratic are Vatican City, Saudi Arabia, Myanmar (formerly Burma) and Brunei. Source: wikipedia.org
    13. 13. Source: Freedomhouse.org
    14. 14. •Corrupt government leadership •Fighting for > 10 years •Mass rapes of women •Child soldiers •More than 11,000 people “disappeared”
    15. 15. Democracy: Rule by the people?